Syntactic annotation guidelines for Middle French (draft)

These guidelines are intended to cover cases not covered by the annotation guidelines at
http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~beatrice/annotation/. In cases of disagreement, the present guidelines supersede any earlier ones.

Red font indicates issues to be resolved. Green font indicates issues requiring discussion or non-urgent action.


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ


Adjectives

For conjunction of prenominal with postnominal adjectives, see
Conjunction.

Argument or modifier?

Degree words that are ambiguous between acting as heads of arguments and acting as degree modifiers of a (possibly silent) dimension of comparison are treated as arguments (possibly licensing a partitive NP).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J'))			← like this
          (AJ ay)
          (VPP eu)
          (NP-ACC (Q assez)		
	          (NP-PART (DF de) (NCS paine)))
          (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J'))			← not like this
          (AJ ay)
          (VPP eu)
          (NP-MSR (Q assez))	
          (NP-ACC (DF de) (NCS paine))
          (PONFP .)))

Asyndetic clauses

Causatives

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Ils))
          (AJ ont)
          (VPP fait)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)				← causee not expressed
	          (VX manger)
                  (NP-ACC (D les) (NCS tartines)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Ils))
          (AJ ont)
          (VPP fait)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)				← causee not expressed
	          (VX donner)
                  (NP-ACC (D les) (NCS tartines))
                  (NP-DAT (DAT à) (NPRS Jean)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Ils))
          (AJ ont)
          (VPP fait)
          (IP-INF (VX manger)	
                  (NP-ACC (D les) (NCS tartines))
                  (NP-SBJ (DAT à) (NPRS Jean)))))		← FAIRE À construction (dative-marked causee)

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Ils))
          (AJ ont)
          (VPP fait)
          (IP-INF (VX manger)
                  (NP-ACC (D les) (NCS tartines))
		  (PP (P par)					← FAIRE PAR construction
		      (NP (NPRS Jean))))))

CL vs. PRO

Subject pronouns are always tagged PRO. Object pronouns, on the other hand, are sometimes tagged as ordinary pronouns (PRO) and sometimes as clitics (CL). This is in contrast to the Ottawa annotation conventions, which do not use the CL tag.

There are in fact two relevant distinctions: a prosodic one, and a syntactic one. Prosodically, pro-forms can be weak (me, te, le, se, les) or strong (also known as tonic) (moi, toi, soi, eux). Syntactically, pro-forms can be required to be adjacent to their licensing head, or they can have the relatively free distribution of ordinary noun phrases. In principle, this gives rise to four expected possibilities, which are annotated as follows:

Prosody Syntax Tag Example(s)
Weak Separable This combination doesn't occur.
Nonseparable (preverbal) CL Le roi le/CL m'/CL a donné.
Strong Nonseparable (postverbal in imperatives and other verb-initial contexts) CL Donne le/CL moi/CL
Separable (conjunction contexts, complement of preposition, left-dislocation) PRO Le roi a invité ton frère et toi/PRO.
Le roi a invité toi/PRO et ton frère.
Moi/PRO , je l' aime.
Ce chien est à moi/PRO.

To complicate matters yet a bit further, some forms are prosodically ambiguous (lui, nous, vous). Such forms are annotated as CL or PRO depending on the syntactic context.

Le roi lui/CL a donné un grand chien. (preverbal clitic)
Ce chien est a nous/PRO (complement of preposition)
Vous/PRO , vous êtes fou. (left-dislocation)

Clause-adjoined relatives (CP-CAR)

By convention, clause-adjoined relatives do not start a new token.

Clefts (CP-CLF)

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO C'))
          (VJ est)
          (NP-PRD (ADJNUM dix) (NCPL ans))
          (CP-CLF (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
                  (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
                          (CL-NP-ACC (CL les))
                          (VJ connais)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=1 (PROIMP Il))
          (CL-PP (CL y))
          (VJ a)
          (NP-1 (ADJNUM dix) (NCPL ans))
          (CP-CLF (WNP-2 (WPRO que))
                  (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-2)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
                          (CL-NP-ACC (CL les))
                          (VJ connais)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ=1 (PROIMP Il))
          (EJ sont)
          (VPP passé)
          (NP-1 (ADJNUM dix) (NCPL ans))
          (CP-CLF (WNP-2 (WPRO que))
                  (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-2)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
                          (NEG ne)
                          (CL-NP-ACC (CL les))
                          (AJ ai)
                          (VPP vus)))))

Clitic climbing

Instances of clitic placement that are ambiguous between enclisis on an infinitive (possible in Early Old French) and clitic climbing plus proclisis on a finite verb are treated by default as proclisis.

In across-the-board clitic climbing, the climbed clitic binds two traces.

