Treatment of individual words


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ


AINS When it means EARLIER, AINS is tagged ADVR.

When it means RATHER (common in contrastive environments), AINS is tagged as simple ADV.

When construed with a QUE clause, AINS is treated as part of the subordinate clause. When AINS and QUE are discontinuous, AINS is annotated as having undergone leftward movement, as is our default.

(CP-ADV (ADV ains)
        (CONJS que)
	(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D le) (NCS coq))
  	        (VJ chantast)))

(IP-MAT (ADVP-1 (ADV ains))
         ...
        (CP-ADV (ADVP *ICH*-1)
                (CONJS que)
	        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D le) (NCS cooq))
  	                (VJ chantast))))

AINSI

Clausal complements of AINSI are treated as
comparative clauses headed by the subordinating conjunction QUE. Any necessary antecedents of traces are taken to be empty operators.
(ADVP (ADV ainxin)
      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
      	      (CONJS que)
	      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D une) (NCS pucelle))
		      (MDJ doit)
		      (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-1)
		      	      (VX faire)))))

AS

AS can be:

ASSEZ

See

AVOIR NOM

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Il))
          (VJ avoit)
          (NP-ACC (NCS nom))
          (NP-SPR (NPRS Jean))))

BEAUCOUP

See

BIEN

In connection with FAIRE, BIEN and MAL can be tagged either as adverbs (ADV) or as nouns (NCS), depending on the meaning. The distinction is that between acting correctly or wisely (DO WELL) versus doing good deeds (DO GOOD). Both preverbal and postverbal BIEN and MAL are possible with either meaning. In doubtful cases, the default is ADV.

CE

For the moment, impersonal CE is tagged as PRO (rather than as PROIMP). Associates of impersonal CE are coindexed with it in the same way that they are coindexed with impersonal IL.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=1 (PRO c'))
          (VJ est)
	  (NP-PRD (ADJ grant)
		  (NCS follie))
          (PP-1 (P d')
		(IP-INF (CL-PP (CL en))
		        (VX endurer)
		        (NP-ACC (Q tant))))
          (PONFP .)))

CHACUN

See
Floated quantifiers.

CHER

(IP-INF (VX aimer / couter / vendre)
        (ADVP (ADV cher)))

(IP-INF (VX avoir / tenir)
        (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ ...)
                (ADJP-PRD (ADJ cher))))

COMBIEN

COMBIEN is tagged WQ (rather than WPRO) on the grounds that it licenses partitive NPs.

COMME

The treatment of COMME is similar to that of
QUE. Possible tags are CONJS, P, WADV.

DE

When used instead of
QUE in comparatives, the complement of DE is treated as a simple phrase rather than an elided clause.
(ADJP (QR plus)
      (ADJ grand)
      (PP (P de)
          (NP (PRO moi))))

DEMOURER ... QUE

The QUE clause associated with DEMOURER is treated as a CP-ADV.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *proimp*)
          (VJ demora)
          (ADVP (ADV gueres))
          (NP-MSR (DF de) (NCS temps))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV apres))
          (CP-ADV (CONJS que / quant )
                  (IP-SUB ...))))

DONT

When DONT corresponds to DE CE QUE, the implicit structure is indicated explicitly as follows:
(CP-DEG (CONJS qu')
	(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
		(VJ loue)
		(NP-ACC (NPRS Dieu))
		(PP (P en)
		    (NP (DZ son) (NCS courage)))
	    	(PP (P *) 
		    (NP (NCS *)
			(CP-THT (CONJS dont)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
					(CL-NP-DTV (CL lui))
					(VJ donna)
					(NP-ACC (D ung)
						(ADJP (ADV si) (ADJ riche))
						(NCS joyau))))))))

DORENAVANT

DORENAVANT projects an ordinary ADVP (rather than ADVP-TMP).

EN

When construed with the subject, EN is dominated by NP-SBJ. Otherwise, it is treated as a daughter of IP, on a par with other clitics.

ENVIRON

See
Numbers.

ES

ES can be:

ET

ET can be:

Concessive or focus-like functions of ET are generally treated as instances of gapping.

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO Elle))
                    (CL-NP-ACC (CL l'))
                    (AJ a)
                    (VPP fait))
          (CONJP (CONJO et)
                 (IP-MAT=1 (ADVP (ADV bien))))
          (PONFP .)))

