Internal structure of phrases

The following discussion assumes the general principles laid out in the introduction to syntactic annotation.

This section of the documentation focuses on the internal structure of phrasal constituents. Phrases at the clausal level (= daughters of IP) are often labelled with additional information, as described in Clause-level constituents. The section also covers certain nonstructural tags used to label foreign language passages, quotations, references, and similar material.

Adjective phrase (ADJP)

Phrases of the type TWENTY MILES FROM LONDON are treated as locative ADJPs (ADJP-LOC). See Measure phrase for discussion and examples.

Adjective phrases (ADJP) consist of an adjectival head, possibly accompanied by modifiers and/or complements. Participles, though tagged as VAG or VAN, can function as heads of ADJP.

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ trew))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,62.905))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJR fairir))
      (ID CMAELR4,15.404))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJS werst))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,145.3374))

(NODE (ADJP (VAG loving))

(NODE (ADJP (VAN blessed)))

Complements and/or modifiers can either precede or follow the head within the ADJP (which contrasts in this respect with other phrasal categories).

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ worth)
            (NP (NUM v) (N s)))
      (ID CMGREGOR,142.625))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (Q nocht))		← worth nothing
            (ADJ wur+d))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.105.1289))

See also Movement out of ADJP and The position of traces.

Heads of ADJP

Comparative adjectives as heads of ADJP

(THE) LESS and (THE) MORE are sometimes treated as comparative adjectives in the PPCME2, in which case the considerations below extend to them.

At the clausal level, comparative adjectives accompanied by a determiner are labelled either ADJP or NP, depending on whether they are functioning as predicates or referring expressions. Such phrases are labelled ADJP in the THE MORE THE MERRIER construction, in small clauses, and generally when they are complements of a copular verb. However, even then, they are labelled NP if they pick out a particular entity; see Comparative adjectives as heads of NP.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ first)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
			  (C that)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
				  (VBD cam)
				  (PP (P over)
				      (NP *T*-1)))))
	  (BED was)
	  (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJR greatter))	← referring expression
      (. ,)) (ID LELAND,89.235))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (BED was)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV neuer))
          (ADJP (D +te) (ADJR wors))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMIRK,31.882))

                  (BE beon)
                  (ADJP (D +te) (ADJR brichtere)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.130.1705))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS spaces))
              (BEP ben)
              (ADJP (QR lesse)))
      (ID CMMANDEV,123.2975))

Superlative adjectives as heads of ADJP

LEAST and MOST are sometimes treated as superlative adjectives in the PPCME2, in which case the considerations below extend to them.

At the clausal level, superlative adjectives are generally labelled NP. But a superlative adjective projects an ADJP if it meets all of the following conditions:

  1. It occurs alone (without a determiner, possessive, or modifier).
  2. It is the complement of a copular verb.
  3. It functions as a predicate rather than as a referring expression (that is, it does not pick out a particular entity).

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N day))
              (BEP is)
              (ADJP (ADJS schortest)))
      (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,107.734))

              (BED was)
              (ADJP (ADJS eldest)))
      (ID CMBRUT3,14.408))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N +tyng)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +tat)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO +tai))
                                      (VBP (VBP sai) (CONJ or) (DOP do)))))
              (BEP es)
              (ADJP (ADJS best)))
      (ID CMROLLEP,86.367))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
          (BEP is)
          (ADJP (ADJS hardest))
          (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                    (BE be)
                    (VAN put)
                    (PP (P by)
                        (NP (D +tese)))
                    (PP (P to)
                        (NP (D +te) (N fuyr)
                            (PP (P of)
                                (NP (NPR helle))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMWYCSER,406.3238))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
          (PP (P+N for-so+te))
          (, ,)
          (NP-VOC (NPR Lord))
          (, ,)
          (BEP art)
          (ADJP (ADJS he+gest))
          (PP (P wy+t-outen)
              (NP (N ende)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMEARLPS,114.4971))

Complements of ADJ

Adjectives can take NP, PP, or clausal complements.

Superlative adjectives with apparent complements generally function as referential expressions and are labelled NP at the phrasal label. The complement is treated as a complement of the (elided) noun.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (ADJS worst)		← parallel to the worst one of all
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (Q all))))))

See Superlative adjectives as heads of NP, Superlative adjective plus genitive.

NP complements of ADJ

NP complements of adjectives are labelled NP (without a dash tag like -COM, -MSR, or -POS). If the complement is clearly a genitive, this is indicated on the noun's POS tag, but not at the phrasal level. Adjectives that take NP complements include the following items:


(NODE (ADJP (ADJ lyke)
            (NP (D an) (N anvylde)
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (N stele)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.192))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ lyke)
            (NP (NUM thirty) (NS torchys)))
      (ID CMMALORY,14.409))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ lyke)
            (NP (D a) (N foster)))
      (ID CMMALORY,181.2459))

(NODE (ADJP (ADV ri+gt) (ADJ ny)
            (NP (D +te) (N+N cheke-bon)))
      (ID CMHORSES,85.11))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ ny)
            (NP (PRO$ oure) (N feyth)))
      (ID CMMANDEV,87.2158))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (PRO hire))
            (ADV swi+de) (ADJ neih))
      (ID CMVICES1,5.45))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJS nexte)
            (NP (NP (D the) (N quene))
                (CONJP (CONJ and)
                       (NP (D the) (NS byschoppys)
                           (RRC (ADVP-TMP (ADV a-fore))
                                (VAN sayde))))))
      (ID CMGREGOR,139.579))

            (NP (D +te) (ADJ hech+ge) (NPR heouene)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.208.2976))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ worth)
            (NP (NUM ten)			← bare NP complement, not NP-MSR
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (D the) (N swerde)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,43.1421))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ worth)
            (NP (NUM v) (N s)))
      (ID CMGREGOR,142.625))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (Q nocht))		← worth nothing
            (ADJ wur+d))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.105.1289))

In early texts, some adjectives (APPROPRIATE, FULL, OBEDIENT, PLEASING, etc.) that take PP complements in Modern English took NP complements (usually datives). Like the complements of other adjectives, these are tagged NP without any additional tag, whether they precede or follow the head. Affected NPs are distinct; they are treated as separate constituents and labelled NP-OB2.

            (ADJ biheue))			← appropriate, fitting
      (ID CMTRINIT,201.2786))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (PRO it))			← aware
            (ADJ war))
      (ID CMPETERB,57.520))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (Q euch) (N$ godes))		← full of every good
            (ADJ ful))
      (ID CMMARGA,63.137))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ gredi)				← greedy
            (NP (D +tes) (N eses)))
      (ID CMLAMBX1,123.1206))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ ihersum)			← obedient
            (NP (PRO$ his) (N cunne)))
      (ID CMLAMBX1,109.1018))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (PRO him))
            (ADJ ibuhsum))			← obedient
      (ID CMLAMBX1,113.1078))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (D +de) (NPR hali) (NPR write))
            (ADJ buhsum))			← obedient
      (ID CMVICES1,75.855))

(NODE (ADJP (NP (NPR assur))
            (ADJ iqueme))			← pleasing
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.115.1451))

ALRE plus superlative

In Middle English, the pre-head (plural) possessive quantifier ALRE, etc., occurs in combination with superlative heads (ADJS, ADVS, QS) or the semantically superlative FIRST/LAST. In texts from the first Middle English period (M1), ALRE in this construction is treated as a separate word. It is tagged Q$ and treated as a bare NP complement of the superlative or FIRST/LAST.

(NODE (ADJP (NP (Q$ alre))		← early Middle English texts
            (ADJS hest))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.208.2978))

(NODE (ADVP (NP (Q$ alre))
            (ADV earest))		← FIRST/LAST not tagged superlative
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.43.380))

(NODE (QP (NP (Q$ alre))
          (QS meast))
      (ID CMKATHE,50.490))

The few cases in this period of ALRE written together with MOST are treated as compounds (Q$+QS).

(NODE (QP (Q$+QS alremest))
      (ID CMLAMBX1,49.636))

In the later periods of Middle English, ALRE, etc., is treated as a prefix (cf. MED alder-), and the word that it is part of is labelled as a unitary word (ADJS, ADVS, QS).

(NODE (NP-VOC (ADJS aldermy+gtfullichest))      ← later Middle English texts
      (ID CMEARLPS,54.2353))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJS althirhegeste))
      (ID CMROLLTR,1.19))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJS al+tire-beste))
      (ID CMEDTHOR,33.429))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJS (ADJS21 al+ter) (ADJS22 best)))
      (ID CMCLOUD,79.362))

(NODE (ADJP-LOC (ADJS (ADJS21 al+ter) (ADJS22 next))
                (NP (D +te) (N kyng)))
      (ID CMBRUT3,66.1971))

PP complements of ADJ

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ myghty)
            (PP (P of)
                (NP (NS men))))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.184))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJR fayrere)
            (PP (P +ten)
                (NP (D +te) (N sunne))))
      (ID CMAELR3,26.20))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ ware)
            (PP (P of)
                (NP (PRO$ their) (N departyng))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.19))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ glad)
            (PP (P of)
                (NP (PRO$ their) (N comynge))))
      (ID CMMALORY,12.335))

CP complements of ADJ

  1. Infinitival complements (IP-INF)

    (NODE (ADJP (ADJ redy)
                (IP-INF (PP (P with)
                            (NP (Q many) (NS knyghtes)))
                        (TO to)
                        (VB ryde)
                        (PP (P on)
                            (NP (N huntynge)))))
          (ID CMMALORY,33.1036))
    (NODE (ADJP (ADJ able)
                (IP-INF (TO to)
                        (HV have)
                        (VBN macched)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO us))))
          (ID CMMALORY,57.1908))
    (NODE (ADJP (ADJ worthy)
                (IP-INF (TO to)
                        (VB lye)
                        (PP (P within)
                            (NP (D thys) (N+N chyrcheyarde)))))
          (ID CMMALORY,643.4030))
  2. THAT complements (CP-THT)

    (NODE (ADJP (ADJ glad)
                (CP-THT (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ hys) (NS knyghtes))
                                (BED were)
                                (VAN horsed)
                                (ADVP (ADV agayne)))))
          (ID CMMALORY,23.724))
    (NODE (ADJP (ADJ sory)
                (CP-THT (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                (HVD had)
                                (VBN displeased)
                                (NP-OB1 (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure)))))
          (ID CMMALORY,49.1633))
  3. Comparative complements (CP-CMP)

    (NODE (ADJP (D +te) (ADJR schorter)
                (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                                (BEP is))))
          (ID CMCLOUD,28.228))
    (NODE (ADJP (D the) (ADJR richer)
                (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                        (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                (BEP is))))
          (ID CMCTMELI,235.C1.680))
    (NODE (ADJP (D the) (ADJR hyer)
                (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                        (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                (BED were)
                                (PP (P in)
                                    (NP (D this) (ADJ present) (N lyf))))))
          (ID CMCTPARS,292.C1.153))
  4. Degree complements (CP-DEG)

    (NODE (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ currageous)
                (CP-DEG (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ their) (NS enemyes))
                                        (VBD shooke))
                                (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                       (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                               (VBD byverd)
                                               (PP (P for)
                                                   (NP (N egirnesse))))))))
          (ID CMMALORY,23.725))
    (NODE (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ blody)
                (CP-DEG (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (PP (P by)
                                    (NP (PRO$ hys) (N shylde)))
                                (NP-SBJ-1 (EX there))
                                (MD myght)
                                (NP-1 (Q no) (N man))
                                (VB know)
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO hym)))))
          (ID CMMALORY,26.816))
    (NODE (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ necligent)
                (CP-DEG (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                (NEG ne)
                                (VBP descharge)
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO hem))
                                (NEG nat)
                                (PP (P by)
                                    (CODE <P_298.C2>)
                                    (NP (N tyme))))))
          (ID CMCTPARS,298.C2.429))
  5. Tough movement complements (CP-TMC)

    (NODE (ADJP (ADJ easie)
    	    (CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
    		    (IP-INF (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
    			  	    (TO to)
    				    (VB mount))
    			    (CONJP (CONJ and)
    				   (IP-INF (TO *)
    					   (VB get)
    					   (PP (RP vp) (P vpon)
    					       (NP *T*-1)))))))
          (. ;))
          (ID MARKHAM,1,71.10))

Modifiers of ADJ

Modifiers of adjectives are adverbs,
adverb phrases, quantifiers, quantifier phrases, and measure phrase NPs.

