Traditional grammatical terminology

Glossary of English grammar terms.

Rodby, Judith, and W. Ross Winterowd. 2005.
The uses of grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Traditional grammatical terminology.
Written for a class in the history of English at the University of Toronto. Contains a wealth of information and a useful index.

Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1995.
Understanding English grammar: A linguistic approach. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

General literature and reference works

Campbell, Jeremy. 1982.
Grammatical man: Information, entropy, language, and life. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Crystal, David. 1996, 2nd edition.
Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pinker, Steven. 1994.
The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York: Morrow.

Technical literature and sources

Aoun, Joseph, Norbert Hornstein, and Dominique Sportiche. 1982.
Some aspects of wide scope quantification. Journal of Linguistic Research 1:69-95.

Barnes, Michael. 1992.
Faroese syntax - achievements, goals and problems. In J. Louis-Jensen and J.H. Poulsen, eds., The Nordic languages and modern linguistics 7, 17-27. Tórshavn.

Bayer, Josef. 1983-4.
Comp in Bavarian syntax. The Linguistic Review 3:209-274.

Berko, Jean. 1958.
The child's learning of English morphology. Word 14:150-177.

Bernstein, Judy. 1993.
Topics in the syntax of nominal structure across Romance. Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York.

Besten, Hans den. 1989.
Studies in West Germanic syntax. Ph.D. thesis, Catholic University of Brabant. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Bever, Thomas G., and D. Terrence Langendoen. 1971.
A dynamic model of the evolution of language. Linguistic Inquiry 2:433-463.

Borsley, Robert, and Ian Roberts. 1996.
The syntax of the Celtic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pres.

Boškovič, Željko. 1995.
Superiority effects with multiple wh- fronting in Serbo-Croatian. Ms., University of Connecticut.

Brown, Roger. 1973.
A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burzio, Luigi. 1986.
Italian syntax: A Government-Binding approach. (Studies in natural language and linguistic theory.) Dordrecht: Reidel.

Chomsky, Noam. 1955.
The logical structure of linguistic theory. Manuscript. Published in 1975 by Plenum Press, New York.

Chomsky, Noam. 1965.
Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 1970.
Remarks on nominalization. In Roderick Jacobs and Peter Rosenbaum, eds., Readings in English transformational grammar, 184-221. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell.

Chomsky, Noam. 1971.
Problems of knowledge and freedom. New York: Pantheon.

Chomsky, Noam. 1973.
Conditions on transformations. In Stephen Anderson and Paul Kiparsky, eds., A Festschrift for Morris Halle, **-** New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Chomsky, Noam. 1977.
On wh-movement. In Peter Culicover, Thomas Wasow, and Adrian Akmajian, eds., Formal syntax, 71-132. New York: Academic.

Chomsky, Noam. 1981.
Lectures in Government and Binding. (Studies in generative grammar 9.) Dordrecht: Foris.

Chomsky, Noam. 1986.
Knowledge of language. New York: Praeger.

Chomsky, Noam. 1993.
A minimalist program for linguistic theory. In Kenneth Hale and Samuel Keyser, eds., The view from Building 20, 1-52. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam. 1995.
The Minimalist Program. (Current studies in linguistics 28.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, Noam, and George A. Miller. 1963.
Introduction to the formal analysis of natural languages. In R. Duncan Luce, Robert R. Bush, and Eugene Galanter, eds., Handbook of mathematical psychology, vol. 2, 269-321. New York: Wiley.

Christian, Donna, and Walt Wolfram. 1976.
Appalachian speech. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Corver, Norbert. 1990.
The syntax of left branch extractions. Doctoral dissertation, University of Brabant.

Crain, Stephen, and Mineharu Nakayama. 1987.
Structure dependence in children's language. Language 62:522-543.

Crain, Stephen, and Rosalind Thornton. 1998.
Investigations in Universal Grammar: a guide to experiments on the acquisition of syntax and semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Available online at Van Pelt.

Doherty, Cathol. 1993.
The syntax of subject contact relatives. Ms., University of California at Santa Cruz.

Ecay, Aaron. 2010.
On the graduated evolution of do-support in English. Presented at Penn Linguistics Colloquium 34.

Emonds, Joseph. 1978.
The verbal complex V'-V in French. Linguistic inquiry 9:151-175.

Engdahl, Elisabet. 2006.
Information packaging in questions. In O. Bonami and P. Cabredo Hofherr, eds., Empirical issues in syntax and semantics 6, 93-111.

