The following labels and dash tags are used to annotate disfluencies. For the moment, disfluencies are indicated only in the PPCMBE.


BREAK indicates that a phrase or sentence breaks off or is otherwise left unfinished.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (MD $could)
          (NEG $n't)
          (VB believe)
          (CP-THAT (C 0)
	           (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                           (VBD saw)
                           (NP-OB1 (D a) (BREAK 0))))
           (. ...)))


The dash tag -ELAB indicates that a parenthetical constituent (one already bearing a -PRN dash tag) elaborates on its host. Elaborations involving an exact copy of a constituent are annotated as
repetitions (REP).
  	  (BEP is)
	  (NP-OB1 (D a) (N trifle)
	  	  (NP-PRN-ELAB (D a) (ADJ mere) (N trifle)))
	  (. .)))


FS indicates a false start. Within a false start, internal structure is indicated as far as is feasible, but breaks are not specially indicated.
                      (DOD $did)
		      (NEG $n't)
		      (VB know)))
          (, -)
          (FS (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
	                              (C 0)
			              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
			                      (VBP mean)
				              (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-1)
				  	              (TO to)
					              (VB say)))))
                      (BEP is)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (BEP am)
          (ADJP (ADV very) (ADJ sorry)
	        (IP-INF (TO to)
                        (VB hear)
                        (PP (P of)
			    (NP (PRO$ your) (N loss)))))
          (. .)))


REP (in contrast to the dash tag -ELAB) is a full-fledged tag indicating the exact repetition of a constituent for rhetorical or other reasons. Near repetitions are annotated as
elaborations (ELAB).
  	  (BEP is)
	  (NP-OB1 (D a) (N trifle)
	  	  (REP (NP (D a) (N trifle))))
	  (. .)))


The dash tag -TAG on a question indicates that it is a tag question. In contrast to what is ordinarily the case, existential THERE in tag questions is not coindexed with an associate.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (EX There))
  	  (HVP have)
          (BEN been)
          (NP=1 (NS riots))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (NPR Calabria))
          (CP-QUE-TAG (IP-SUB (HVP $have)
                              (NEG $n't)
                              (NP-SBJ (EX there))))
	  (? .)))