Post-head ELSE and ENOUGH are treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

(NODE (ADJP (ADV passynge) (ADJ wyse))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,2.9))

(NODE (ADJP (ADV ryght) (ADJ wyse))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,34.1099))

(NODE (ADJP (ADV well) (ADJ ware))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,35.1135))

(NODE (ADJP (ADV wonderly) (ADJ wrothe))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,2.20))

(NODE (ADJP (ADV wood) (ADJ wrothe))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,26.798))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVR as) (ADJ longe))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,16.492))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVR soo) (ADJ noble))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,12.342))

(NODE (ADJP (QR more) (ADJ hardy))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,50.1652))

(NODE (ADJP (QS moste) (ADJ orgulus))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,43.1443))

(NODE (ADJP (QS moste) (ADJS shamefullyste))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,43.1448))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVP (ADV passynge) (ADV sore))
            (ADJ seke))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,6.172))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVP (ADV ful) (ADV wel))
            (ADJ worthy))
      (ID CMCAPCHR-S0,249.4171))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR se) (ADV freoliche))
            (ADJ feire))
      (ID CMMARGA,76.351))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV preciously))
            (VAN coverde))			← VAN head of ADJP
      (ID CMMALORY,635.3779))

(NODE (ADJP (NP-MSR (Q+WPRO somwhat))
            (ADJ syke))
      (ID CMMALORY,59.1977))

(NODE (ADJP (NP-MSR (FP but) (Q halff) (D a) (N foote))
            (ADJ brode))
      (ID CMMALORY,70.2381))

(NODE (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (D a) (NUM +tousend))
                    (NS zy+te))			← times
            (ADJR worse))
      (ID CMAYENBI,265.2557))

(NODE (ADJP (NP-MSR (NP (D a) (N fote))
                    (CONJP (CONJ &)
                           (NP (D an) (NUM half))))
            (ADJ long))
      (ID CMMANDEV,6.95))

Adverb phrase (ADVP)

Adverb phrases (ADVP) consist of an adverb head, possibly accompanied by modifiers and/or complements. The different types of adverb phrase that we distinguish (directional, locative, temporal, etc.) are discussed under Clausal constituents.

(NODE (ADVP (ADV wel))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.12))

(NODE (ADVP-TMP (ADV thenne))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.17))

(NODE (ADVP (ADV sodenly))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.18))

(NODE (ADVP (ADV pryvely))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.98))

(NODE (ADVP-TMP (ADV dayly))
      (ID CMMALORY,5.120))

Complements of ADV

Complements of adverbs include PPs,
comparatives, and degree clauses.

PP complements of ADV

(NODE (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV welle)
            (PP (P as)
                (NP (PRO he))))
      (ID CMMALORY,17.535))

(NODE (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV wel)
            (PP (P as)
                (NP (PRO$ her) (ADJ owne))))
      (ID CMMALORY,10.275))

CP complements of ADV

(NODE (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV well)
            (PP (P as)
                (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                (MD myght)
                                (VB *)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,200.3156))

(NODE (ADVP-TMP (ADVR as) (ADV sone)
                (PP (P as)
                    (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                                    (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay))
                                    (VBD saw)
                                    (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,8.232))

(NODE (ADVP (QR more) (ADV opynly)
            (PP (P than)
                (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                (HVP hath)
                                (BEN bene)
                                (VAN shewed)
                                (ADVP-LOC (ADV here))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,635.3781))

(NODE (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV fersely)
            (CP-DEG (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS strokis))
                            (VBD $redounded)
                            (ADVP (ADV agayne))
                            (PP (P fro)
                                (NP (NP (D the) (N woode))
                                    (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                           (NP (D the) (N watir))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,25.789))

Modifiers of ADV

Modifiers of adverbs are other adverbs,
adverb phrases, quantifiers, quantifier phrases, or Measure phrase.

Post-head ENOUGH is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

(NODE (ADVP (ADV full) (ADV well))
      (ID CMMALORY,16.511))

(NODE (ADVP (ADV passynge) (ADV sore))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.172))

(NODE (ADVP (ADV ryght) (ADV so))
      (ID CMMALORY,15.449))

(NODE (ADVP (ADVR soo) (ADV sodenly))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.20))

(NODE (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV profitable))
      (ID CMAELR3,27.37))

(NODE (ADVP (QR more) (ADV esily))
      (ID CMMANDEV,35.859))

(NODE (ADVP (QP (D +te) (QR more))
            (ADV ble+telaker))
      (ID CMAYENBI,69.1284))

(NODE (ADVP (Q all) (ADV togydirs))
      (ID CMMALORY,27.837))

(NODE (ADVP (Q all) (ADV uttirly))
      (ID CMMALORY,191.2819))

(NODE (ADVP-TMP (ADV euermore) (ADV after))
      (ID CMBRUT3,65.1948))

(NODE (ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (NUM ij) (NS dayes))
                (ADV aftyr))
      (ID CMGREGOR-S0,186.1353))

(NODE (ADVP-DIR (NP-MSR (NUM x) (N myle))
                (ADV thens))
      (ID CMKEMPE-S0,114.2626))

(NODE (ADVP (NP-MSR (NUM halffe))
            (ADVR so) (ADV sore))
      (ID CMMALORY-S0,46.1511))

Fragment (FRAG)

FRAG should be thought of as a last resort for annotating material consisting of at least two constituents, for which there is not enough material to construct an IP, not even an absolute IP (IP-ABS, IP-PPL-ABS). Fragments that are direct speech are labelled
QTP rather than FRAG.

( (FRAG (INTJ Nay)
        (, ,)
        (ADVP (ADV dredeles))
        (. ;))
  (ID CMAELR3,36.303))

( (FRAG (CONJ And)
        (NP (Q no) (N wonder))
        (. ;))
  (ID CMAELR3,52.812))

( (FRAG (PP (P In)
            (NP (NPR Lente)))
        (NP (ONE o) (N manere)
            (PP (P of)
                (NP (N potage))))
        (NP-TMP (Q euery) (N day))
        (, ,)
        (PP (P but)
            (CP-ADV (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N siknesse))
                            (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
                            (VBP make))))
        (. ;))
  (ID CMAELR4,9.211))

( (FRAG (NP (NPR Aue))
        (, ;)
        (NP (NPR In) (NPR conyertendo))
        (, ;)
        (NP-MSR (NUM fif) (NS si+d+den))	← five times
        (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,I.70.271))

Interjection phrase (INTJP)

Single words tagged as INTJ do not project an INTJP, even when they are constituents at the clausal level, except as noted below.

( (IP-IMP-SPE (' ')
              (INTJ A)				← clause-level constituent, not part of NP-VOC
              (, ,)
              (NP-VOC (NPR sir) (NPR Arthure))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Ban))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Bors)))))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (VBI blame)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO hem))
              (NEG nat)
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,27.840))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (INTJ Nay)
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS kyngis)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD shall)
              (NEG nat)
              (VB *)
              (PP (P at)
                  (NP (D thys) (N tyme)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,31.985))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (INTJ Alas)
              (, !)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (NUM eleven) (NS kyngis)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (ADVP-LOC (ADV here))
	      (NP-SBJ=1 *exp*)
              (BEP ys)
              (NP=1 (N sorow)
                    (PP (P uppon)
                        (NP (N sorow))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,32.1004))

The label INTJP is used in the following cases:

  1. When the interjection makes up a separate token, as is commonly the case with the word AMEN at the end of sermons.

    ( (INTJP (INTJ Amen)
             (. .))
      (ID CMAELR3,60.1033))
  2. With multi-word interjections

    ( (IP-MAT (INTJP (WD what) (D the) (NPR devil))		← entire expression functions as interjection
              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
    	  (VBD exclaimed))
              (. .))
    ( (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO what)				← WHAT functions as ordinary wh- phrase
                     (INTJP (D the) (NPR devil)))
              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T-1*)
    	          (DOD did)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
    	  	  (VB say))
              (. ?)))
    ( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
                  (INTJP (INTJ A) (INTJ ha))
                  (, ,)
                  (' ')
                  (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                              (NP-SBJ (NPR Ban) (CONJ and) (NPR Bors)))
                  (, ,)
                  (' ')
                  (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                  (BED were)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO$ oure) (ADJ good) (NS frendis))
                  (. .))
      (ID CMMALORY,16.495))
    ( (IP-MAT (INTJP (INTJ weila) (INTJ wei))
              (NP-SBJ (QP (ADVR as) (Q feole)))		← as many
              (DOP do+d)
              (ADVP (ADV +tus))
              (. .))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.199.2832))
  3. When the interjection takes a complement, which can be an NP, PP, or clause.

    ( (INTJP (INTJ Allas)
             (NP (D +te) (N sorwe))
             (. !))
      (ID CMBRUT3,219.3922))
    (NODE (INTJP (INTJ Alas)
                 (PP (P to)
                     (NP (PRO me))))
          (ID CMEARLPS,156.6965))
    (NODE (INTJP (INTJ allas)
                 (CP-THT (C +tat)
                         (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP (ADV euer))
                                 (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                 (VBD come)
                                 (PP (P into)
                                     (NP (D +tat) (N Lande))))))
          (ID CMBRUT3,18.541))
    ( (INTJP (INTJ Amen)
             (PP (P for)
                 (NP (N cheryte)))
             (. .))
      (ID CMGREGOR,232.2429))
    ( (INTJP (INTJ Farewel)
             (, ,)
             (NP-VOC (ADJ goostly) (N freende))
             (, ,)
             (PP (P in)
                 (NP (NP (NPR$ Goddes) (N blessing))
                     (CONJP (CONJ &)
                            (NP (PRO$ myne)))))
             (. !))
      (ID CMCLOUD,133.823))
    (NODE (INTJP (INTJ fye)
                 (PP (P for)
                     (NP (N shame))))
          (ID CMMALORY,207.3407))
                 (PP (P on)
                     (NP (PRO the))))
          (ID CMMALORY,207.3437))
                 (NP (D +tis))
                 (. ,))
          (ID CMANCRIW,I.50.102))
    (NODE (INTJP (NP-VOC (N Womman))
                 (, ,)
                 (INTJ lo)
                 (NP (PRO$ thy) (N sone)))
          (ID CMAELR4,21.643))
    ( (INTJP (INTJ lo)
             (ADVP-LOC (ADV her))
             (NP (N preoue)
                 (PP (P of)
                     (NP (Q ba+de))))
             (. .))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.179.2497))
    ( (INTJP (PP (P a+gein)
                 (NP (N misdede) (CONJ o+der) (N (N21 mis) (N22 sa+ge))))
             (, .)
             (INTJ lo)
             (ADVP-LOC (ADV her))
             (ADVP-TMP (ADV anonden))
             (NP (D +te) (ADJS beste) (N remedie)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.101.1215))
    ( (INTJP (INTJ loo)
             (, ,)
             (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                     (C 0)
                     (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                             (VBP seith)
                             (NP-SBJ (NPR Seint) (NPR Augustyn))))
             (. :))
      (ID CMCTPARS,308.C2.866))
    ( (INTJP (INTJ Lo)
             (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV howe) (ADV sone))
                     (C 0)
                     (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                             (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                             (MD couthe)
                             (VB play)
                             (NP-OB1 (D the) (NS nygardys))))
             (. !))
      (ID CMGREGOR,238.2601))
    ( (INTJP (INTJ Walawa)
             (NP (NP (D +tessere) (N lare))
                 (CONJP (CONJ and)
                        (NP (D +desere) (N dade))))
             (. !))
      (ID CMVICES1,127.1568))
    (NODE (INTJP (INTJ wumme)
                 (CP-THT (C +tt)
                         (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
                                 (VBP libbe)))
                 (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD q+d)
                             (NP-SBJ (PRO he)))
                 (. .))
           (ID CMJULIA,124.503))
  4. When the interjection is itself a complement.