Comparative and degree constructions

See Comparative clauses for discussion of elided comparative clauses.

The annotation of comparative and degree constructions for French and Portuguese is streamlined compared to the English corpora, which we plan to revise eventually in accordance with the guidelines below.

Comparative and degree constructions both contain the following elements:

In contrast to the English corpora, the licensing particle, the dimension of comparison, and the complement are all treated as sisters, in comparative and degree constructions alike.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J'))
          (AJ ai)
	  (VPP lu)
	  (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS livre))
	  (ADVP (ADV ainsi)			← degree particle
	     	(ADV vite)			← dimension of comparison
	        (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)		← complement of degree particle
		        (CONJS que)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
			        (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
			        (NP-ACC (CL l'))
                                (AJ as)
				(VPP voulu))))))
				
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPRS Jean))
          (AJ a)
	  (VPP été)
	  (ADJP-PRD (ADV assez)			← degree particle
	     	    (ADJ vite)			← dimension of comparison
	            (PP (P pour)		← complement of degree particle
		        (IP-INF (NP-RFL (CL s'))
			        (PP (CL en))
				(VX fuir))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J'))
          (AJ ai)
	  (VPP lu)
	  (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS livre))
	  (ADVP (QR plus)		← degree particle
	     	(ADV vite)		← dimension of comparison
	        (PP (PR que)		← complement of degree particle
                    (NP (PRO toi))))))

The dimension of comparison can be silent, in which case it is treated as the unexpressed head of an NP (generally, an NP-MSR). See also Leftward or rightward movement?

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ J')
          (AJ ai)
	  (VJ travaillé)
	  (NP-MSR (Q tant)				← degree particle
                  (CP-DEG (CONJS que)			← complement of degree particle
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
				  (VJ suis)
				  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ fatigué)))))
         (PONFP .)))
In Middle French, degree particles often undergo leftward movement. See Leftward or rightward movement? for discussion and examples.

Complements of comparative and degree particles are often separated from their licensing head by the dimension of comparison. In the English corpora, such complements are annotated as extraposed. However, the complements in question can be extraposed further still in the syntax, so that this convention unnecessarily complicates syntactic searches. As a result, in the French and Portuguese corpora, the complement's closest possible surface position to its licensing head is not annotated as extraposed; it is only more distant positions that are so annotated.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ J')
          (AJ ai)
	  (VJ vu)
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV hier))
	  (NP-MSR (Q tant)
                  (NP-PART (DF de) (NCPL choses))
                  (CP-DEG (CONJS que)			← annotated as in situ
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO c'))
				  (VJ est)
				  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ difficile)
				            (PP (P à)
					        (IP-INF (VX croire)))))))

         (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ J')
          (AJ ai)
	  (VJ vu)
	  (NP-MSR (Q tant)
                  (NP-PART (DF de) (NCPL choses))
		  (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))			← annotated as extraposed
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV hier))
          (CP-DEG-1 (CONJS que)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO c'))
			    (VJ est)
			    (ADJP-PRD (ADJ difficile)
				      (PP (P à)
				          (IP-INF (VX croire))))))

         (PONFP .)))

Comparative clauses (CP-CMP)

See also

The QUE heading comparative clauses is treated as CONJS by default. It is preceded by a silent wh- pronoun, which is associated with a trace. The syntactic category of the trace is the phrasal projection of the dimension of comparison (or NP-MSR in the case of a silent dimension of comparison), and the trace generally appears at the IP level (except in the case of comparative subdeletion). Note that the syntactic category and the trace and its position do not correspond exactly to what is required in the semantics. This is because semantically more appropriate representations would require adding too much material that is not in the text (indicated below in red).

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J')) ← this way (AJ ai) (VPP lu) (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS livre)) (ADVP (ADV ainsi) (ADV vite) ← dimension of comparison (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (PRO tu)) (NP-ACC (CL l')) (AJ as) (VPP voulu)))))) ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J')) ← not this way (AJ ai) (VPP lu) (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS livre)) (ADVP (ADV ainsi) (ADV vite) (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO tu)) (NP-ACC (CL l')) (AJ as) (VPP voulu) (CP-THT que (IP-SUB je le lise (ADVP (ADVP *T*-1) vite)))))))) ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J')) ← not this slightly simpler way, either (AJ ai) (VPP lu) (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS livre)) (ADVP (ADV ainsi) (ADV vite) (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO tu)) (NP-ACC (CL l')) (AJ as) (VPP voulu) (CP-THT que (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1) je le lise))))))) ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D La) (NCS pomme)) ← this way (VJ est) (ADJP-PRD (QR plus) (ADJ lourde) ← dimension of comparison (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (ADJP-PRD *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (D la) (NCS poire))))))) ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D La) (NCS pomme)) ← not this way (VJ est) (ADJP-PRD (QR plus) (ADJ lourde) (CP-CMP (WQP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D la) (NCS poire)) est (ADJP-PRD (QP *T*-1) lourde)))))) ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D La) (NCS pomme)) ← not this slightly simpler way, either (VJ est) (ADJP-PRD (QR plus) (ADJ lourde) (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (D la) (NCS poire)) est lourde)))))

