|BAG||BE, present participle|
|BED||BE, past (including past subjunctive)|
|BEN||BE, perfect participle|
|BEP||BE, present (including present subjunctive)|
|DAG||DO, present participle|
|DAN||DO, passive participle (verbal or adjectival)|
|DOD||DO, past (including past subjunctive)|
|DON||DO, perfect participle|
|DOP||DO, present (including present subjunctive)|
|HAG||HAVE, present participle|
|HAN||HAVE, passive participle (verbal or adjectival)|
|HVD||HAVE, past (including past subjunctive)|
|HVN||HAVE, perfect participle|
|HVP||HAVE, present (including present subjunctive)|
|MD0||modal verb, untensed|
|TO||infinitival TO, AT, and TIL|
|VAN||passive participle (verbal or adjectival)|
|VB||infinitive, verbs other than BE, DO, HV|
|VBD||past (including past subjunctive)|
|VBP||present (including present subjunctive)|
|Where ambiguous in infinitival contexts between FOR and P, FOR is tagged FOR.|
it_PRO is_BEP difficult_ADJ for_FOR me_PRO to_TO complete_VB the_D assignment_N it_PRO is_BEP more_QR convenient_ADJ for_P me_PRO for_FOR you_PRO to_TO do_DO the_D work_N for_P me_PRO it_PRO is_BEP difficult_ADJ to_TO complete_VB the_D assignment_N
TO is used to tag any form of the infinitive marker (TO as well as the northern forms AT, TIL).
and_CONJ desyred_VBD to_TO have_HV lyen_VBN by_P her_PRO +te_D riht_ADJ +tidir_ADV at_TO cume_VB +tai_PRO sal_MD haue_HV ,_. Gyf_VBI +tien_PRO$ entent_N til_TO understand_VB +tis_D wrytyng_N
When TO cliticizes to FOR or to a verb, the combination receives a complex POS tag (FOR+TO, TO+HV, TO+VB).
and_CONJ fondede_VBD forto_FOR+TO slee_VB Iustinianus_NPR ._. &_CONJ +te_D eadie_ADJ katerine_NPR bigon_VBD forte_FOR+TO seggen_VB ._. taue_TO+HV bounde_VBN them_PRO up_RP in_P barrelles_NS taccept_TO+VB it_PRO as_P his_PRO$ due_N
CAN, DARE, MAY, MOWE, MUST, NEED, SHALL, THARF, UTEN, WILL
Modals are tagged MD when there is a reading available in which a main verb is elided. If such a reading is unavailable, then the modal is tagged as a form of VB.
Modal or verb? DARE and NEED are tagged as modals or verbs depending on their syntactic context. When they take infinitival TO complements or occur with DO support, they are tagged as verbs. Otherwise, they are tagged as modals.therefore_ADV+P ye_PRO may_MD sey_VB what_WPRO ye_PRO woll_MD ,_. therefore_ADV+P aske_VBI what_WPRO ye_PRO woll_VBP els_ADV ,_, '_' I_PRO woll_VBP well_ADV ,_, '_' seyde_VBD Balan_NPR ,_, '_' that_C ye_PRO so_ADV do_DOP ;_;
I dared/VBD to say it . I dared/MD not say it . I do not dare/VB (to) say it . I dare/MD not say it . They need/VBP to eat now . They needed/MD not come . They do not need/VB to come . They need/MD not come .
Modals as main verbs.
Untensed modal verbs, which are attested into Modern English
(generally CAN, MOWE), are tagged MD0.
supposyng_VAG +tat_C he_PRO schuld_MD cun_MD0 best_ADVS rede_VB +te_D
Dowtyr_N ,_, whan_P +tu_PRO art_BEP in_P Heuyn_NPR ,_, +tu_PRO xalt_MD
mown_MD0 askyn_VB what_WPRO +tu_PRO wylt_MD ,_.
They_PRO might_MD could_MD0 do_DO that_PRO ._.
Adjectival vs. verbal participles.
We do not distinguish between verbal and adjectival uses of present and
past participles, tagging both uses as VAG and VAN,
|Some adjectival uses of participles, notably passive participles, are likely to be mistagged as ADJ.|
for_CONJ he_PRO ys_BEP the_D mervaylyste_ADJS knyght_N that_C ys_BEP now_ADV lyvynge_VAG ._. but_CONJ traveillynge_VAG men_NS are_BEP ofte_ADV wery_ADJ the_D blessid_VAN body_N of_P oure_PRO$ Lord_NPR Jesu_NPR Cryst_NPR Nero_NPR and_CONJ his_PRO$ peple_NS were_BED destroyed_VAN
However, nominal uses of the present participle are tagged as N.
Present participle for infinitive. In some early texts (notably the Trinity Homilies), a present participle form is commonly used for the infinitive. In such cases the word is tagged by function (VB) rather than by form.I_PRO was_BED but_FP late_ADJ at_P a_D justynge_N and_CONJ she_PRO graunted_VBD hem_PRO with_P wepynge_N it_PRO shold_MD be_BE done_DAN rychely_ADV
Alse_P ge_PRO hauen_HVP giwer_PRO$ lichame_N don_DON to_TO hersumiende_VB fule_ADJ lustes_NS ;_, and_CONJ unriht_ADJ ,_, alse_ALSO do+d_DOI giwer_PRO$ lichame_N he+denfor+d_ADV to_TO hersumiende_VB clennesse_N ._, and_CONJ rihtwisnesse_N ._, and_CONJ holinesse_N ._,
if_P you_PRO be_BEP there_ADV if_P you_PRO were_BED there_ADV were_BED you_PRO to_TO come_VB if_P they_PRO played_VBD with_P you_PRO