    (NODE (PP (PP (P by)
                  (INTJP (INTJ yea)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (PP (P by)
                         (INTJP (INTJ nay)))))
          (ID PENNY,150.270))
  5. When a word that is not tagged INTJ at the word level (see Interjections) is used as an interjection, either alone or as part of a phrase.

    PPs that are used as interjections (BY MY FAITH, etc.) are labelled as ordinary PPs and not surrounded by INTJP brackets. They differ in this respect from vocatives and other NPs used as interjections (DEAR GOD, etc).

    ( (IP-IMP-SPE (INTJP (WPRO what))
                  (NP-VOC (ADJ good) (N lord))
                  (VBI late)
                  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                          (ADJP (ADJ allone))))
      (ID CMREYNAR,12.215))
    ( (IP-MAT-SPE (" ")
                  (INTJP (INTJ O) (PRO$ my) (N nory))
                  (, ,)
                  (" ")
                  (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD quod)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO sche)))
                  (, ,)
                  (" ")
                  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                  (HVP have)
                  (NP-OB1 (ADJ greet) (N gladnesse)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (PRO the))))
                  (. ,))
      (ID CMBOETH,436.C2.327))
    ( (IP-MAT-SPE (" ")
                  (INTJP (FW ma) (FW foy))
                  (, ,)
                  (" ")
                  (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD quod)
                              (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N fader)))
                  (, ,)
                  (" ")
                  (NP-SBJ (PRO y))
                  (MD may)
                  (NP-OB1 (QP (Q no) (QR more)))
                  (VB axen)
                  (. .)
                  (" "))
      (ID CMBRUT3,17.498))
    ( (IP-MAT (INTJP (INTJ O) (ADJ goode) (NPR God))
              (, ,)
              (ADVP (ADV wel))
              (MD oghte)
              (NP-SBJ (MAN man))
              (HV have)
              (NP-OB1 (N desdayn)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (N synne)))))
      (ID CMCTPARS,290.C2.100))

List marker (LS)

Letters or numbers that are used in an extrasyntactic way to mark the items in a list are tagged LS. What we mean by "extrasyntactic" is that in a translation, the item would be retained as is.
          (VBP need)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (LS (N a))
                      (Q some)
	  	      (N water))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (LS (N b))
                             (Q some)
			     (N wood))))
          (. .)))

          (VBP need)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (LS (NUM 1))
                      (Q some)
	  	      (N water))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (LS (NUM 2))
                             (Q some)
			     (N wood))))
          (. .)))

          (VBP need)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (LS (NUM i))
                      (Q some)
	  	      (N water))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (LS (NUM ii))
                             (Q some)
			     (N wood))))
          (. .)))

          (VBP need)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (LS (ADJ 1st))
                      (Q some)
	  	      (N water))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (LS (ADJ 2nd))
                             (Q some)
			     (N wood))))
          (. .)))

                    (ADVP-TMP (ADV first))		← ADV, not LS
                    (VBP need)
                    (NP-OB1 (Q some)
	          	    (N water)))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (IP-MAT-1 (ADVP-TMP (ADV then))
		           (NP-OB1 (Q some)
			           (N wood))))
          (. .)))

Chapter, section, and verse numbers are not annotated as LS, whether accompanied by an explicit noun or not.

(NP (N Chapter) (NUM 10))			← NUM without LS

(NP (NUM 10))					← as above, even without explicit "chapter" or "section"

(NP (NPR John) (N c.) (NUM 23) (, ,) (N v.) (NUM 1))

(NP (NPR John) (NUM 23) (, ,) (NUM 1))

Punctuation is split off from list markers and tagged separately.

( (NP (LS (NUM I)
      (, .)
      (N Water)
      (. .))

If possible, items annotated as LS do not form separate tokens. Chapter headings, on the other hand, generally do.

Noun phrase (NP)

Heads of NP

Nouns and pronouns as heads of NP

Noun phrases are canonically headed by a nominal element, most commonly a noun or a pronoun.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (N warre))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N wyf))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.8))

(NODE (NP (D a) (ADJ fair) (N lady))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.9))

(NODE (NP (NPR Uther) (NPR Pendragon))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

ONE and OTHER as heads of NP

The words ONE and OTHER, which have their own tags, count as nominal elements and can head NPs.

(NODE (NP-SBJ (ONE one))
      (ID CMMALORY,33.1060))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (D the) (ONE one))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.34))

(NODE (NP (D the) (ADJ red) (ONES ones)))

(NODE (NP (OTHER othir))
      (ID CMMALORY,16.483))

(NODE (NP (D+OTHER another))
      (ID CMMALORY,23.707))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (D that) (OTHER other))
      (ID CMMALORY,15.442))

(NODE (NP (Q many) (OTHERS other))
      (ID CMMALORY,10.299))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (QR mo) (OTHERS other))
      (ID CMMALORY,13.362))

Compound nouns

An NP generally immediately dominates no more than one (non-genitive) N - namely, its head. An exception is made for noun-noun compounds. If the compound is written together as a single word, it is tagged N+N. If it is written apart, both parts are labelled N but not grouped together separately.

(NODE (NP-SBJ (N somer) (N tyme))
      (ID CMBRUT3,106.3204))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (N knaue) (N child))
      (ID CMLAMB1,77.81))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N angel) (N message))
      (ID CMAELR3,39.380))

(NODE (NP-DIR (D the) (N est) (N lyne))
      (ID CMASTRO,667.C2.146))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N +tef) (N traitoure))
      (ID CMBRUT3,128.3854))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D the) (N draught) (N brygge)
              (PP (P of)
                 (NP (NPR London))))
      (ID CMGREGOR,193.1488))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJ harde) (N alebastir) (N boxe)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ thyn) (N hert))))
      (ID CMAELR4,20.560))

For forms of address (SIR KNIGHT) and names (UTHER PENDRAGON, KING ARTHUR), see the discussion of noun-noun compounds in connection with proper nouns.

Although strings of two or three nouns making up a noun phrase are generally noun compounds, some (for instance, FRIENDS, ROMANS, COUNTRYMEN) are conjunction structures without an overt conjunction.

NPs with empty heads

An NP without an overt nominal element (N, NPR, ONE, OTHER, PRO, and corresponding plurals) is assumed to have an empty nominal head. The empty head is not explicitly included in the annotation, but is implicit in the NP that it projects. An NP may therefore consist entirely of a demonstrative, adjective, number, quantifier, or possessive expression, or of phrases containing these elements, as illustrated by the following examples and as discussed in more detail below.

(NP (D the) (ADJ poor))

(NP (D the) (ADJ rich))

(NP (PRO$ my) (ADJS dearest) (ADJ dear))

(NP-MSR (ADJ long))

(NP-OB1 (ADJ inow))

(NP-SBJ (D that))

(NP (NUM thre))

(NP-OB1 (NUMP (NUM fyftene) (NUM thousand)))

(NP (PRO$ myn))

(NP (NPR$ John's))

(NP-SBJ (Q many))

(NP (ADJP (ADJ hyghe) (CONJ and) (ADJ lowe)))

(NP (D the) (ADJ last))

(NP (D the) (ADJR wers))

(NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJ same))

(NP-OB1 (PRO$ your) (ADJS best))

(NP-OB1 (Q Alle) (D this))

(NP (NP (D a)
        (ADJP (ADV passyng) (ADJ true))
        (N man))
    (CONJP (CONJ and)
           (NP (D a) (ADJ feithful))))

(NP-OB1 (NP (D a) (ADJ fair) (N lady))
        (CONJP (CONJ and)
               (NP (D a)
                   (ADJP (ADV passynge) (ADJ wyse)))))

Comparative adjectives as heads of NP

At the clausal level, comparative adjectives accompanied by a determiner are labelled as either NP or
ADJP, depending on whether they are functioning as referring expressions or as predicates. They are labelled NP when the phrase in question functions as a noun phrase (subject, object of verb or preposition, etc.). This includes cases where the phrase clearly picks out a particular entity, even if the phrase is the complement of a copular verb. Otherwise, comparative adjectives project an ADJP.

( (IP-MAT (PP (P When)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (ONE ane))
                              (VBP metis)
                              (NP-OB1 (D+OTHER a-no+tir)))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (ADJR yunger))
          (MD sal)
          (NEG noht)
          (VB sitte)
          (PP (P bi)
              (NP (PRO hir)))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P bot)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO sho))
                              (HVP haue)
                              (NP-OB1 (N leue)))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMBENRUL,41.1312))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N man))
              (MD cou+te)
              (VB deme)
              (NP-OB1 (D +te) (ADJR bettre)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO ham)))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,79.2416))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (ADJR stronggyr))
          (VBD eete)
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (CODE <P_85>) (ADJR wekir))
          (. .))
  (ID CMSIEGE,85.447))

              (BED was)
              (NP-OB1 (D +te) (ADJR +gongyr)))		← referring expression, not predicate
      (ID CMMIRK,93.2510))

      Context: But when Esav was goon, by techyng of hys modyr and
      sleght, Iacob +tat was +te +gongyr, gate hys fadyrys blessyng

Superlative adjectives as heads of NP

At the clausal level, superlative adjectives are generally labelled NP.
Under certain narrow conditions, superlative adjectives project an ADJP. See also Superlative adjective plus genitive.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (D that))
	      (BEP is)
	      (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJS foulest))
	      (. ,))
   (ID ARMIN,45.383))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP (ADV so))
          (NP-SBJ (D +tis) (N secte))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (ADJS best)			← no determiner, but referential
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tat)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (Q any) (N man))
                                  (MD may)
                                  (HV haue)))))
   (ID CMWYCSER,265.698))

Complements of N

NP complements of N (NP-COM)

See also Measure phrase modifiers of N.

Bare NP complements of nouns are labelled NP-COM. This includes cases where a genitive NP in early texts corresponds to an OF phrase in later English. NP-COM continues to occur into Modern English, especially with ABOARD, AMID, HALF, and SIDE.

The complement may precede or follow the head and consist of one or more than one word.

(NODE (NP (N gewittnysse)
          (NP-COM (NP (PRO$ hire) (N$ m+age+dhades))
                  (CONJP (CONJ &)
                         (NP (PRO$ hire) (N$ eadmodnysse)))))
      (ID CMKENTHO,135.29))

(NODE (NP (N m+aigne)
          (NP-COM (ADJ unw+ammes) (N$ m+age+dhades)))
      (ID CMKENTHO,134.22))

(NODE (NP (N moder)
          (NP-COM (NP-COM (D +te) (ADJ ilke) (N$ zodes))
                  (, /)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (NP-COM (PRO$ oure) (NPR$ lhordes)
                                     (NP-PRN (NPR iesu) (NPR$ cristes)))))))
      (ID CMAYENBI,266.2603))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q sum) (N d+al)
              (NP-COM (PRO$ heora) (N$ gewilles)))
      (ID CMKENTHO,143.224))

(NODE (NP-TMP (D +t+as) (ADJ formeste) (N d+a+ges)
              (NP-COM (D +t+are) (N$ wuca)))
      (ID CMKENTHO,144.258))


NP-COM is always used in connection with NPs occurring with the following nouns, even when the NP is genitive in form.

(NODE (NP (NUM thirty) (N coupyl)			← couple
          (NP-COM (NS houndes)))
      (ID CMMALORY,33.1049))

(NODE (NP (D this) (N half)				← half
          (NP-COM (D the) (N see)))
      (ID CMMANDEV,13.268))

(NODE (NP (D this) (N half)
          (NP-COM (NPR damasce)))
      (ID CMMANDEV,82.2060))

(NODE (NP (D +tis) (N half)
          (NP-COM (D +ta) (NS muntes)))
      (ID CMPETERB,52.312))

(NODE (NP (Q ech) (N manyere)				← manner
	  (NP-COM (N$ lykinges)))
      (ID CMAYENBI,112.2168))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (D +teose) (NUM twa) (N manere)
	      (NP-COM (N$ meonestrales)))
      (ID CMANCRIW-1,II.67.738))

(NODE (NP (D a) (N maner))
          (NP-COM (ADJ fals) (N drede))
      (ID CMAELR3,31.139))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N maner)
              (NP-COM (N harm)))
      (ID CMMANDEV,15.331))

(NODE (NP (N myddis)					← middle
          (NP-COM (D the) (N breste)))
      (ID CMMALORY,663.4711))

(NODE (NP (N myddis)
          (NP-COM (D the) (N shelde)))
      (ID CMMALORY,39.1287))

(NODE (NP-1 (N neod)					← need
            (NP-COM (D +te) (ADJR betere) (N warde)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,I.44.48))

(NODE (NP-1 (Q nan) (N neod)
            (NP-COM (N medicine)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.136.1803))

(NODE (NP (D this) (N syde)				← side
          (NP-COM (NPR Trente) (N watir)))
      (ID CMMALORY,19.579))

(NODE (NP (Q euery) (N side)
          (NP-COM (D +tat) (ADJ Gentil) (N Erl)))
      (ID CMBRUT3,220.3947))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N wa)				← woe
                      (NP-COM *ICH*-1))
              (BEP bi+d)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
              (NP-COM-1 (PRO$ hise) (N$ liues)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.142.1903))


The word KIND poses special difficulties because the structures containing it underwent reanalysis. In early texts, KIND is the head of a genitive NP modifying a noun.