In cases of elision, the comparative is annotated as a clause with a trace wherever possible, but the elided material is not reconstructed.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J')) (AJ ai) (VPP lu) (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS livre)) (ADVP (ADV ainsi) (ADV vite) (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (DZ mon) (NCS ami))))))) ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Tu)) (VJ cours) (ADVP (ADV si) (ADV vite) (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1) (CP-ADV (CONJS si) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO tu)) (VJ etais) (NP-PRD (D une) (NCS voiture))))))))) ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO il)) (NP-RFL (CL s')) (PP (CL en)) (VJ vient) (ADVP-TMP (D le) (QR plus) (ADV toust) (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0) (CONJS qu') (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (PRO il)) (MDJ peut)))))) ← note absence of IP-INF complement of modal

Comparative heads are treated as comparative prepositions (PR) only as a last resort (for instance, when a clausal analysis is impossible for morphological reasons).

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J')) (AJ ai) (VPP lu) (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS livre)) (ADVP (ADV ainsi) (ADV vite) (PP (PR que) ← clausal structure impossible because of tonic pronoun (NP (PRO toi))))))

In cases of comparative subdeletion, the trace of the silent measure phrase appears lower than at the IP level (in other words, where it is expected on semantic grounds). The syntactic category of the trace is QP, NP-MSR being restricted to the IP level (the English corpora are inconsistent with this, but will be retrofitted).

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D La) (NCS table)) (VJ est) (ADJP-PRD (QR plus) (ADJ longue) (CP-CMP (WQP-1 0) (CONJS que) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D la) (NCS porte)) (VJ est) (ADJP-PRD (QP *T*-1) ← comparative subdeletion (ADJ haute)))))))

Concessive clauses

For concessive free relative clauses, see
Free relative clauses.

Conditional clauses

See

Conjunction of prenominal and postnominal adjectives

(NP (ADJP (ADJP (ADJR meilleur)
                (CONJP *ICH*-1)))
    (NCS pays)
    (CONJP (CONJO et)
           (ADJP (QR plus) (ADJ plantureux))))

Copular verbs

Copular verbs include APPARAITRE, DEMOURER, DEVENIR, ETRE, PARVENIR, REMAINDRE, RESEMBLER, RESTER, SEMBLER, TOURNER, TOMBER (MALADE) . RETOURNER counts as a copular verb in the sense of 'turn again' (not 'return').

Correlative constructions

Click
here for English documentation on correlatives.

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADT (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WADV quant) (QR plus))
                          (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
			          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
			          (VJ mange))))
          (NP-ACC (Q tant) (QR plus))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
          (VJ boit)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADT (Q tant)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
				  (NP-ACC (QR plus))
				  (VJ mange))))
          (QP-2 (Q tant))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
	  (NP-ACC (QP *ICH*-2)
                  (QR plus))
          (VJ boit)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-MSR (Q tant)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)	← argument rather than modifier by default
			          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
				  (VJ mange))))
          (NP-ACC (Q tant))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
          (VJ boit)))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P De)
              (NP (Q tant)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)	← argument rather than measure phrase by default
		                  (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
			          (VJ mange)))))
          (PP (P de)
	      (NP (Q tant)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
          (VJ boit)))

DAT

improve guidelines for distinction between DAT and P

Degree clauses (CP-DEG)

See also
Comparative and degree constructions.

Empty operator movement

Unlike in the historical English corpora, the annotation scheme for French does not distinguish between CP-TMC (TOUGH movement) and other instances of empty operator movement; both are annotated as CP-EOP.

Empty subjects

Empty subjects are annotated as follows:

By default, empty *con*, *pro*, or *proimp* precedes the finite verb and any associated clitics, even in constructions where an overt subject would or might invert with the finite verb.

If an empty subject is ambiguous between a trace (*T*, *ICH*) or some other empty category, it is annotated as a trace.

If an empty subject could be *arb*, *proimp*, or *, it is annotated as such (even in conjunction contexts).

The remaining cases concern the distinction between *pro* ("small pro") and *con* (subject elided under conjunction). The main purpose of the distinction is to facilitate the search for clear cases of *pro* (empty thematic subjects that are not possible in a language like modern English), taking in account that French loses *pro* and possibly changes from OV to VO in the course of its history.