Falk, Cecelia. 1993.
Non-referential subjects in the history of Swedish. Doctoral disseration, University of Lund.

Fitch, W. Tecumseh, Hauser, Marc D., and Chomsky, Noam. 2005.
The evolution of the language faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition 97: 179-210.

Frisch, Stefan. 1997.
The change in negation in Middle English: A NEGP licensing account. Lingua 101:21-64.

Green, Georgia. 1974.
Semantics and syntactic regularity. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Green, Lisa. 1998.
Aspect and predicate phrases in African-American Vernacular English. In Salikoko Mufwene, John Rickford, Guy Bailey, and John Baugh, eds., African-American English. Structure, history and use, 37-68. London: Routledge.

Gumperz, John J., and Robert Wilson. 1971.
Convergence and creolization: A case from the Indo-Aryan/Dravidian border in India. In Dell Hymes, ed., Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 151-167.

Harley, Heidi. 2002.
Possession and the double object construction. Linguistic Variation Yearbook 2:31-70.

Hauser, Marc D., Chomsky, Noam, and W. Tecumseh Fitch. 2002.
The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 298, 22 November 2002: 1569-1579.

Heycock, Caroline, Antonella Sorace, and Zakaris Svabo Hansen. 2010.
V-to-I and V2 in subordinate clauses: An investigation of Faroese in relation to Icelandic and Danish. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 13:61-97.

Heycock, Caroline, Antonella Sorace, Zakaris Svabo Hansen, Sten Vikner, and Frances Wilson. 2011.
Residual V-to-I in Faroese and its lack in Danish: Detecting the final stages of a syntactic change. Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 87:137-165.

Hellan, Lars. 1988.
Anaphora in Norwegian and the theory of grammar. (Studies in generative grammar 32.) Dordrecht: Foris.

Henry, Alison. 1995.
Belfast English and standard English: Dialect variation and parameter setting. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hiaasen, Carl. 1995.
Stormy weather. New York: Warner.

Holmberg, Anders, and Christer Platzack. 1995.
The role of inflection in Scandinavian syntax. New York: Oxford University Press.

Huang, C.-T. James. 1982.
Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.

Jackendoff, Ray. 1990.
On Larson's treatment of the double object construction. Linguistic Inquiry 21, 427-456.

Jerome, Jerome K. 1889.
Three men in a boat. Reprinted 2001. New York: Tom Doherty Associates.

Joshi, Aravind, L. Levy, and M. Takahashi. 1975.
Tree-adjunct grammars. Journal of the computer and system sciences 10, 136-163.

Kayne, Richard. 1984.
Connectedness and binary branching. Dordrecht: Foris.

Kayne, Richard. 1989.
Notes on English agreement. CIEFL Bulletin 1:40-67.

Kayne, Richard. 1994.
The antisymmetry of syntax. (Linguistic Inquiry monograph 25.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kroch, Anthony. 1989.
Reflexes of grammar in patterns of language change. Language variation and change 1:199-244.

Kroch, Anthony. 1994.
Morphosyntactic variation. In K. Beals, ed., Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society, vol. 2, 180-201. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Kroch, Anthony, and Cathy Small. 1978.
Grammatical ideology and its effect on speech. In David Sankoff, ed., Linguistic variation. Models and methods, 45-55. New York: Academic Press.

Kroch, Anthony, and Ann Taylor. 1997.
Verb movement in Old and Middle English: Dialect variation and language contact. In Ans van Kemenade and Nigel Vincent, eds., Parameters of morphosyntactic change, 297-325. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kroch, Anthony, and Ann Taylor. 2000a.
The Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English, 2nd edition.

Kroch, Anthony, and Ann Taylor. 2000b.
Verb-object order in early Middle English. In Susan Pintzuk, George Tsoulas, and Anthony Warner, eds., Diachronic syntax: Models and mechanisms, 132-163. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kroch, Anthony, Ann Taylor, and Donald Ringe. 2000.
The Middle English verb-second constraint: A case study in language contact and language change. In Susan Herring et al., eds., Textual parameters in older languages, 353-391. Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Langacker, Ronald. 1969.
Pronominalization and the chain of command. In David Reibel and Sanford Schane, eds., Modern studies in English: Readings in transformational grammar, 160-200. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Larson, Richard. 1988.
On the double object construction. Linguistic Inquiry 19, 335-391.

Larson, Richard. 1990.
Double objects revisited: reply to Jackendoff. Linguistic Inquiry 21, 589-632.

Lasnik, Howard, and Mamoru Saito. 1984.
On the nature of proper government. Linguistic Inquiry 15:235-289.