(NODE (NP (NP-COM (Q sumes) (N$ kennes))	← FISH OF SOME KIND
          (N fisc)))

KIND was either singular CUNNES, etc. or plural CUNNE, etc. Some texts, such as the Ormulum and the Katherine Group, maintain this distinction faithfully, while others, such as Ancrene Riwle and the Trinity Homilies are less consistent, either using both CUNNES and CUNNE in the same contexts, or not following any easily discernable pattern. The Lambeth Homilies seem to use the singular form in all contexts, whether singular or plural. Therefore, in texts from the first Middle English period (M1), KIND is marked as singular or plural by form rather than by context.

(NODE (NP (NP-COM (Q naness) (N$ kinness))	← early texts
          (N shaffte))
      (ID CMORM,DED.L257.54))

(NODE (NP (NP-COM (Q alle)  (NS$ kinne))
          (N wise))
      (ID CMORM,I,27.323))

(NODE (NP (NP-COM (NUM ni+ghenn) (NS$ kinne))
          (N +teode))
      (ID CMORM,I,34.375))

(NODE (NP (NP-COM (NUM +treo) (N$ cunes))
          (NS wepnes))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.51.461))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP-COM (D +Dese) (NUM fower) (NS$ kinne))
              (NS teares))
      (ID CMTRINIT,151.2019))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP-COM (NUM Fuwer) (N$ kinnes))
              (NS men))
      (ID CMTRINIT,123.1646))

This construction is later reanalyzed, so that FISH OF SOME KIND becomes SOME KIND(S) (OF) FISH. In texts from later periods of Middle English, the few examples of KIND that occur without OF are treated as heads with an NP-COM complement.

(NODE (NP (Q some) (NS kinds)				← later texts
          (NP-COM (N fish))))

(NODE (NP (Q some) (NS kinds)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (N fish)))))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N kynne)
              (NP-COM (N vertew)))
      (ID CMWYCSER,370.2575))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N kynne)
              (NP-COM (N +ting)
              (PP (P but)
                  (NP (PRO hym)))))
      (ID CMWYCSER,370.2590))

Superlative adjective plus genitive

In early Middle English texts, superlative adjectives modifying a noun (which may be elided) can occur with a genitive NP. The genitive NP is treated as a complement of the head noun (not of the superlative adjective) and labelled NP-COM.

(NODE (NP-1 (D +te)
            (NP-COM (Q$ alre))
            (ADJS unwur+teste) (N wig))
      (ID CMTRINIT,89.1185))

(NODE (NP-PRN (ADJS hegest)
              (NP-COM (Q$ alre))
              (N lor+tew)
              (PP (P after)
                  (NP (PRO$ ure) (NPR helende)
                      (NP-PRN (N seluen)))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,153.2043))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D +te)
              (NP-COM (Q$ alre)
                      (CP-REL *ICH*-3))
              (ADJS wiseste)
              (CP-REL-3 (WNP-4 0)
                        (C +te)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-4)
                                (VBP wune+d)
                                (PP (P bi)
                                    (NP (N westen))))))
      (ID CMKATHE,28.141))

CP complements of N

Nouns can take clausal complements (CP-THT, IP-INF, etc.) (see
Types of subordinate clauses for details). In connection with FORASMUCH and similar words (INASMUCH, INSOMUCH), clauses that were originally degree complements are labelled as adverbial clauses (CP-ADV). Complements of CASE are labelled CP-THT.

Modifiers of N

NPs are modified by adjectives and adjective phrases (ADJ, ADJP), genitives and possessives (N$, PRO$, NP-POS),
measure noun phrases (NP-MSR), numbers and number phrases (NUM, NUMP), quantifiers and quantifier phrases (Q, QP), prepositional phrases (PP), ordinary and reduced relative clauses (CP-REL, RRC), and by appositives and parentheticals (NP-PRN).

Adjectival modifiers of N

Postnominal adjectives are always surrounded by ADJP brackets, even in cases like HEIRS MALES, POUND STERLING, and the like.

For the treatment of offices containing adjectives (ATTORNEY GENERAL, LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, LORD HIGH ADMIRAL, and the like), see Proper nouns, especially N + N and Offices.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (ADJ solitarye) (N lyf))
      (ID CMAELR3,26.5))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D a)
              (ADJP (ADV passyng) (ADJ good))
              (N woman))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.15))

          (ADJP (ADJ almyghty)))		← posthead modifier treated as phrase
      (ID CMMIRK,126.3381))

(NODE (NP (D +te) (NUM fyue) (NS wondys)
          (ADJP (ADJ principale))
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (PRO$ hys) (N body))))
      (ID CMMIRK,126.3390))

Number modifiers of N

NUM(P), like Q(P), is not further specified as a
measure phrase at the NP level.

(NODE (NP (D the) (NUM four) (NS Evangelistes))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.73))

(NODE (NP (NUMP (D a) (NUM hundrez))
          (N sep))			←  sheep
      (ID CMBENRUL,22.762))

(NODE (NP (NS lotess)
          (NUMP (NUM fowwre) (CONJ &) (NUM twennti+g)))
      (ID CMORM,I,14.239))

Quantifier modifiers of N

Q(P), like NUM(P), is not further specified as a
measure phrase at the NP level.

(NODE (NP (Q all) (NPR Englond))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

(NODE (NP (QP (ADV ny) (Q al))
          (D +te) (N cuntre')
                  (PP (P aboute)
                      (NP (NPR Rome))))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,85.1599))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (QP (ADVR to) (Q mech))
              (N wyn))
      (ID CMKEMPE,69.1564))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (PRO hem)
              (QP (Q alle)))			← posthead modifier treated as phrase
      (ID CMAELR3,42.459))

(NODE (NP (PRO$ his) (NS feola+ges)
          (QP (Q alle)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.160.2190))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (N fruyt)
              (QP (ADVR as) (Q mony)		← no NP-MSR
                  (PP (P as)
                        (CP-CMP (WNP-5 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-4 *exp*)
                                        (BED wer)
                                        (NP-4 (NP-MSR *T*-5)
                                              (NS sterres)
                                              (PP (P of)
                                                  (NP (NPR Heuen)))))))))
      (ID CMMIRK,77.2054))

Measure phrase modifiers of N

Measure phrase modifiers of N that are themselves headed by N (as opposed to NUM or Q) are bracketed as NP-MSR, even though they are not at the sentence level. See also
sentence-level measure phrases.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP-MSR (NUM fyftene) (NS dayes))
              (N journey))
      (ID CMMALORY,62.2091))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q any) (ADJ longe) (NS pykys)
              (NP-MSR (NUMP (ADV passynge) (NUM ij))
                      (NS yenchys)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (N lengthe)))))
      (ID CMGREGOR,238.2603))

(NODE (NP-TMP (NUM twice)
              (NP-MSR (D a) (N week))))

(NODE (NP (NUMP (NUM fifty) (NUM thousand))
          (NS pounds)
          (NP-MSR (D a) (N year))))

(NODE (NP (N sugar)
          (NP-MSR (NUM five) (NS pounds))))

(NODE (NP (NUM five) (NS pounds)		← note NP-COM with inverse word order
          (NP-COM (N sugar))))

Genitive/possessive modifiers of N

Not all genitive/possessive dependents of N are treated as modifiers. See Complements of N for details.

(NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N wife))

(NP-OB1 (NPR$ God's) (N voice)

(NP (NP-POS (D a) (N$ beggars))
    (N aray))

(NP (NP-POS (NPR King) (NPR$ Uthers))
    (NS men))

(NP (NS men)
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (PRO$ his))))                               ← possessive consisting of single word projects no NP-POS

(NP (NS men)
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (NP-POS (NPR King) (NPR$ Uthers)))))        ← possessive consisting of more than one word projects NP-POS

When the genitive is not grouped with a word that precedes it within the NP, this reflects that the word preceding the genitive modifies not it, but the complex consisting of the genitive and the head. The complex itself is not explicitly bracketed.

(NODE (NP-SBJ (Q euch) (N$ worldes) (N sauur))		← each [world's taste]
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.82.979))			          = each taste of the world

(NODE (NP (D +Teose) (N$ heorte) (NS wunden))		← these [heart wounds]
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.201.2868))		          = these wounds of the heart

(NODE (NP-SBJ (SUCH such) (N$ worldys) (N murthe))	← such mirth of the world
      (ID CMMIRK,64.1739))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q alle) (OTHER o+ture) (N$ monnes) (NS wittes))	← all other wits of men
      (ID CMEDVERN,260.877))

Note the difference between the following two structures:

(NODE (NP (PRO$ hire) (N$ meidene) (N wombe))		← her [maiden's womb]
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.62.634))

(NODE (NP (NP-POS (PRO$ hire) (N$ meidene))		← [her maiden's] womb
          (N wombe)))

The following examples illustrate our treatment of cases involving the possessive clitic ('S, S). See Dollar tag for the conventions splitting off the dollar tag and adding emendations.

                  ($ his))
          (N peny)))

(NODE (NP (NP-POS (D +Te) (N kyng)
                  ($ his))
          (N wyf)))

(NODE (NP (NP-POS (D the) (N Lord)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR$ Bodmins))))		← no emendation in this case
          (N hat)))

(NODE (NP (NP-POS (D the) (N Lord)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR $Bodmin)))
	          ($ $'s)
                  (CODE {TEXT:Bodmin's}))		← emendation because of apostrophe
          (N hat)))

(NODE (NP (NP-POS (D the) (N Lord)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Bodmin)))
	          ($ s))				← clitic separate word in original
          (N hat)))

(NODE (NP (NP-POS (D the) (N Lord)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Bodmin)))
	          ($ 's))				← clitic separate word in original
          (N hat)))

                  (ADJP (ADJ $almighty))
                  ($ $s))
	  (CODE {TEXT:almightys})			← emendation because clitic attached to ADJ
          (N mercy)))

                  (ADJP (ADJ $almighty))
                  ($ $'s))
	  (CODE {TEXT:almighty's})			← emendation because of apostrophe
          (N mercy)))

                  (ADJP (ADJ almighty))
                  ($ s))				← clitic separate word in original
          (N mercy)))

                  (ADJP (ADJ almighty))
                  ($ 's))				← clitic separate word in original
          (N mercy)))

PP modifiers of N

Since our annotation scheme makes no distiction between complements and modifiers at the NP level, the following discussion extends to PP complements of N.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (N kynge)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (Q all) (NPR Englond))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

(NODE (NP (D the) (NS dayes)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (NPR Uther) (NPR Pendragon))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

(NODE (NP (NP (D the) (NPR Resurreccion))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (D the) (NPR Passion)))
          (PP (P of)					← attachment as high as possible
              (NP (PRO$ oure) (N Lorde)
                  (NP-PRN (NPR Jesu) (NPR Cryste)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,666.4834))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP (D a) (ADJ ryche) (N bedde))
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (D a) (ADJ fayre)))
              (, ,)
              (PP (P as)				← attachment as high as possible
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (N cloth)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (N sylke) (CONJ and) (N golde)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,660.4610))

Relative clauses

This section focuses on the relation of relative clauses to the head they modify. The internal structure of relative clauses is discussed under
Types of subordinate clauses.