In certain cases, for instance in clauses dominated by CP, the empty subject is clearly *pro*,

( (Le roi depart.))
( (La reine sait que *pro* (= le roi or la reine) ira a la foret.))

( (Le roi depart.))
( (La reine sait que *pro* (= le roi or la reine) ira a la foret,
                 et
                 que *pro* (= le roi or la reine) cherchera les truffes.))

Clauses involving conjunction at a level lower than CP fall into two cases: first conjuncts and subsequent conjuncts. In first conjuncts of this type, the empty subject is clearly *pro*.

( (Le roi depart.))
( (La reine sait que *pro* (= le roi or la reine) ira a la foret,
                 et
                 les barons l'accompagneront.))

But subsequent conjuncts of this type are systematically ambiguous (at least in principle) between a verb-final VP with a subject elided under conjunction and a topicalization structure with a small pro subject licensed by V2.

( (Le roi arriva,))
( (et la reine baisa.))

In accordance with the above-stated aim of reserving *pro* for clear cases, empty subjects in these ambiguous cases are annotated as *con*.

The guideline for these ambiguous cases is to use *con* for subjects that are coreferential with the immediately preceding subject at the same level of embedding, and *pro* otherwise. (Thus, *pro* is the default in the sense of being the elsewhere case, even though *con* is by far the more common case.)

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et *con* (= le roi) lui donna une belle rose.))

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et une belle rose *con* (= le roi) lui donna.))

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et *pro* (= la reine) dist a son seigneur: "D'ou venez vous?"))
( (Et *pro* (= le roi) respont: "De la foret".))

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et a son seigneur *pro* (= la reine) dist: "D'ou venez vous?"))
( (Et *pro* (= le roi) respont: "De la foret".))

( (La reine sait que le roi est alle a la foret
                     et
                     *con* (= le roi) chasse avec ses barons.))

( (Le roi depart.))
( (La reine sait que *pro* (= le roi) ira a la foret
                     et
                     *con* (= le roi) cherchera les truffes.))

( (Le roi depart.))
( (La reine sait que *pro* (= la reine) ira a la foret
                     et
                     *con* (= la reine) cherchera les truffes.))

( (Le roi depart.))
( (La reine sait que *pro* (= la reine) ira a la foret
                     et
                     *pro* (= le roi) cherchera les truffes.))
( (Le roi depart.))
( (La reine sait que *pro* (= le roi) ira a la foret
                     et
                     *pro* (= la reine) cherchera les truffes.))

For the purposes of determining level of embedding, quoted speech embedded in a matrix clause counts as the sister of subsequent independent tokens of quoted speech.

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et *con* (= le roi) dist a elle: "Je viens de la foret,))
( (et *con* (= je) vous ai apporte une belle rose".))

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et *con* (= le roi) dist a elle: "Je viens de la foret,))
( (et une belle rose *con* (= je) vous ai apporte".))

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et *pro* (= la reine) dist a son seigneur: "D'ou *pro* (= vous) venez,))
( (et *con* (= vous) m'avez apporte une belle rose?"))

An empty subject in the first clause after a stretch of quoted speech is generally annotated as *pro*, even when it is coreferential with the matrix subject of the last token before the quoted speech (arguably the immediately preceding subject at the same level of embedding). The rationale is that an empty subject would generally not be natural in this context in a non-pro-drop language like English.

( (Le roi appella la reine,))
( (et *con* (= le roi) dist a elle: "Je viens de la foret,))
( (et *con* (= je) vous ai apporte une belle rose",))
( (et *pro* (= le roi) donna la rose a la reine.))

If the discourse is very short, it may be that an empty subject would be natural in English, and it would be fine to use *con* (in accordance with the aim of reserving *pro* for clear instances).

To the extent that *pro* is subject to structural licensing requirements, our referential - that is, nonstructural - basis for distinguishing between *pro* and *con* along with the bias towards *con* has the result that small pro is annotated as *con* in certain syntactic configurations. Users who are particularly interested in the quantitative development of *pro* will need to identify and recode the relevant instances by means of coding or revision queries encoding the structural licensing requirements on *pro* assumed by their analysis.

ES

In its use as interjection, derived from Latin ecce 'lo, behold'. The constituent containing the interjection is treated as IP-PRES.
( (IP-PRES (ITJ as)		← one of several variant spellings
           (NP-SBJ (CL les))
           (NP-DTV (CL vus))	← ethical dative
	   (VPP aquisez)
	   (PONFP .)
  (ID ROLLANT,42.263)))

ET conditional clauses

Conditional clauses introduced by ET, whether V1 (asyndetic) or introduced by an overt subordinating conjunction, are treated as parentheticals in the IP that they modify.
( (IP-MAT-1 (CONJO mais)
	    (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
    	    (NEG n')
   	    (AJ eusse)
	    (ADVP-TMP (ADV jamés))
	    (VPP prins)
	    (NP-ACC (NCS aultre))
	    (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJO et)
			  (CP-ADV-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (AJ eust)
						  (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
						  (VPP esté)
						  (NP-PRD (NCS daulphin)
							  (PP (P de)
							      (NP (NCPL Viennois)))))))
   	    (PONFP .)))

