LING001 Midterm 2007 --
answer sheet

1. entroubulating

en-    prefix, derivational, bound

trouble  stem, free

-ate   suffix, derivational, bound

-ing    suffix, inflectional, bound

(Note that there is a blending effect of a pseudo-ending -ulate from words like "encapsulate", as seen in "de+big+ulate" -- so give credit for troub+ulate, and an extra point for getting both.)

2. ɛnˈtrʌb.jəˌleɪ.ɾɪŋ

3. The -ate suffix that makes verbs normally applies to a class of (originally first-conjugation) latinate stems that "trouble" is not a member of: contempl+ate, acceler+ate, educ+ate, etc. (They don't need to know that this was originally based on a reinterpretation of the past participle in -atus -- but they should see that most -ate verbs are based on a class of stems that "trouble" is not a member of.)

However, there are some precedents for extending this pattern -- e.g. "assassinate".

Note that there's no real problem with the en- part, e.g. "enthrone". The OED gives many neologisms like enangle, encouch, enkraal, encup, enkennel, enshadow, etc.

4.  (run up) the score   vs.  run (up the stairs)

You generally can't break up a verb-particle idiom in a pseudocleft, e.g.

what he threw out was a treasure.
*what he threw was out a treasure.


During the halt the moon had risen, and when at one o'clock the advance was resumed, the white beams revealed a wider prospect and, glinting on the fixed bayonets, crowned the squares with a sinister glitter. For three hours the army toiled onwards at the same slow and interrupted crawl. Strict silence was now enforced, and all smoking was forbidden. The cavalry, the Camel Corps, and the five batteries had overtaken the infantry, so that the whole attacking force was concentrated. Meanwhile the Dervishes slept.

At three o'clock the glare of fires became visible to the south, and, thus arrived before the Dervish position, the squares, with the exception of the reserve brigade, were unlocked, and the whole force, assuming formation of attack, now advanced in one long line through the scattered bush and scrub, presently to emerge upon a large plateau which overlooked Mahmud's zeriba from a distance of about 900 yards.

(Note that there are some past participles used as modifiers (e.g. "interrupted crawl") that might be considered as passives. Don't make off for underlining them; give extra credit to someone who notes the difference.)

6. (d)

7. (e)

8. (d)

9. (c)

10. (d)

11. (f)

12. Enlarges vowel space; increases probability of choking to death or getting infectious material in the lungs.

13. Velum is lowered, coupling the nasal cavity and sinuses into the vocal tract.

14. Peirce/Semiotics, Grice/implicature, Frege/predicate calculus, Labov/language in society, Bell/phonetic notation

15. Are we being told about some donors who are "dead for the first time"? Or, more prosaically, is this the first time that living donors outnumber the dead ones?

16. a) (living donors outnumbered those who are dead) (for the first time)

     b) (living donors outnumbered (those who are dead (for the first time))

17. -

18. -

19. (c)

20. In primates, the main function of intelligence is to facilitate social competition.