(NODE (NP (D the) (ADJS byggest) (N castell)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (HVP hath))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.32))

(NODE (NP (PRO he)
          (CP-REL (WNP-3 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                          (MD shal)
                          (BE be)
                          (NP-OB1 (ADJ rightwys) (N kyng)
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP (D this) (N land)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,9.253))

(NODE (NP (D the) (N castel)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (NPR Terrabyl)))
          (, ,)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 (D the) (WPRO whiche))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (HVD had)
                          (NP-OB1 (Q many) (NS yssues)
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (NX (NS posternes))))
                          (RP oute))))
      (ID CMMALORY,3.36))

(NODE (NP (Q all) (D the) (NS lordes)
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NX (NS comyns)))
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (BED were)
                          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,11.303))

(NODE (NP (NP (D the) (N Knyght)
              (PP (P with)
                  (NP (D the) (NUM Two) (NS Swerdis))))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (PRO$ hys) (N brothir)))
          (, ,)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
     	          (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (BEP ar)
                          (NP-OB1 (NUM two) (ADJ mervayles) (NS knyghtes)
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP (N prouesse)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,56.1873))

Reduced relative clauses

This section focuses on the relation of reduced relative clauses to the head they modify. The internal structure of reduced relative clauses is discussed under
Types of subordinate clauses.

Reduced relatives (RRC) headed by participles are not always easy to distinguish from participial clauses (IP-PPL). It is wise in searches for one category to include the other.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D the) (N child)
              (RRC (VAN bound)
                   (PP (P in)
                       (NP (D a) (N cloth)
                           (PP (P of)
                               (NP (N gold)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.149))

(NODE (NP (D a) (N boye)
          (RRC (PP (P of)
                   (NP (Q no) (ADJ hyghe) (N blood)))
               (VAN borne)))
      (ID CMMALORY,10.284))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NS messyngers)
              (PP (P unto)
                  (NP (NPR kyng) (NPR Ban)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NX (NPR Bors)))))
              (RRC (VAN isente)
                   (PP (P frome)
                       (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,15.459))

(NODE (NP-1 (D an) (VAN armed) (N knyght)
            (RRC (VAN bounden)))
      (ID CMMALORY,190.2777))

Appositives and parentheticals as constituents of NP

Appositives and other parentheticals are indicated by the dash tag -PRN.

Noun phrases of the type THE LORD DAWKINS, MILADY DELAWARE are treated by default as appositive structures.

(NODE (NP-OB2 (D the) (N duke)
              (NP-PRN (PRO$ her) (N husband)))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.17))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q al) (PRO$ your) (N hert)
              (NP-PRN (Q every) (N dele)))	← every part
      (ID CMMALORY,3.70))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NPR god)
              (NP-PRN (PRO+N him-selfe)))
      (ID CMBENRUL,26.885))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N Kyng)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (NPR Fraunce)))
              (, ,)
              (NP-PRN (NPR Agampe)))
      (ID CMBRUT3,17.512))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (ADJ owen) (N cosyn)
              (, ,)
              (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                      (C +tat)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                              (BED was)
                              (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO$ his) (N$ Vncles))
                                      (N sone))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-PRN (D a)
                      (ADJP (ADJ noble)
                            (CONJP *ICH*-2))
                      (N kny+gt)
                      (CONJP-2 (CONJ and)
                               (ADJ stronge)))
              (, ,)
              (CP-REL (WNP-3 0)
                      (C +tat)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN me))
                              (VBD callede)
                              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                      (NP-OB1 (NPR Maximian))))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,42.1280))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (PP (P If)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D thys))
                                  (BEP be)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ sothe)))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I)
                      (NP-PRN *ICH*-1))
              (MD woll)
              (VB assay)
              (NP-PRN-1 (PRO$+N myselffe))
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB draw)
                      (RP oute)
                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde)))
              (, ,)
              (IP-PPL (NEG nat)
                      (VAG presumynge)
                      (NP-PRN (PRO$+N myselff))
                      (CP-THT (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                      (BEP am)
                                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJS beste) (N knyght)))))
              (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,45.1505))

Nominal versus mixed gerunds

Gerunds in English were originally nominal, and bare gerunds without complements (including the
A HUNTING construction are treated as nouns by default.
    	      (ADJP (ADJ redy)
	   	    (IP-INF (PP (P with)
			        (NP (Q many) (NS knyghtes)))
			    (TO to)
			    (VB ryde)
			    (PP (P on)
				(NP (N huntynge))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,33.1036))

	          (VB goe)
		  (PP (P on)
		      (NP (N huntinge)))
   	          (NP-MSR (PP (P from)
   			      (NP (N morninge)))
		          (PP (P to)
			      (NP (N nighte))))))
      (ID FORMAN,12.270))

(NODE (IP-MAT (PP (P+N A-hunting))		← fused form
              (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
              (MD will)
              (VB go)))

When gerunds take complements, these are originally PPs, in keeping with the nominal origin of the construction. Over time, English develops mixed gerunds, with characteristics of both noun phrases (they are introduced by a determiner or possessive pronoun and can be modified by adjectives) and participial clauses (the gerund takes an NP rather than PP complement). The following examples illustrate the difference between nominal and mixed gerunds. In doubtful cases (for instance, when the verb takes a PP complement), the default is nominal. For purely verbal gerunds, see Participial clauses.

Nominal					Mixed

(NP (D the)				(NP (D the)
    (N hunting)				    (IP-PPL (VAG hunting)
    (PP (P of)					    (NP-OB1 (NS deer))))
        (NP (NS deer))))

(NP (PRO$ their)			(NP (PRO$ their)
    (ADJ joyous)			    (ADJ joyous)
    (N singing)				    (IP-PPL (VAG singing)
    (PP (P of)					    (NP-OB1 (NS hymns))))
        (NP (NS hymns))))

					(NP (PRO$ their)
					    (IP-PPL (ADVP (ADV joyously))
						    (VAG singing)
						    (NP-OB1 (NS hymns))))

(NP (PRO$ his)
    (N speaking)			← nominal by default
    (PP (P to)
        (NP (D the) (N lady))))

Number phrase (NUMP)

The following discussion focuses on the internal structure of NUMP. For the integration of number phrases in the larger clausal structure, see
Nouns with empty heads and Measure phrase.

Ordinary cases

A number phrase consists of either a multi-word number, or a number modified in some way. When single numbers are written out in words, they are given flat structures.

(NODE (NUMP (NUM fyve) (NUM hondred))
      (ID CMMALORY,11.327))

(NODE (NUMP (NUM ten) (NUM thousand))
      (ID CMMALORY,18.567))

(NODE (NP (NUMP (NUM three) (NUM dozen))
          (NS platters)))

(NODE (NUMP (NUM nyne) (NUM score))
      (ID CMMALORY,187.2693))

When coordinating conjunctions or determiners are part of a number, they are labelled with their own POS tag (CONJ, D), but otherwise treated as if tagged NUM.

(NODE (NUMP (NUM four) (CONJ and) (NUM twenty)))		← flat structure - no CONJP

(NODE (NUMP (NUM four) (NUM hondred) (CONJ and) (NUM four) (CONJ and) (NUM fyffty))
      (ID CMMALORY,628.3575))

(NODE (NUMP (NUM three) (NUM score) (CONJ and) (NUM four))
      (ID CMMALORY,189.2763))

(NODE (NP (NUMP (D a) (NUM +towsand)))

(NODE (NP (NUMP (D a) (NUM two))
          (NS miles)))

As usual, single-word modifiers are not enclosed in phrasal brackets, but multi-word modifiers are.

When directly modifying numbers, the following words are tagged ADV:

(NODE (NUMP (ADV a-bowt) (NUM v) (CONJ er) (NUM vj))
      (ID CMKEMPE,231.3803))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV (ADV21 al) (ADV22 moste)) (NUM iij))
      (ID CMGREGOR,199.1611))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV fully) (NUM iij))
      (ID CMGREGOR,161.763))

(NODE (NUMP (Q many) (D a) (NUM +tousand))
      (ID CMAELR3,51.791))

(NODE (NUMP (Q moni) (NUM +tusent))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.151.2049))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV ny) (NUM x))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,77.1363))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV ny) (D a) (NUM hundred))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,124.2811))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV passing) (NUM viii) (NUM +tousand))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,245.4081))

(NODE (NUMP (NEG not) (ADV passynge) (NUM vj))
      (ID CMGREGOR,219.2107))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV rihht) (NUM sextene))
      (ID CMORM,I,16.254))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV scarsly) (NUM tuelf))
      (ID CMBRUT3,18.537))

(NODE (NUMP (Q sume) (NUM hund) (NUM seuenti))
      (ID CMTRINIT,51.713))

(NODE (NUMP (ADVP (NEG nought) (ADV fully))
            (NUM xij))
      (ID CMGREGOR,149.644))

(NODE (NUMP (ADVP (ADV Full) (ADV wel))
            (NUM fif) (NUM hunndredd))
      (ID CMORM,I,284.2345))

(NODE (NUMP (QP (ADVR swo) (Q mani+ge))
            (NUM hundred))
      (ID CMVICES1,115.1394))

(NODE (NUMP (NUM fowr) (NUM +tusent)
            (ADVP (ADV fulle)))
      (ID CMKATHE,45.403))

(NODE (NUMP (PP (P at)
  	        (QP (QS least)))
            (D a) (NUM thousand)))

Special cases

NUMP can surround syntactically complex phrases that function as number phrases. Such number phrases can be headed by categories that can head NP or QP (for instance, ADJ or Q).

(NODE (NUMP (QR more)
            (PP (P +tan)
                (NP (NUM v))))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,157.3683))

(NODE (NUMP (QP (Q no) (QR less))
            (PP (P than)
                (NP (NUM 280))))
      (ID tduppa,Q_DUP_A_1650_TC_BDUPPA:12.169))

(NODE (NUMP (QR more)
            (PP (P than)
                (NP (NUM twise) (NUM seven))))
      (ID tchambe,Q_CHM_A_1605_T_JCHAMBERLAIN:I,207.504))

(NODE (NUMP (ADJR better)
            (PP (P then)
                (NP (NUM $800))))
      (ID tchambe,Q_CHM_A_1603_T_JCHAMBERLAIN:I,180.356))

(NODE (NUMP (ADJ nigh)				← ADJ (not ADV) because not directly modifying NUM
            (PP (P upon)
                (NP (NUMP (D a) (NUM thousand)))))
      (ID torigin1,Q_OR1_A_1524_T_TDACRE:248.809))

Other heads (for instance, P) project a maximal projection in the way that they usually would, which is then enclosed by NUMP to encode the phrase's function. Some of the following examples include sentence-level NPs for clarity.

(NODE (NP-MSR (NUMP (PP (P toward)
                        (NP (NUM $1500))))
              (NS $=li=)
              (CODE {TEXT:1500=li=}))
      (ID tchambe,Q_CHM_A_1613_T_JCHAMBERLAIN:I,405.1209))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NUMP (PP (P betwene)
                        (NP (NUMP (NUM thirty) (CONJ and) (NUM forty)))))
              (NS persons))
      (ID tchambe,Q_CHM_A_1599_TC_JCHAMBERLAIN:I,85.171))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NUMP (PP (P between)
			(NP (NUMP (NUM 4) (CONJ and) (NUM 5) (NUM $100)))))
	      (NS $=li=)
	      (CODE {TEXT:100=li=})
	      (ADVP (ADV yearly))
      (. ,))
      (ID MASHAM,120.49))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NUMP (PP (P above)
 		        (NP (D the) (N Nombre))
		            (PP (P of)
			        (NP (NUMP (NUM twoo) (NUM thousand))))))
              (NS shepe))
      (ID tcromwe,Q_CRO_A_1534_T_TCROMWELL:I,373.254))

Finally, NUMP is used rather loosely in some instances to contain numerical constituents of unclear structure.

