|(1)||a.||Agent:||The lions devoured the wildebeest.|
|b.||The boys caught some fish.|
|c.||My mother wrote me a letter.|
|(2)||a.||Cause:||Hurricane-force winds demolished much of the town.|
|b.||An epidemic killed off all of the tomatoes.|
|c.||An economic downturn put thousands of workers out of work.|
|(3)||a.||Instrument:||This key opens the door to the main office.|
|b.||They must have used indelible ink.|
Experiencers are arguments that undergo a sensory, cognitive, or emotional experience.
|(4)||a.||Experiencer:||The rhesus monkey had never seen snow before.|
|b.||Many people fear snakes.|
|c.||Their resourcefulness struck her as admirable.|
Recipients are arguments that receive something (whether good or bad) in a situation.
|(5)||a.||Recipient:||They gave the workers a raise.|
|b.||I paid my landlord the rent.|
|c.||He spared me his usual sob story.|
Locations are simply places.
|(6)||a.||Location:||We always eat breakfast in the kitchen.|
|b.||The cork has been bobbing under the bridge for an hour.|
Paths connect locations.
|(7)||a.||Path:||Lucky raced down the driveway.|
|b.||The boat passed under the bridge so quickly I missed seeing it.|
|c.||We drove the scenic route.|
When locations serve as endpoints of paths, we generally refer to them as goals.
|(8)||a.||Goal:||We traveled to Paris quite a bit in those days.|
|b.||Lucky raced to the edge of the woods.|
|c.||I'd like to send this package to France.|
Recipients can also serve as the endpoint of paths, and the distinction between goals and recipients can be difficult. (Chapter 7 addresses the issue in detail.)
|(9)||I'd like to send this package to my cousin.|
|(10)||a.||Point in time:||Let's start the meeting at two.|
|b.||Goal in time:||The meeting will last until two.|
Measure or amount arguments express extensions along some dimension (length, duration, cost, and so on).
|(11)||a.||Measure:||They rowed for three days.|
|b.||The book costs ten dollars.|
Finally, the thematic role of theme is something of a catch-all. According to one definition, 'theme' refers to an argument undergoing motion of some sort, including motion in a metaphorical sense, such as a change of state. As is usual in the syntactic literature, we will also use the term for arguments that are most 'affected' in a situation or for the content of an experience.
|(12)||a.||Theme:||The lions devoured the wildebeest.|
|b.||This key opens the front door.|
|c.||Hurricane-force winds demolished much of the town.|
|d.||They gave the workers a raise.|
|e.||I'd like to send this package to France.|
|f.||Many people fear snakes.|