(CP-REL (WNP-2 (WPRO qui))
        (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
		        (VJ enragent))
	        (CONJP (CONJO et)
		       (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
			       (VJ (VJ serchent) (CONJO et) (VJ querent))
			       (ADVP-LOC (ADV partout))))
	        (CONJP (CONJO et)
		       (IP-SUB-3 (NP-SBJ **T-2)
			         (MDJ vouldroient)
				 (IP-INF (AX avoir)
				         (VPP donné)
					 (NP-ACC (Q tout) (DZ leur) (NCS meuble)))
				 (IP-SUB-PRN=3 (CONJO et)
				     	       (CP-ADV (CONJS qu')
						       (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ilz))
							       (NP-ACC (CL l'))
							       (AJ eussent)
							       (VPP trouvee))))))))

Extraposed complements of comparative and degree heads

See
Comparative and degree constructions.

Extraposed conjuncts

When part of the subject, extraposed conjuncts are treated as instances of gapping because of subject-verb agreement. The gapping analysis is extended to all subjects, even subjects of small clauses.
( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ le roi)
                    (EJ est)
	  	    (VPP venu))
          (CONJP (CONJO et)
                 (IP-MAT=1 (NP-SBJ la reine)))))
Elsewhere, such cases are treated as involving simple conjunction (plus extraposition).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ J')
          (AJ ai)
          (VPP vu)
          (NP-ACC (NP le roi)
	   	  (CONJP *ICH*-1))
          (ADVP-TMP hier)
	  (CONJP-1 (CONJO et)
		   (NP la reine))))

Floated quantifiers

Quantifiers that are ambiguous between being subjects or floated quantifiers are treated as subjects by default.
( (IP-MAT (CONJO et)
	  (NP-DTV (CL leur))
	  (VJ fist)
	  (NP-SBJ (Q chascun))
	  (NP-ACC (ADJ bonne) (NCS chère))
	  (PONFP .)) (ID COMMYNES-NEWTOK,37.465))

( (IP-MAT (CONJO et)
	  (EJ furent)
	  (NP-SBJ (Q toutes))
	  (VPP envoyées)
	  (PP (P à)
	      (NP (NPRS Boulongne)
		  (PP (P sur)
		      (NP (D la) (NCS Mer)))))
	  (PON ,)
	  (PP (P à)
	      (NP (ADJNUM dix)
		  (NCPL lieues)
		  (PP (P de)
		      (NP (NPRS Calais)))))
	  (PONFP .)) (ID COMMYNES-NEWTOK,120.1642))
The association of floated quantifiers with the subject is treated as the default and is not specially indicated by a trace. The association of floated quantifiers with other constituents is explicitly indicated.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO ils))
          (NP-DAT (CL nous)
          (VJ portent)
          (QP (Q tous))			← TOUS construed with subject; no trace
          (NP-ACC (ADJ grant) (NCS prejudice))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
          (NP-DAT (CL nous)
                  (QP *ICH*-1))
          (VJ porte)
          (QP-1 (DAT a) (Q toutes))	← TOUS construed with non-subject; explicit trace
          (NP-ACC (ADJ grant) (NCS prejudice))))

Free relative clauses

The doubly-filled COMP analysis for free relative clauses that is shown below is preferable to conceivable alternatives because it extends to examples with verb fronting. It is also supported by crosslinguistic evidence from free relatives in Bavarian.

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADV (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO quoy))		← like this
                          (CONJS qu')
                          (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
                                  (VJ mange))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
          (VJ a)
          (NP-ACC (NCS faim))
          (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (CONJO Et)
	  (PON ,)
	  (NP-ADV (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (CONJS qu')
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (PP (CL en))
				  (VJ soit))))
	  (PON ,)
	  (CODE )
	  (NP-SBJ (D le) (ADJ bon) (NCS homme))
	  (PP (CL en))
	  (VJ a)
	  (NP-ACC (NCS besoing))))

(CP-ADV (VPP-1 clos)
        (CONJS que)
        (IP-SUB (VPP *ICH*-1)
                (NP-SBJ (PRO nos))
                (VJ feusmes)
		(PP (P de)
		    (NP (D ce) (NCS charroy)))))
Examples with QUI do not decide in favor of the second analysis because of the
QUE to QUI rule.
(NP-ADT (CP-FRL (WNP-2 (WD quelque) (NCS chose))
	        (CONJS qui)					← QUE to QUI
		(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
			(NP-DTV (CL luy))
			(EJ fust)
			(VPP (VPP dict) (CONJO et) (VPP oppiné)))))