(NODE (NUMP (NUM fif)				 ← five times ten
            (PP (P si+de)
                (NP (NUM tene))))
      (ID CMKATHE,31.194))

(NODE (NUMP (NUM syx)				 ← six times ten
            (PP (P tymys)
                (NP (NUM ten))))
      (ID CMMIRK,70.1905))

(NODE (NUMP (ADV Rihht) (NUM ehhte)		← right eight times a hundred
            (PP (P si+te)
                (NP (NUMP (D an) (NUM hunndredd)))))
      (ID CMORM,I,149.1233))

(NODE (NUMP (QP (ADV +get) (QR ma))		← yet more by ten
            (PP (P bi)
                (NP (NUM tene))))
      (ID CMHALI,144.245))

Prepositional phrase (PP)

Phrases of the type TWENTY MILES FROM LONDON are treated as locative ADJPs (ADJP-LOC). See Measure phrase for discussion and examples.

Complements of P

PPs are headed by prepositions and take complements of various categories. The most common are NP and CP, but ADJP, ADVP, IP, PP, etc. are possible as well. Since subordinating conjunctions are treated as P in our corpora, subordinate clauses introduced by a subordinating conjunction are labelled PP. See below for examples.

NP complements of P

(NODE (PP (P for)
          (NP (NUM thre) (NS causes)))
      (ID CMASTRO,662.C1.8))

(NODE (PP (P to)
          (NP (D the) (ADJ rightfulle) (NS praiers)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ his) (N frend)))))
      (ID CMASTRO,662.C1.7))

(NODE (PP (P by)
          (NP (N mediacioun)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (D this) (ADJ litel) (N tretys)))))
      (ID CMASTRO,662.C1.7))

(NODE (PP (P fro)
          (NP (PRO vs)))
      (ID CMWYCSER,I,647.3905))

(NODE (PP (P Thoro)
          (NP (D +tat)))
      (ID CMBENRUL,43.1347))

Pre-head complements of P

Complements of prepositions can precede the head. This is the canonical order for the R-pronouns
THERE and WHERE, and it is not infrequent with personal pronouns and demonstratives in early texts. Occasionally, even full NP complements precede the head in early texts. Movement is indicated only if the word order makes it necessary.

(NODE (PP (NP (PRO ham))				← pronoun
          (P towart))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.74.851))

(NODE (PP (NP (PRO us))
          (P fra))
      (ID CMBENRUL,3.80))

(NODE (PP (NP (PRO us))
          (P inwi+d))
      (ID CMHALI,139.148))

(NODE (PP (NP (D +tat))					← demonstrative
          (P to))
      (ID CMTRINIT,137.1837))

(NODE (PP (NP (D +dat))
          (P after))
      (ID CMVICES1,109.1299))

(NODE (PP (NP (Q All) (N+N wimmannkinn))		← full NP
          (P bitwenenn))
      (ID CMORM,I,86.764))

(NODE (PP (NP (NPR Godd))
          (P onn+g+aness))
      (ID CMORM,I,178.1463))

(NODE (PP (NP (Q all) (OTHERS othyr))
          (P wyth))
      (ID CMMIRK,61.1666))

CP complements of P

CP complements of prepositions are generally restricted to
adverbial clauses (CP-ADV) or comparative clauses (CP-CMP), but other types of CP complements are possible, notably in elision contexts and after SUCH AS. In contrast to the general situation in modern English, the C head of such clauses was not necessarily silent in such clauses; see Non-wh CPs for examples.

AS clauses belong to this type, but are discussed in detail under Types of subordinate clauses because there are so many different types.

(NODE (PP (P yf)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (MD wille)
                          (NEG not)
                          (VB Come)
                          (PP (P at)
                              (NP (PRO$ your) (NS somons))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.24))

(NODE (PP (P or)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP (ADV ever))
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
                          (VBD cam)
                          (PP (P at)
                              (NP (D the) (N castel)
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP (NPR Tyntigail))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.90))

(NODE (PP (P though)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                          (VBP ryde)
                          (PP (P on)
                              (NP (D an) (N+N hors-lyttar))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.160))

(NODE (PP (P tyll)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                          (VBP come)
                          (PP (P to)
                              (NP (PRO yow))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.85))

(NODE (PP (P whan)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NP (D the) (N duke))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (NP (PRO$ his) (N wyf))))
                          (BED were)
                          (VBN comyn)
                          (PP (P unto)
                              (NP (D the) (N kynge))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.11))

Prepositions with a demonstrative plus clause or NP (FORTHI and the like)

FOR +TI, FOR+TAN, FOR +TAT, IN +TAT, WI+T +TON, ER +TANNE, etc. are often used in Middle English to introduce adverbial clauses. These clauses presumably originated as THAT complements of the NP headed by the demonstrative, but their overall function is adverbial, and they are therefore labelled CP-ADV. The demonstrative is labelled D, but is not surrounded by NP brackets (this differs from the treatment of

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P for) (D +ti)
              (CP-ADV (C +tat)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                              (BEP es)
                              (NP-OB1 (N vice)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (N propirte)))))))
          (, ,)
          (MD sal)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (BE be)
          (VAN scorn)
          (PP (P als)
              (NP (N +tifte)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBENRUL,36.1179))

          (BEP ben)
          (VAN tau+gt)
          (PP (P in) (D +tat)
              (CP-ADV (C +tat)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                              (VBP seon)
                              (PP (P in)
                                  (NP (SUCH suche) (NS creatures)))
                              (NP-OB1 (D +te) (ADJ wonder) (NS werkes)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (PRO$ vre) (N Creatour)))))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMEDVERN,245.219))

(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (PP (P al-though)
                    (CP-ADV (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ her) (N communicacion)
                                            (PP (P atte)
                                                (NP (N begynnynge))))
                                    (BEP be)
                                    (PP (P of)
                                        (NP (NP (N sadnes))
                                            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                                   (NP (ADJ vertuous) (N lyuynge))))))))
                (, ,)
                (PP (P er) (D than)
                    (CP-ADV (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thei))
                                    (VBP departe))))
                (NP-SBJ (ADJ worldly) (N daliaunce))
                (MD shal)
                (BE be)
                (VAN shewed)
                (ADVP-DIR (ADV furthe)))
      (ID CMAELR4,3.63))

Occasionally, the preposition plus demonstrative combination takes an NP complement.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (D +tat)
                  (CP-THT-PRN *ICH*-1))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (N rewth))
          (CP-THT-PRN-1 (C +tat)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N mede))
                                (MD xuld)
                                (VB spede)
                                (PP (P er) (D +tan)
                                    (NP (N trewth)))))
          (. .))
   (ID CMKEMPE,59.1327))

In The Book of Margery Kempe, the form LES +TAN in the meaning UNLESS is treated in the same way.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N+N reedspyr)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO whech))
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (VBP boweth)
                                      (PP (P wyth)
                                          (NP (Q euery) (N wynd))))))
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV neuyr))
              (BEP is)
              (ADJP (ADJ stable))
              (PP (P les) (D +tan)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N wynd))
                                  (VBP bloweth)))))
      (ID CMKEMPE,1.6))

FORWHI plus clause

FORWHI introducing an adverbial clause is treated analogously to
FOR +TI, FOR +TAN, etc.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO$ +goure) (NS hondis))
              (BEP be)
              (NEG not)
              (VAN maad)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
                      (ADJP (ADJ vnstedfast)))
              (, ,)
              (PP (P for) (WADV whi)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N mede))
                                  (MD schal)
                                  (BE be)
                                  (PP (P to)
                                      (NP (PRO$ +goure) (N werk))))))
              (. .)
              (" "))
  (ID CMPURVEY,I,22.1040))

(NODE (PP (P+WADV forwhi)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Jesabel)
                                          (NP-PRN (PRO$ his) (N wijf)))
                                  (VBD excitide)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO him)))
                          (, ,)
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                         (DOD dide)
                                         (NP-OB1 (ADJ abomynable) (N ydolatrie)))))
          (. .))
      (ID CMPURVEY,I,14.602))

ADJP complements of P

The following expressions are treated as taking ADJP complements headed by ADJ (the representation is not necessarily the linguistically correct analysis). The complements in
IN EARNEST and AT/IN QUIET are treated as NP.

afresh, asunder
at best, at farthest, at full, at large, at present, at utmost
by far
ere long
for certain, for present, for sure
in brief, in chief, in common, in full, in future, in general, in ordinary, in particular, in present, in private, in public, in short, in (e)special, in vain
of certain, of late, of new, of old
on instant

(NODE (PP (P at)
          (ADJP (ADJS best))))

(NODE (PP (P in)
          (ADJP (ADJ common))))

(NODE (PP (P in)
          (NP (N earnest))))			← NP, not ADJP

(NODE (PP (P at/in)
          (NP (N quiet))))			← NP, not ADJP

ADVP complements of P

(NODE (PP (P a)
          (ADVP (RP+WARD vppart)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.203.2898))

(NODE (PP (P at)				← at once
          (ADVP (ADV ones)))
      (ID CMBRUT3,82.2488))

(NODE (PP (P bot)
          (ADVP (ADV wirchipfully)))
      (ID CMGAYTRY,5.50))

(NODE (PP (P by)
          (ADVP (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (ADV than))
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (D the) (N sonne))
                                (VBP goo)
                                (PP (P to)
                                    (NP (N reste)))))))
      (ID CMAELR4,6.165))

(NODE (PP (P for)
          (ADVP (ADV euere)))
      (ID CMAELR3,51.791))

(NODE (PP (P From)
          (ADVP (ADV aboue)))
      (ID CMAELR3,57.947))

(NODE (PP (P from)
          (ADVP (ADV (ADV21 henes) (ADV22 forthward))))
      (ID CMASTRO,663.C1.44))

(NODE (PP (P in)
          (ADVP (ADV +tere)))
      (ID CMMANDEV,53.1304))

(NODE (PP (P +tan)
          (ADVP (ADV before)))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,137.3173))

(NODE (PP (P +tan)
          (ADVP (ADV+WADV elles-where)))
      (ID CMBRUT3,3.51))

IP complements of P

(NODE (PP (P aboute)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB make)
                  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO vs))
                          (ADJP (ADJ clene))
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (ADJ cotidian) (NS defautes)))
                          (PP (P by)
                              (NP (NP (ADJ meke) (N schryfte))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (NP (ADJ due) (N satisfaccioun))))))))
     (ID CMAELR3,35.250))

(NODE (PP (P as)
          (IP-PPL (VAG touchyngge)
                  (NP-OB1 (ADJ holy) (NS ymages))))
      (ID CMAELR3,35.258))

PP complements of P

(NODE (PP (P bote)
          (PP (P +gif)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                              (VBP smyte)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
                              (PP (P wit)
                                  (NP (PRO$ +ty) (N tounge)))))))
      (ID CMAELR3,36.290))

Specifiers of PP

Ordinary modifiers of P

Items immediately preceding P, such as adverbs, particles, and
measure phrases are treated as specifiers of PP. As with all specifiers in our annotation scheme, they are represented as sisters of the head.