FAIRE BIEN / MAL

Voir
BIEN.

FAIRE QUE FOL / PREU / SAGE

In this locution, QUE corresponds to
COMME and is treated as the CONJS head of an elided adverbial clause.
(IP-INF (VX faire)
        (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
	        (CONJS que)
	        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
		        (NP-SBJ (NCS fol / preu / sage)))))

FORCE

See
NP-COM.

FORS

When used in a locative or directional sense, tagged as adverb (ADV) projecting a locative or directional adverb phrase (ADVP-LOC, ADVP-DIR). Otherwise, tagged as a preposition (P). When introducing the complement of FORS, QUE is tagged either as a focus particle (FP) or (more rarely) as a complementizer (CONJS).

(ADVP-DIR (ADV fors)
          (PP (P de)
              (NP (D la) (NCS maison))))

(PP (P fors)
    (NP (PRO moi)))

(PP (P fors)
    (NP (FP que/seulement)
        (PRO moi)))

(PP (P fors)
    (PP (P de)
        (NP (PRO moi))))

(PP (P fors)
    (PP (FP que/seulement)
        (P de)
        (NP (PRO moi))))

(PP (P fors)
    (CP-THT (CONJS que)
            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO j'))
                    (VJ ai)
                    (NP-ACC (NCS faim)))))

In cases like the following, an empty nominal head is added for clarity.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Je))
          (NEG n')
          (VJ aime)
          (NP-ACC (NCS *)
                  (PP (P fors)
                      (NP (FP que)
                          (PRO toi))))))

IL (Y) A

In older stages of French, Y can be missing. The postverbal noun phrase is treated as the associate of the impersonal subject (rather than as a direct object).

When IL Y A introduces temporal expressions, it is integrated into the matrix structure as follows:

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO elle))
          (EJ est)
          (VPP venue)
          (ADVP-TMP (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ-1 (PROIMP il))
                                (PP (CL y))
                                (VJ a)
				(NP-1 (ADJNUM cinq) (NCPL ans))))))
Note the resumptive pronoun in cases like the following:
(NP (D une) (NCS robe)
    (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO qu'))
            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (PROIMP il))
                    (CL-PP (CL y))
                    (VJ a)
              	    (NP-2 (ADJNUM cinq) (NCPL ans))
		    (CP-CLF (WNP-3 0)
		    	    (CONJS qu')
		            (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-3)
			            (NP-SBJ (PRO i@))
			            (CL-NP-ACC-RSP-1 (CL @l))
				    (VJ a))))))
IL Y A licenses
clefts (CP-CLF).

JA

Does it get a dash tag (ADVP-TMP)?

JAMAIS

Joined or split, depending on spelling. Cf. DESORMAIS.

JUSQUE À

See
Numbers.

LE

When serving as a pro-predicate (whether pro-ADJP or pro-NP), LE heads an
NP-PRD.
( (IP-MAT (CONJO mais)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO elle))
          (NEG ne)
          (CL-NP-PRD (CL l'))
          (VJ est)
          (ADVNEG (ADV pas))))

LORS

When does it head an ADVP-TMP, and when a plain ADVP?

MAL

Voir aussi

METIER

METIER occurs in several impersonal constructions.

N'AVOIR QUE

See also
QUE.

There are two distinct N'AVOIR QUE constructions. When the force of the clause containing AVOIR is negative, QUE introduces a free relative clause and is tagged as a wh- pronoun (WPRO).

( (IP-MAT (CONJO Et)
	  (PP (P par)
	      (NP (DZ ma) (NCS foy)))
          (PON ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO vous))
	  (NEG ne)
	  (VJ aviés)
	  (NP-ACC (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-1)
				  (VX faire)
				  (PP (P de)
				      (IP-INF (VX estre)
					      (PP (P en)
						  (NP (NCS mesnage))))))))
          (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Je))
          (VJ voy)
	  (ADVP (ADV bien))
	  (CP-THT (CONJS que)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO nous))
		          (NEG ne)
			  (VJ avons)
		          (NP-ACC (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
					  (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-1)
					          (VX faire)
						  (PP (P de)
						      (IP-INF (VX convier)
							      (NP-ACC (NCPL gens)))))))))
          (PONFP .)))
When the force of the clause containing AVOIR is positive, QUE is tagged as a focus particle (FP).
( (IP-MAT (CONJO et)
	  (NP-SBJ=1 *proimp*)
	  (NEG n')
	  (CL-PP (CL y))
	  (VJ a)
	  (IP-INF-1 (FP que)
		    (VX faire))
          (PONFP ,)))