Impersonal predicates

Certain impersonal predicates are treated as taking direct object (violating Burzio's generalization). For details, see

Inalienable possession

The default annotation for inalienable possession with AVOIR is as a small clause construction.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPRS Karles))
          (VJ ad)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D le) (NCS cors))
                  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ gent)))))

( (IP-MAT (ADJ-1 Gent)
          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (VJ ad)
          (IP-SMC (ADJP-PRD (ADJ *ICH*-1))
                  (NP-SBJ (D le) (NCS cors)))))

( (IP-MAT (NCS-1 Cors)
          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (VJ ad)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (NCS *ICH*-1))
                  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ gent)))))

There are one or two cases involving conjunction that resist a small clause analysis of the conjunct. For the moment, these are annotated as XX.


( (IP-MAT (NP-1 (D Les) (NCPL yeux))
          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (VJ ad)
          (IP-SMC (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *ICH*-1)
                          (ADJP-PRD (ADJ vairs)))
                  (CONJP (XX (ADJ belles) (NCPL mains))))))

Infinitives (IP-INF)

Infinitives introduced by DE and associated with an impersonal subject (
CE or IL) are coindexed with the impersonal subject.

Negative infinitives with imperative force are annotated as IP-INF-IMP.

( (IP-INF-IMP (NEG Ne)
              (CL-NP-RFL (CL se))
              (VX pencher)
              (PP (P a@)
                  (NP (D @u) (NCS dehors)))))

JA SOIT QUE

See
SOIT clauses.

JE NE SAIS QU-

The JE NE SAIS QU- clause is annotated as a simple IP-MAT and surrounded with an appropriate constituent (often QP).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Il))
          (EJ est)
          (VPP venu)
          (PP (P avec)
              (NP (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
			  (VJ sai)
		          (CP-QUE-SUB (WNP (WD quanz) (NCPL chevaliers))))))))

                          
( (IP-MAT-SPE (NCPL-1 Drodmunz)
	      (NP-SBJ=2 *proimp*)
	      (CL-PP (CL i))
	      (VJ ad)
	      (NP-2 (NCPL *ICH*-1)
		    (QP (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ *pro*)
			   	    (NEG ne)
				    (CL-NP-3 (CL vos))
				    (VJ sai)
				    (IP-INF-SPE (NP-DTV *ICH*-3)
					        (VX dire)
					        (CP-QUE-SUB-SPE (WNP (WPRO quanz)))))))
	      (PONFP ,))
  (ID 1100-ROLAND,196.2717))

Leftward or rightward movement?

In cases of doubt whether the annotation should involve leftward or rightward movement, the default is leftward movement. See below for more details.

In cases not covered below, rightward movement is possible with constituents that are extraposable in English (CONJP, CP-CMP, CP-DEG, CP-REL, PP).

Prefinite infinitives

Prefinite participles

Preverbal arguments and predicates

Preverbal degree words

Preverbal degree words are currently annotated like preverbal arguments, except that bare preverbal degree words and their *ICH* traces are dominated by a phrasal node.
( (IP-MAT (QP-1 (Q Tant))		← potential V2 topic position
          (AJ ay)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
          (VPP eu)
          (NP-ACC (QP *ICH*-1)
	          (NP-PART (DF de) (NCS paine)))
          (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J'))
          (AJ ay)
	  (QP-1 (Q tant))		← clause-internal quantifier position
          (VPP eu)
          (NP-ACC (QP *ICH*-1)
	          (NP-PART (DF de) (NCS paine)))
          (PONFP .)))

(CP-CAR (WPP-1 (P par)
	       (WNP (WD lesquelles) (NCPL choses)))
	(IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
	        (NP-SBJ (D la) (NCS dame))
		(MDJ peut)
		(IP-INF (QP-2 (Q assez))
			(VX savoir)
			(NP-ACC (QP *ICH*-2)
			        (NP-PART (DF de) (DZ leurs) (NCPL voulentés))))))


( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Finablement))
	  (PON ,)
	  (CP-ADV (ADV dès)
		  (CONJS que)
		  (IP-SUB (EJ fut)
			  (VPP venu)
			  (NP-SBJ (D l') (NCS esté))))
	  (PON ,)
	  (NEG ne)
	  (MDJ peüt)
	  (NP-SBJ (D le) (NCS roy))
	  (IP-INF (QP-1 (QR plus))
	  	  (VX avoir)
		  (NP-ACC (QP *ICH*-1)
		  	  (NP-PART (DF de) (NCS pacience))))))