(NODE (PP (ADV streyte)					← adverb
	  (P unto)
	  (NP (D the) (ADJ thirde) (N knyght)))
      (ID CMMALORY,181.2436))

(NODE (PP (ADV clene)
          (RP oute) (P of)
          (NP (D the) (N sadyll)))
      (ID CMMALORY,182.2488))

(NODE (PP (ADV nyghe)
          (P unto)
          (NP (D the) (N deth)))
      (ID CMMALORY,185.2616))

(NODE (PP (ADV well)
          (P at)
          (NP (N ease)))
      (ID CMMALORY,62.2072))

(NODE (PP (ADV lyke)
          (P as)
          (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
                          (VBD desyred))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.147))

(NODE (PP (ADV so)
          (P as)
          (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                          (VBP doo))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.159))

(NODE (PP (ADV nomeliche)
          (P +gef)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (BEP is)
                          (ADJP (ADJ priue)
                                (PP (P wi+d)
                                    (NP (PRO$ his) (N lauerd))))))))

(NODE (PP (ADV Aure)
          (P se+d+den)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (ADJ ealde) (NS tilie))
                          (ADVP-DIR (ADV henne))
                          (VBD wenden))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,161.2167))

(NODE (PP (RP vp) (P to)				← adverbial particle
          (NP (NPR heuene)))
      (ID CMAELR3,26.17))

(NODE (PP (RP oute) (P of)
          (NP (D the) (N castel)))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.89))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (ADJ good) (NS meanys)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D the) (NS barownes)))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
          (VAN delyverde)
          (PP (RP oute) (P of)
              (NP (N preson)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,46.1526))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (NUM two) (NS strokys)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD strake)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hem))
          (PP (RP downe) (P to)
              (NP (D the) (N erthe)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,200.3143))

(NODE (PP (FP even)					← focus particle
          (P unto)
          (NP (NPR London)))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.188))

(NODE (PP (FP onlyche)
          (P of)
          (NP (D +te) (ADJ liberal) (N +gyft)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (D +te) (N grace)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR God)))))))
      (ID CMAELR3,29.91))

(NODE (PP (NP-MSR (NUMP (QR more)			← measure phrase
                        (PP (P than)
                            (NP (NUM thre))))
                  (NS houres))
          (P after)
          (NP (PRO$ his) (N deth)))
     (ID CMMALORY,4.91))

(NODE (PP (NP-MSR (NUM thirtene) (NS dayes))
          (P after)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR kyng) (NPR Uther))
                          (VBD wedded)
                          (NP-OB1 (NPR Igrayne)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,12.353))

(NODE (PP (NP-MSR (NUM ten) (N myle))
          (RP oute) (P of)		← not ADJP-LOC because of RP
          (NP (NPR London)))
      (ID CMMALORY,17.513))

Fronting to Spec(PP)

In subordinate clauses, fronted elements can occupy Spec(PP), the position immediately preceding the subordinating conjunction. Since the specifier position is not explicitly indicated in our annotation system for any phrasal category, these elements simply appear within the PP in pre-head position. Such fronted constituents are coindexed with an *ICH* trace or with a resumptive (-RSP) phrase. For analogous cases of fronting in subordinate clauses that are introduced by a complementizer, see
Fronting to pre-complementizer position.

(NODE (PP (ADJP-1 (ADJ unbelievable))
          (P though)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADJP *ICH*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                          (VBP sounds)))))

(NODE (PP (PP-1 (P in)
               (NP (NPR$ godis) (N trouht)))
          (P yef)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (PP *ICH*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
                          (VBP se))))
      (ID CMBENRUL,4.89))

(NODE (PP (NP-1 (PRO$ hir) (N mastiresse))
          (P +toz)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *ICH*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO scho))
                          (BED ware))))
      (ID CMBENRUL,10.325))

Dative of possession (NP-DPS)

In the early Middle English texts, there appear to be a few cases of the dative of possession. The clear cases always immediately precede a preposition with the "possessed" NP as the object of the preposition. In such cases, the dative is labelled NP-DPS and treated as the specifier of the PP. Potential datives of possession in other positions are labelled

              (VBP falle)
              (PP (NP-DPS (NPR defle))
                  (P to)
                  (NP (N honde))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,11.130))

( (IP-MAT (LB |)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +Te+g+g)
                  (QP (Q alle)))
          (VBD sungenn)
          (NP-OB1 (D +anne) (N sang))
          (LB |)
          (LB |)
          (PP (NP-DPS (NPR Drihhtin))
              (P to)
              (NP (N lofe) (CONJ &) (N wurr+te)))
          (. ,)
          (LB |))
  (ID CMORM,I,116.1006))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD strehiten)
          (PP (P under)
              (NP (NP-POS (D +ta) (N$ assa))
                  (NS fet)))
          (ADVP-LOC (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (ADV +ter))
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                    (NP-SBJ (NPR drihten))
                                    (VBD rad)
                                    (PP (P inne)
                                        (NP (D +te) (CODE <P_5>) (N weye))))))
          (, .)
          (PP (NP-DPS (PRO him))
              (P to)
              (NP (N luue) (CONJ and) (N heri+ginge))))
  (ID CMLAMBX1,5.24))

Quantifier phrase (QP)

The following discussion focuses on the internal structure of QP. For the integration of Q(P) into the larger clausal structure, see Floated quantifiers, Nouns with empty heads, and Measure phrase.

Complements of Q

NP complements of Q (NP-COM)

In early Middle English texts, quantifiers often take genitive NP complements. These are labelled NP-COM.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q nan)
              (NP-COM (D +ter) (NS$ +tinge)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                              (C +te)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                      (VB leten)
                                      (MD solde)))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,219.3049))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q summe)
              (NP-COM (PRO$ +tine) (NS$ sunna)))
      (ID CMLAMBX1,37.467))

"Light" complements (i.e., pronouns or single words) commonly precede the quantifier.

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP-COM (PRO$ ouwer))		← neither of you
              (Q nou+der))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.43.374))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP-COM (PRO$ heor))		← each of them
              (Q $elc))
      (ID CMLAMBX1,89.744))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP-COM (PRO$ inker))		← either of us
              (Q ei+ter))
      (ID CMHALI,151.324))

(NODE (NP-PRN-4 (NP-COM (PRO$ here))		← every[one] of them
                (Q euerich))
       (ID CMKENTSE,220.181))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP-COM (PRO$ heore))		← none of them
              (Q nan))
      (ID CMLAMBX1,93.817))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP-COM (PRO$ her))		← neither of them
              (Q nou+ter))
      (ID CMPETERB,58.567))

(NODE (NP-ACC (NP-POS (NP-COM (PRO$ ure))       ← head of all of us
		      (Q$ alre))
	      (N heaued))
      (ID CMVICES1,131.1636))

Modifiers of Q

For examples and discussion of modifiers of Q that are labelled as NP-MSR, see
Measure phrase.

The most common modifiers of Q are the degree modifiers AS, SO, TOO, and in some texts OVER, all of which are tagged ADVR in this context. Other (non-comparative) modifiers (FULL, RIGHT, SWI+DE, THUS, etc.) are tagged ADV. Non-adverbial modifiers include other quantifiers, numbers, BUT (as focus particle), NOT, THAT and THIS.

See Measure phrase for when quantifiers are labelled NP-MSR.

(NODE (QP (ADV euer) (Q either))		← ADV
      (ID CMPURVEY,I,53.2156))

(NODE (QP (ADV eauer) (Q eani))
      (ID CMMARGA,72.277))

(NODE (QP (ADV full) (Q many))
      (ID CMMANDEV,33.814))

(NODE (QP (ADV nyghe) (Q halfe))
      (ID CMMALORY,190.2773))

(NODE (QP (ADV right) (Q noght))
      (ID CMMANDEV,88.2197)

(NODE (QP (ADV swi+de) (Q monie))
      (ID CMMARGA,92.605))

(NODE (QP (ADV wel) (QR mo))
      (ID CMMANDEV,23.569))

(NODE (QP (ADV+ADV well-nyghe) (Q all))
      (ID CMMALORY,643.4040))

(NODE (QP (ADVR to) (Q muche))			← ADVR
      (ID CMAELR3,28.67))

(NODE (QP (ADVR to) (Q litel))
      (ID CMAELR3,31.148))

(NODE (QP (ADVR ouyr) (Q fewe))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,127.2931))

(NODE (QP (ADVR as) (Q much)))
      (ID CMMALORY,16.498))

(NODE (QP (ADVR so) (Q few))
      (ID CMMALORY,21.637))

(NODE (QP (Q many) (QR moo))			← Q
      (ID CMMALORY,10.290))

(NODE (QP (Q much) (QR more))
      (ID CMMALORY,635.3797))

(NODE (QP (Q no) (QR more))
      (ID CMAELR4,6.163))

(NODE (QP (D +tet) (Q lutle))			← other categories
      (ID CMMARGA,79.382))

(NODE (QP (D +tis) (Q lutle))
      (ID CMSAWLES,185.269))

(NODE (QP (FP but) (Q luytel))
      (ID CMEDVERN,256.691))

(NODE (QP (NEG Not) (Q many))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,149.3485))

(NODE (QP (NUM xxxv) (QR moo))
      (ID CMGREGOR,160.760))

(NODE (QP (SUCH suche) (QR moo))
      (ID CMPURVEY,I,47.1985))

More than one modifier is uncommon, but appears in constructions including ALL TOO/SO ... and (N)EVER SO ..., among others. All of these constructions are left flat. Cf. EVER THE BETTER, NEVER A PENNY, which are also given flat structures.

(NODE (QP (Q al) (ADVR to) (Q litel))
      (ID CMCTPARS,319.C1.1331))

(NODE (QP (Q al) (ADVR to) (Q muche))
      (ID CMHALI,133.78))

(NODE (QP (ADV aure) (ADVR to) (Q fele))
      (ID CMVICES1,125.1547))

(NODE (QP (ADV euere) (D the) (QR mo)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (ADJ smale) (NS fracciouns))))
      (ID CMEQUATO,18.3))

(NODE (QP (ADV never) (ADVR so) (Q much))
      (ID CMMALORY,658.4555))

(NODE (QP (ADV neuer) (ADVR so) (Q many))
      (ID CMMANDEV,31.773))

(NODE (QP (ADV neuir) (ADVR sua) (Q litel))
      (ID CMBENRUL,45.1381))

(NODE (QP (FP for+de) (ADVR swo) (Q michel)
          (PP (P a)
              (NP (Q sume) (N wise))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,133.1776))

(NODE (QP (ADV fully) (ADVR as) (Q myche))
      (ID CMWYCSER,382.2810))

(NODE (QP (NEG Noghte) (ADVR so) (Q mekill))
      (ID CMGAYTRY,1.9))

Quantifiers can also be modified by phrases. Multi-word modifiers of quantifiers that are themselves headed by Q are labelled QP.

(NODE (QP (QP (ADV hardly) (Q any)))
          (QR more))

(NODE (QP (QP (ADV very) (Q much)))
          (QR more))


In general, the internal structure of wh- phrases is identical to that of their non-wh counterparts. However, the content of a wh- phrase can generally (except for WPP) be 0 (zero), indicating an empty operator.

In pied-piping contexts, embedded wh- constituents recursively project a wh- feature all the way up to the phrase in Spec(CP). See Pied piping for further discussion and examples.

In general, wh- phrases are not annotated with dash tags indicating information concerning grammatical function, subcategory, and the like. The relevant information is associated with the associated wh- trace. Exceptions to the general rule occur in pied-piping contexts where the wh- phrase is not associated with a trace (as sometimes occurs). In such cases, we add a dash to the wh- phrase's label. See Pied piping for examples.


A WADJP may consist of an empty operator (WADJP 0) (only in comparatives) or an adjective modified by HOW.

(NODE (ADJP (QR more) (ADJ welcom)
            (PP (P than)
                (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)     ← empty operator in comparatives
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                (BED were)
                                (ADVP-TMP (ADV tofore))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,16.490))

(NODE (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ slepy)
            (PP (P as)
                (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                (BEP am)
                                (ADVP-TMP (ADV nowe))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,180.2423))

(NODE (ADJP (Q muche) (ADJR bygger)
            (PP (P than)
                (CP-CMP (WADJP-2 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-2)
                                (ADVP-TMP (ADV ever))
                                (BED was)
                                (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,200.3170))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WADJP-3 (WADV hou) (ADJ seruisable))	← ADJ modified by HOW
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-3)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                      (BED was)
                      (PP (P to)
                          (NP (PRO$ his) (N moder)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,41.440))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WADJP-4 (WADV how) (ADJ swete)
                       (CONJP (CONJ and)
                              (ADJX (ADJ gracious))))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-4)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                      (BED was)
                      (PP (P to)
                          (NP (PRO$ his) (N nursche)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,41.440))

WADJPs that modify nouns are contained within a WNP, as are WADJPs functioning as measure phrases at the clausal level.

                            (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                   (WADJP (WADV hou) (ADJ ioiful))))
                     (N +ting))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                      (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO it))
                      (BEP is)
                      (, ,)
                      (NP-VOC (NS bre+ter))
                      (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                                (VB wonen)
                                (PP (P in)
                                    (NP (ONE on))))))
      (ID CMEARLPS,163.7229))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WADJP (WADV how) (ADJ gret))
                     (N gude))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
                      (HVP has)
                      (DON done)
                      (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
                      (PP (P on)
                          (NP (Q ilk) (ONE a) (N syde)))))
      (ID CMEDTHOR,20.103))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WPP-3 (P wit)
                     (WNP (WADJP (WADV how) (ADJ softe)
                                 (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                        (ADJX (ADJ swete))))
                          (N voys)))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (PP *T*-3)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                      (VBD asoylede)
                      (NP-OB1 (PRO here))))
      (ID CMAELR3,42.459))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WNP-3 (WADJP (WADV how) (ADJ longe)))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-3)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                      (HVP hast)
                      (VBN continued)
                      (PP (P in)
                          (NP (N synne)))))
      (ID CMCTPARS,322.C2.1496))


A WADVP consists either of an empty operator (WADVP 0) or is headed by a wh- adverb.