( (IP-MAT (CONJO car)
	  (NP-SBJ (D une) (NCS femme))
	  (NEG n')
	  (VJ a)
	  (IP-INF (FP que)
		  (VX faire)
		  (PP (P de)
		      (IP-INF (VX mectre)
			      (NP-ACC (NCS paine))
			      (PP (P a)
				  (IP-INF (VX aquerre)
					  (NP-ACC (D la)
						  (NCS grace)
						  (PP (P de)
						      (NP (DZ son) (NCS mari)))))))))))

NE RESTRICTIF

NE RESTRICTIF is treated as a constituent of the associated QUE phrase.
( (IP-MAT (CONJO ne)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (NEG ne)
          (CL-NP-RFL (CL se))
          (VJ hobe)
          (NP-MSR (NEG ne)
                  (FP que)
                  (D une) (NCS pierre))
          (PONFP .)))

PAR ESPECIAL

Examples with PAR ESPECIAL are treated as instances of gapping rather than as parenthetical constructions.

PARAVANT

One word or two?

PEU (PO, POI)

Can license CP recursion.
(ADJP (ADV si) (ADJ esbahi)
      (CP-DEG (CONJS que)
              (CP-DEG (PP-1 (P a)
                            (NP (Q peu)))
                      (CONJS qu')
                      (IP-SUB (PP *ICH*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
                              (VJ cheu)
                              (PP (P par)
                                  (NP (NCS terre)))))))

Without the introductory QUE, A / PAR / POUR PEU is treated as the immediate constituent of FRAG.

( ( FRAG (CONJO Et)
	 (CP-ADV (CONJS quant)
		 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
			 (VJ entendi)))
	  (PON ,)
	  (PP (P A)
	      (NP (Q po)))
	  (CP-THT (CONJS qu')
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
	                  (NEG ne)
			  (VJ fu)
			  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ forsenés))))
	  (PONFP .)))

PRENDRE + ADVP

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *proimp*)			← Buridant p. 398f., par. 319.4b
          (CL-PP (CL en))
          (VJ prend)
          (ADVP (ADV mal / bien / ainsi))))

(CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (WADV comment))
        (CONJS qu')
        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                (NP-SBJ (PROIMP il))
                (VJ praigne)))

PRÈS

See
Numbers.

QUANQUE(S)

When tagged WPRO, QUANQUE(S) is always split to facilitate comparison across all free relatives.

QUANT À

(PP (ADV quant)
    (P a@)
    (NP (D @u) (NCS regard)
        (PP (P de)
	    (NP (DZ leur) (NCS prouffit)
                (ADJP (ADJ singulier))))))

QUANT EST

(NP-MSR (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO quant))
                (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                        (NP-SBJ *proimp*)
                        (VJ est)
                        (PP (PP (P de)
                                (NP (D la) (NCS paine)
                                    (PP (P de)
                                        (NP (D l') (NCS engroisse)))))
                            (CONJP (CONJO ou)
      	     	                   (PP (P de)
	     	     	               (NP (D l') (NCS enfantement))))))))

QUANT ET

(PP (P quant)
    (X et) 
    (NP (PRO lui)))

QUE

See also
The treatment of QUE is similar to that of COMME. Possible tags are: CONJO, CONJS, FP, P, PR, WPRO, X.

QUE QUE

Treated analogously to
QUOI QUE, QUOIQUE.