(CP-REL (WNP-3 (WPRO qui))
        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
	        (QP-4 (Q tant))
	        (NP-DTV (CL lui))
  	        (AJ a)
		(VPP ouffert)
		(NP-ACC (QP *ICH*-4)
		        (NP-PART (DF de) (NCS raison))
		        (CP-DEG (CONJS qu')
			        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO elle))
					(NEG ne)
					(NP-5 (CL l'))
					(AJ a)
					(MDPP peu)
					(IP-INF (NP-ACC *ICH*-5)
						(VX reffuser)))))))

( (IP-MAT (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO ce))
		  (ADVP (ADV non=obstant)))
	  (PON ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (D la)
		  (NCS dame))
	  (NEG ne)
	  (NP-RFL (CL s'))
	  (EJ est)
	  (ADVP (ADVNEG pas))
	  (QP-1 (Q tant))
	  (VPP donné)
	  (NP-ACC (QP *ICH*-1)
		  (NP-PART (DF de) (NCS paine))
		  (CP-CMP (WNP-2 0)
                          (CONJS come)
		          (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-2)
                                  (NP-SBJ (D le) (NCS proudomme)))))))

(IP-MAT-PRN (QP-4 (Q tant))
            (NP-SBJ *pro*)		← default position even in inversion environments
	    (VJ est)
	    (NP-ACC (ADJP (QP *ICH*-4)
		          (ADJ mal)
	            (NCS homme))))

(IP-MAT-PRN (QP-4 (Q tant))
            (NP-SBJ *pro*) 
	    (VJ est)
	    (NP-ACC (ADJP (QP *ICH*-4)
		          (ADJ mal)
			  (CONJP *ICH*-5))
	            (NCS homme)
		    (CONJP-5 (CONJO et)
			     (ADJX (ADJ divers)))))

 (IP-MAT-PRN (QP-1 (Q tant))
	     (VJ fussent)
             (NP-SBJ (PRO ilz))
 	     (ADJP-PRD (QP *ICH*-1)
		       (ADJ bons)))

 (IP-MAT-PRN (QP-1 (Q tant))
	     (VJ fussent)
             (NP-SBJ (PRO ilz))
 	     (ADJP-PRD (QP *ICH*-1)
		       (ADJ bons)
		       (CONJP (CONJO et)
		              (ADJX (ADJ loyaulx)))))

As with any comparative and degree construction, the dimension of comparison may be silent.

( (IP-MAT (QP-1 (Q Tant))
          (AJ ai)
	  (NP-SBJ je)
	  (VJ travaillé)
	  (NP-MSR (QP *ICH*-1)
	  	  (CP-DEG (CONJS que)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
				  (VJ suis)
				  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ fatigué)))))
         (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ J')
          (AJ ai)
	  (QP-1 (Q tant))
	  (VJ travaillé)
	  (NP-MSR (QP *ICH*-1)
	  	  (CP-DEG (CONJS que)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
				  (VJ suis)
				  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ fatigué)))))
         (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (ITJP (PP (P Par)
	            (NP (NPRS Dieu))))
          (PON ,)
	  (NP-VOC (NPRS Jouhanne))
	  (PON ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO je))
	  (VJ ame)
	  (QP-2 (Q tant))
	  (NP-ACC (PRO celui)
	          (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO que))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
				  (NP-SBJ (PRO vous))
				  (VJ savez)
				  (PP (P de)
				      (ADVP (ADV piecza))))))
	  (NP-MSR (QP *ICH*-2)
	          (CP-DEG (CONJS que)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (DZ mon) (NCS cuer))
			          (NEG ne)
			          (NP-3 (CL se))
			          (MDJ pourroit)
				  (IP-INF (NP-RFL *ICH*-3)
					  (VX adonner)
					  (NP-DTV (DAT a) (D ung) (NCS aultre))))))
          (PONFP .)))

Modals

Modals are tagged as such when they govern an infinitive or in clear ellipsis contexts (notably, when there is an antecedent for the elided material in the same token). Otherwise, they are tagged as main verbs.

In ambiguous cases, traces of wh- PPs are attached high by default, as is usual.