(NODE (ADVP-LOC (ADV $there)
                (CP-REL (WADVP-4 0)
                        (C $as)
                        (CODE {TEXT:thereas})
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-4)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                (MD wille)
                                (HV have)
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.74))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
              (WADVP-1 (WADV Where))
              (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                      (BEP is)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he)))
              (, ?)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kyng)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,3.65))

              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                      (BED was)
                      (ADJP (ADJ seke))))
      (ID CMMALORY,3.43))

(NODE (ADVP-DIR (CP-FRL (WADVP-2 (WADV whydur) (ADV euere))
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP-DIR *T*-2)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                (VBP walke))))
      (ID CMAELR3,27.39))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (Q alle) (D the) (N cause)
              (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV how))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                              (BED was)
                              (PP (P by)
                                  (NP (NPR$ Merlyns) (N counceil))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,5.134))


A WNP may consist of an empty operator (WNP 0), the wh- pronouns (WPRO) WHAT or WHICH, or a noun modified by the wh- determiners (WD) WHAT or WHICH.

(NODE (NP (D the) (N Astrelabie)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                          (HVP have)
                          (VBN seyn))))
      (ID CMASTRO,662.C1.10))

(NODE (NP (Q all) (NS thinges)
          (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                  (C +tat)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                          (BEP ben)
                          (VAN contayned)
                          (PP (P in)
                              (NP (PRO hem))))))
      (ID CMMANDEV,1.5))

( (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO What))
          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                  (VBP happith)
                  (PP (ADV+P herof))
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-QUE-PRN (IP-SUB (VBP trowist)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO thou)))))
          (. ?))
  (ID CMAELR4,2.22))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO whome))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                      (VBP sekest)))
      (ID CMMALORY,3.52))

(NODE (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WD what) (ADJ poure) (N man))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                      (VBP mete)
                      (PP (P at)
                          (NP (D the) (N posterne) (N yate)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (D the) (N castel)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.149))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WNP-2 (WD what) (N counceill))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                      (BED were)
                      (ADJP (ADJS best))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.172))


WPP is used for
pied piping. There are no empty WPPs in the current corpora. Cases that were treated as empty WPPs in the PPCME1 are now treated as extraction of the wh- nominal and deletion of the stranded preposition.

                         (WNP (WD what) (N Cause)))
                  (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                          (BEP is)
                          (NP-SBJ-2 (D that) (N boye)
                                    (NP-PRN (NPR Arthur)))
                          (VBD made)
                          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-2)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO$ your) (N kynge)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,12.349))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WPP-1 (P frome)
                     (WADVP (WADV whens)))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                      (VBD com)))
      (ID CMMALORY,16.480))

(NODE (CP-CAR (WPP-2 (WADV+P wherfor))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
                      (NP-SBJ (NP (D the) (N quene)
                                  (, ,)
                                  (NP-PRN (ADJ fayre) (NPR Igrayne)))
                              (CONJP *ICH*-3))
                      (, ,)
                      (VBD made)
                      (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorowe))
                      (CONJP-3 (CONJ and)
                               (NP (Q alle) (D the) (NS barons)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.182))

(NODE (CP-REL (WPP-1 (P of)
                     (WNP (D the) (WPRO whiche)))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                      (VBP cometh)
                      (NP-SBJ (N couetise) (CONJ and) (N auarice))))
      (ID CMAELR4,2.31))


A WQP consists of a quantifier modified by HOW. It is always contained within some other wh- phrase, in the same way as a measure QP is always contained within some other phrase.

(NODE (CP-QUE (WADJP-1 (WQP (WADV how) (Q much))
                       (ADJR brighter))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                      (NP-SBJ (D the) (N moon))
                      (VBP looks))))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WQP (WADV how) (Q many)))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                      (HVD had)
                      (VBN undirtake)
                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N queste)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (D the) (NPR Holy) (NPR Grayle))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,637.3844))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WQP (WADV how) (Q moche))
                     (N drede)
                     (CONJP (CONJ and)
                            (NX (N pareyle))))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                      (VBP leueth)
                      (PP (P yn)
                          (NP *T*-1))
                      (ADVP-TMP (ADV alway))))
      (ID CMMIRK,47.1344))

(NODE (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WQP (WADV how) (Q many))
                     (NS degrees))
	      (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO$ thy) (N rule))
                      (BEP is)
                      (VAN areised)
                      (PP (P fro)
                          (NP (D the) (ADJ litel) (N cros)
                              (PP (P upon)
                                  (NP (PRO$ thin) (N est) (N lyne)))))))
      (ID CMASTRO,669.C2.210))

Nonstructural labels


The label CODE is used for
text markup information and similar information such as page numbers. Like punctuation, it is attached as high as possible. See the general introduction for examples and discussion.

Foreign language passages (LATIN, etc.)

Foreign language passages longer than a single word are labelled with the name of the language. This is most commonly LATIN, but occasionally other languages (FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, PORTUGUESE, SPANISH, TIBETAN, TURKISH, WELSH). Although the internal syntax of foreign language passages is treated as a black box, their syntactic function in the English sentence is indicated in the ordinary way. Quotations are labelled

( (LATIN (FW Narracio) (FW valde) (FW deuota) (FW contra) (FW $temptacionem))
  (ID CMAELR3,29.95))

( (FRENCH (FW Le) (FW Feste) (FW de) (FW Sentt) (FW Gorge) (FW a) (FW Wyndesore)
          (. .))
  (ID CMGREGOR,113.405))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +Te) (N boc))
          (VBP sey+t)
          (, :)
          (QTP (LATIN (FW Qui) (FW non) (FW est) (FW temptatus) (, ,)
                      (FW non) (FW est) (FW probatus)))
          (. DASH)
  (ID CMAELR3,27.27))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (NPRS Iewes))
          (VBP clepen)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO $hem))
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (D this) (N manere)))
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (NPR Ebrew)))
                  (, :)
                  (NP-OB1 (HEBREW (FW APPELIUS) (FW AMERRIUS) (CONJ &) (FW DAMASUS))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMANDEV,46.1136))


META is similar to CODE, but is used for material that, while part of the original text, is separate from it - for instance, for the identification of characters in plays, dialogues, and trials, and for stage directions.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (META (NP (CODE <font>) (NPR Ph.) (CODE <$$font>)))
	      (NP-SBJ (PRO Thou))
	      (VBP sayest)
	      (ADVP (ADV well))
	      (. ,))
  (ID BOETHPR,124.7))

( (IP-MAT (META (NP (CODE <font>) (NPR Mis) (NPR Page) (, .) (CODE <$$font>)))
		      (VBI trust)
		      (NP-OB1 (PRO me)))
	  (. ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (BED was)
	  (VAG comming)
	  (PP (P to)
	      (NP (PRO you)))
	  (. :))
  (ID SHAKESP,43.C2.37))

( (META (IP-MAT (CODE <font>)
		(VBP Enter)
		(CODE <$$font>)
		(NP-SBJ (NPR Loveless) (CODE <font>) (CONJ and) (CODE <$$font>) (NPR Amanda)))
	(. .))
  (ID VANBR,32.7))

Quotation phrase (QTP)

The label QTP surrounds non-sentential and foreign language quotations. It is also used to distinguish "mention" from "use". It is like a black box that indicates that the interior structure of a string is not relevant to the clause. Sentence fragments that are direct speech are labelled QTP rather than
FRAG. For full clauses that are direct speech, see Direct speech.

( (QTP (INTJP (INTJ loo)
              (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV wher))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (NPR Ihesus))
                              (VBP come+t)))
              (' ')
              (. DASH)))
  (ID CMAELR3,32.171))

( (QTP (' ')
       (INTJ A)
       (, ,)
       (NP-VOC (NPR Ihesu))
       (, ,)
       (NP (PRO$ +ty) (ADJ wundurful) (N pyte))
       (, ,)
       (NP (PRO$ +ty) (N mercy)
           (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                   (C +tat)
                   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                           (MD may)
                           (NEG not)
                           (BE be)
                           (VAN told))))
       (. !))
  (ID CMAELR3,43.491))

( (QTP (' ')
       (NP-VOC (N Syr))
       (, ,)
       (' ')
       (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                   (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay)))
       (, ,)
       (' ')
       (PP (P by)
           (NP (PRO$ my) (N broder)
               (NP-PRN (NPR Arthur))))
       (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.240))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +Te) (N apostel))
          (VBP sei+t)
          (, :)
          (QTP (LATIN (FW Virgo) (FW prudens) (FW cogitat) (FW que)
                      (FW domini) (FW sunt) (, ,) (FW etcetera)))
          (. DASH))
  (ID CMAELR3,26.6))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (NPR hester)
                  (PP (P on)
                      (NP (NPR ebreu))))
          (NP-SBJ-RSP (D +tt))
          (BEP is)
          (QTP (VAN ihud))      ← hidden
          (PP (P an)
              (NP (NPR englisch)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.115.1451))

  "Hester in Heberew, that is 'hidden' in English."

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +tis) (N nome)
                  (NP-PRN (NPR assuer)))
          (VBP spele+d)
          (QTP (ADJ eadi))      ← blessed
          (PP-PRN (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BEP is)
                                  (VAN iseid)
                                  (ADVP-TMP (ADV ear)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.130.1716))

(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (QTP (ADVP (ADVR to) (ADV earliche)))
                (NP-SBJ (D +te) (ONE an))
                (VBP hatte))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.152.2061))

      "The one is called 'too early'."

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N Drede))
          (VBP zay+t)
          (, .)
          (' ')
          (QTP (P Vram)
               (NP (NPR helle)))
          (. .)
          (' '))
  (ID CMAYENBI,264.2531))

Reference (REF)

The label REF is used to indicate the source or reference for a statement when it occurs without any explicit connection to the statement itself. The reference is separated from the statement when possible.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (NPR appostle))
          (NP-OB1 (D this))
          (VBP declareth)
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (D the) (NPRS Hebreos)))
          (REF (D the) (NUM .ix.) (N chapytre))
          (. .))

              (BEP is)
              (VAN declaryd)
              (REF (NP (D the) (ADJ fyrste) (N boke)
                       (PP (P of)
                           (NP (NPR Esdre))))
                   (NP (D the)
                       (ADJP (ADJ fyrste) (CONJ &) (ADJ syxte))
                       (NS chapytours))))
      (ID CMFITZJA,A6R.84))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR Willelmus) (NPR de) (NPR Regibus))
          (, ,)
          (REF (LATIN (FW libro) (FW 2=o=)))
          (, ,)
          (VBP sei+t)
          (CP-THT (C +tat)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N kyng))
                          (BED was)
                          (PP (P at)
                              (NP (D +te) (N feste)
                                  (PP (P at)
                                      (NP (NPR Pulkercherche)))))
                          (PP (P in)
                              (NP (D a)
				  (NP-POS (NPR seynt) (NPR$ Austyns))
                                  (NPR day))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,443.3252))

(NODE (PP-PRN (P as)
              (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
	              (C 0)
    		      (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
		              (NP-SBJ (NPR Gregory))
		              (VBP seith)
		              (PP (P in)
		                  (NP (NUM ij.) (N bok)
		                      (PP (P of)
		                          (NP (NS Pastrals)))
	                              (REF (NP (NUM v.) (N c=o=.))))))_))
       (ID CMPURVEY,I,33.1610))

( (REF (NP (NPR Seint) (NPR Iohan)
           (NP-PRN (D +te) (N ewangeliste)))
       (, .)
       (PP (P in)
           (NP (D +te) (NPR apocalipse)))
       (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.129.1679))

( (REF (LATIN (FW Beda) (, ,) (FW libro) (FW 3=o=) (, ,) (FW capitulo) (FW 6=o=))
       (. .))

(NODE (REF (LATIN (FW Ecclesiastes) (FW 9=no=))
      (ID CMROYAL,258.327))