QUOI

When QUOI corresponds to CE QUE, the implicit structure is indicated explicitly as follows:
( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJO et)
	      (NP-SBJ (PRO vous))
	      (CL-NP-ACC (CL me))
	      (VJ blasmerez)
	      (ADVP (ADV fort))
	      (PP (P davant)
		  (NP (PRO lui)))
	      (PP (P de)
		  (NP (NCS *)
		      (CP-THT-SPE (CONJS quoy)
				  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
					      (CL-NP-ACC (CL l'))
					      (AJ avré)
					      (VPP prins)))))))

QUOI QUE, QUOIQUE

Where possible (Quoiqu'il a faim, il ne mange pas), QUOIQUE is treated as a unitary item heading an adverbial subordinate clause.
( (IP-MAT (CP-ADV (CONJS quoy=qu')
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
                          (VJ a)
     	                  (NP-ACC (NCS faim))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
          (NEG ne)
          (VJ mange)
          (ADVP (ADVNEG pas))
          (PONFP .)))

Where such an analysis is not possible because quoi has a grammatical function in the quoi que clause (Quoi qu'il mange, il a faim), the QUOI QUE clause is treated as a free relative.

RAISON

See NP-PRD.

SAUF

Originally, SAUF functions as the predicate of an IP-ABS.
( (IP-ABS (ADJP-PRD (ADJ sauve))
	  (NP-SBJ (DZ votre) (NCS grace))))

In later texts, in contexts where an IP-ABS is no longer possible, SAUF is treated as P.

( (PP (P sauf)
      (NP (Q quelques)
	  (ADJ petites)
	  (NCPL guerres))))

SI

For the treatment of SI COMME, see
COMME.

When introducing adverbial clauses or indirect questions clauses, SI is tagged CONJS. The distinction between the two clause types is encoded in the dash tag of the relevant clause (CP-ADV vs. CP-QUE).

SI can also be tagged ADV. In older French, this adverbial use is very common, particularly in the topic position of V2 clauses.

Finally, SI can be an interjection (ITJ) - the affirmative counterpart of NON.

SI can also a spelling variant of various other forms:

SUS

Does SUS license dash tags?

TANT

See also

TANT QUE

See also
TANT ... QUE ... TANT QUE is annotated differently depending on its meaning. The first analysis consistent with the meaning of the sentence is chosen.

TANT ... QUE ...

When TANT ... QUE corresponds to a bipartitite coordination structure, it is annotated as such rather than as an elliptical comparative structure (in contrast to the corresponding AS ... AS construction in the English corpora).

(PP (CONJO tant)
    (PP (P en)
	(IP-PPL (VG dormant)))
    (CONJP (CONJO comme)
           (PP (P en)
	       (IP-PPL (NP-ACC (ADJ aultres) (NCPL choses))
		       (VG faisant)))))

(PP (CONJO tant)
    (PP (P par)
        (NP (D le) (NCS bois)))
    (CONJP (CONJO comme)
           (PP (P e@)
	       (NP (D @s) (NPCL pres)))))

Otherwise (when TANT ... QUE corresponds to the meanings just discussed), TANT is annotated as having undergone leftward movement, as is our default.

(IP-MAT (QP-1 (Q tant))
         ...
        (NP-MSR (QP *ICH*-1)
                (CP-CMP ... )))

(IP-MAT (ADVP-1 (ADV tant))
         ...
        (CP-ADV (ADVP *ICH*-1)
                ...))

In a late variant, QUE can be replaced by ET, and TANT is sometimes followed by QUE, which is treated as expletive.

(PP (CONJO tant)
    (X que)
    (PP (P par)
        (NP (D le) (NCS bois)))
    (CONJP (CONJO et)
           (PP (P e@)
	       (NP (D @s) (NPCL pres)))))

TASTER

Does it take NP or PP complements?

TENIR

TENIR licenses
small clause complements, but the TENIR À construction is treated analogously to CONSIDER AS.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO ils))
  	  (VJ tiennent)
          (NP-ACC (D ces) (NCPL ceremonies))
          (PP (P a)
	      (NP (NCPL joies))))
	  (PONFP .))

TOUT

See
Floated quantifiers.

USER

(IP-INF (VX user)
        (NP-ACC (D ceste) (NCS parolle)))

(IP-INF (VX user)
        (PP (P de)				← P (not DF)
            (NP (D ceste) (NCS parolle))))

VOICI

VOICI and VOILA are tagged VP and project presentational clauses (IP-PRES).

Users interested in the development from the imperative verb form to the presentational particle should also search for the appropriate forms of VOIR preceding CI and LA.

VOILA

See VOICI.

VOIR

Tagged as NCS in the sense of TRUTH.