Exercise 3.2

A. The crucial difference between reference and modification is as follows:

Reference is a relation between a linguistic expression and a nonlinguistic entity. A referring expression is a pointer to some nonlinguistic entity.

Modification is a relation between two linguistic expressions. The modifying expression (= modifier) adds information to the information associated with the modified expression.

B. If modifiers pick out a (not necessarily proper) subset of the set denoted by the phrase they modify, then an adjective phrase in predicate position is not a modifier, as in: Along with adjectives, prehead nouns in compound nouns are also modifiers, as in: Of course, modifiers can also be multi-word phrases, which may be adjective phrases, but need not be:
  1. very cheerful attitude - adjective phrase modifier
  2. small craft advisory - noun phrase modifier
  3. senator from Kansas - prepositional phrase modifier