- Include a brief
**introduction**that states which questions you investigated and why. There's no need for a general description of the study methodology or of Philadelphia short-a; you can assume that I'm familiar with this. - Break your main text up into
**sections**where appropriate. - Incorporate
**tables and graphs**in the text itself, instead of referring to a separate file or appendix. Make sure you report n's along with your frequencies (a good rule of thumb, so that anyone who wants to check your results can recover all the information they need). - Use
**chi-square and t-tests**if appropriate to determine the likelihood that your observations were due to chance. - You don't need to describe all the steps you went through in Excel to arrive at your results, unless you're particularly worried that you might have made an error.
- Make a note of any shortcomings in the data that prevented you from pursuing a particular question further, but don't spend too long dwelling on overall weaknesses (again, you can assume that I'm already aware of them).
- Include a
**conclusion**that briefly summarizes your results and their implications, pointing out areas where further investigation would be useful.

- your appropriate selection of questions to investigate (are they suitable for this particular data set, considering the amount of data we have and the particular methods we used? Do you understand the typical Philadelphia short-a pattern and recognize potential areas of variation and change?)
- your thoughtfulness in organizing and analyzing the data (making necessary corrections, adding/collapsing categories, subsorting to isolate linguistic/demographic categories)
- your accurate and appropriate use of the analytical tools covered in class (calculating and comparing frequencies, applying statistical tests where appropriate to measure significance)
- the clarity of your written presentation - including your appropriate use of tables and graphs
- your contributions to the data set itself

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