Lees, Robert B. 1960.
The grammar of English nominalizations. International Journal of American Linguistics 26, no. 3, pt. 2. Bloomington, IN.

Lutz, Uli, Gereon Müller, and Arnim von Stechow, eds. Wh- scope marking. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Marantz, Alec. 1984.
On the nature of grammatical relations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marcus, Gary, Steven Pinker, Michael Ullman, Michelle Hollander, T. John Rosen, and Fei Xu. 1992.
Overregularization in langauge acquisition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, vol. 57, no. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

McDaniel, Dana. 1989.
Partial and multiple wh- movement. Natural language and linguistic theory 7: 565-604.

Miller, George A., and Noam Chomsky. 1963.
Finitary models of language users. In R. Duncan Luce, Robert R. Bush, and Eugene Galanter, eds., Handbook of mathematical psychology, vol. 2, 419-491. New York: Wiley.

Mossé, Fernand. 1968.
A handbook of Middle English. Translated by James A. Walker. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Oehrle, Richard. 1976.
The grammatical status of the English dative alternation. Doctoral dissertation, M.I.T.

Perlmutter, David. 1971.
Deep and surface structure constraints in syntax. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Pintzuk, Susan. 1991.
Phrase structures in competition: Variation and change in Old English word order. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Pintzuk, Susan. 1993.
The distribution and syntax of Old English adverbs. Groninger Arbeiten zur germanistischen Linguistik 36:152-167.

Platzack, Christer. 1988.
The emergence of a word order difference in Scandinavian subordinate clauses. McGill Working Papers in Linguistics: Special Issue on Comparative Germanic Syntax, 215-238.

Richards, Norvin. 2001.
Movement in language. Interactions and architectures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rizzi. Luigi. 1990.
Relativized minimality. (Linguistic Inquiry monograph 16.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Roberts, Ian. 1993.
Verbs and diachronic syntax. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Rohrbacher, Bernhard. 1993.
The Germanic languages and the full paradigm: A theory of V to I raising. Doctoral disseration, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Ross, John Robert. 1967.
Constraints on variables in syntax. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.

Rudin, Catherine. 1988.
On multiple questions and multiple wh- fronting. Natural language and linguistic theory 6: 445-501.

Sobin, Nicholas. 1987.
The variable status of Comp-trace phenomena. Natural language and linguistic theory 5:33-60.

Sigurðsson, Halldór. 1991.
Icelandic Case-marked PRO and the licensing of lexical arguments. Natural language and linguistic theory 9:327-363.

Stowell, Tim. 1983.
Subjects across categories. Linguistic review 2:285-312.

Sutherland, Flora. 2000.
Do we have or have got? Have/have got alternation in British and American English. Masters' thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Talmy, Leonard. 1975.
Semantics and syntax of motion. In J.P. Kimball, ed., Syntax and semantics 4. 181-238. New York: Academic Press.

Thornton, Rosalind. 1995.
Referentiality and WH-movement in child English: Juvenile D-linkuency. Language acquisition 4, 139-175.

Vallduví, Enric. 1990.
The informational component. Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Vikner, Sten. 1995.
Verb movement and expletive subjects in the Germanic languages. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wagner, Jane. 1986.
The search for signs of intelligent life in the universe. New York: Harper & Row.

Zaenen, Annie, Joan Maling, and Höskuldur Thraínsson. 1985.
Case and grammatical functions: The Icelandic passive. Natural language and linguistic theory 3:441-483.

Other syntax textbooks

Borsley, Robert. 1999, 2nd edition.
Syntactic theory: A unified approach. London and New York: Arnold.

Cook, Vivian James, and Mark Newson. 1996, 2nd edition.
Chomsky's Universal Grammar: An introduction. Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Recommended. The chapter on Minimalism is especially useful, and there is ample discussion of language acquisition issues.

Cowper, Elizabeth. 1992.
A concise introduction to syntactic theory: The Government-Binding approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Culicover, Peter. 1997.
Principles and Parameters: An introduction to syntactic theory. (Oxford books in linguistics.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haegeman, Liliane. 1994, 2nd edition.
Introduction to Government & Binding theory. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Napoli, Donna Jo. 1993.
Syntax: Theory and problems. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Radford, Andrew. 1988.
Transformational syntax: A first course. (Cambridge textbooks in linguistics.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Recommended as an introduction to syntactic argumentation. The style can be grating.

Radford, Andrew. 1997.
Syntactic theory and the structure of English: A minimalist approach. (Cambridge textbooks in linguistics.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.