(CP-CAR (WPP-1 (P Par)
	       (WNP (WPRO quoy)))
        (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
		(NP-SBJ (PRO on)
			(NP-PRN *ICH*-7))
		(MDJ doit)
		(IP-INF (ADVP (ADV bien))
			(VX craindre)
			(PP (P de)
			    (IP-INF (NP-RFL (CL se))
				    (VX mectre)
				    (PP (P a@)
					(NP (D @u)
					    (NCS hazard)
					    (PP (P d')
					        (NP (D une) (NCS bataille))))))))))

(CP-CAR (WPP-4 (P pour)
	       (WNP (WPRO quoy)))
	(IP-SUB (PP *T*-4)
	        (NP-SBJ (Q toutes) (NCPL entreprinses))
	        (NP-3 (CL se))
		(MDJ doyvent)
		(IP-INF (NP-RFL *ICH*-3)
			(ADVP (ADV bien))
			(VX peser)))))

NE MAIS (QUE)

In the meaning EXCEPT, tagged as part of a complex P.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NCPL Franceis)
		  (PP *ICH*-1))
	  (NP-RFL (CL se))
	  (VJ taisent)
	  (PON ,)
	  (PP-1 (P (NEG ne) (QR mais) (P que))
		(NP (NPRS Guenelun)))
	  (PONFP .)))

(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
        (NEG n')
	(VJ unt)
	(NP-ACC (DF de) (NCS blanc)
		(PP (P (NEG ne) (QR mais) (P que))
		    (NP (FP sul) (D les) (NCPL denz)))))

Negation

See
N'AVOIR QUE and NE.

NP-ADT

ADT marks (among others) the following types of NPs:

NP-COM

Bare possessive NPs of the type LE FILS LE ROI are tagged as NP-COM.
(NP (NCS force)
    (NP-COM (NCPL gens))

(NP (ADJ grant) (NCS force)
    (NP-COM (ADJ grant) (NCPL archiers))

(PP (P o@)
    (NP (D @u) (NCS dedens)
        (NP-COM (D la) (NCS chartre))))

(CP-ADV (CONJS si)
        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D le) (ADJ bon) (NCS home))
		(VJ sceit)
		(NP-TMP (D une) (NCS foiz))
		(NP-ACC (D la) (NCS faulte)
			(NP-COM (DZ sa) (NCS feme)))))

(CP-ADV (ADV sinon)
	(CONJS qu')
	(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
		(VJ met)
		(NP-ACC (DZ son) (NCS ame))
		(PP (P entre)
		    (NP (D les) (NCPL mains)
			(NP-COM (DZ sa) (NCS femme))))))

NP-MSR

Single prenominal modifiers are never surrounded by NP-MSR. See
Quantifiers for examples.

NP-PART

NP complements of Q(R) are always treated as NP-PART.

NP-PRD

Predicate nominals and adjectives are tagged as -PRD (rather than as NP-ACC or bare ADJP).

METIER, RAISON, and the like are treated as predicate nominals rather than as associates of an expletive subject.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (ADVP (ADV Certes))
	      (PON ,)
	      (NP-VOC (DZ mon) (NCS amy))
	      (PON ,)
	      (NP-SBJ-1 (PROIMP il))
	      (NEG n')
	      (VJ est)
	      (ADVP-TMP (ADV ja))
	      (NP-PRD (NCS mestier))
	      (CP-THT-SPE-1 (CONJS que)
			    (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO vous))
					(NP-ACC (CL le))
					(VJ sachez)))
	      (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PROIMP il))
	  (VJ est)
	  (ADVP (ADV bien))
	  (NP-PRD (NCS raison))
	  (CP-THT-1 (CONJS qu')
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
			    (VJ enduret)
			    (NP-ACC (D le) (NCS mal)
				    (CP-REL (WNP-2 (WPRO qu'))
					    (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-2)
						    (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
						    (AJ a)
						    (VPP (VPP serché) (CODE ) (CONJO et) (VPP quis)))))))
	  (PONFP ,)))

NP-RFL

In infinitival contexts, the SE associated with verbs that are ordinarily reflexive can be missing. We add a silent reflexive.
(PP (PP (P Sanz)
        (IP-INF (VX arester)))
    (CONJP (PP (P sanz)
               (IP-INF (NP-RFL *)
                       (VX arester)))))

Null subjects

See
Empty subjects.

Numbers

Expressions containing ENVIRON, JUSQUE À, and PRÈS that function on a par with numbers are treated as follows. The complex expression is given its ordinary analysis; cardinal numbers contained in it are tagged as ADJNUM (as if in an ellipsis context). The entire expression is then enclosed within ADJP (or possibly, some other appropriate tag).
ENVIRON

(PP (P de)
    (NP (ADJP (ADJP (ADJNUM douze) (ADJNUM cens))
	      (CONJP *ICH*-4))
        (NCPL hommes)
	(PP (P d')
	    (NP (NCPL armes)))
        (CONJP-4 (CONJO ou)
                 (ADJP (ADV envyron) (ADJNUM *)))))

JUSQUE À

(NP (D les) (NCPL prisonniers)
    (PON ,)
    (ADJP (PP (P jusques)
              (PP (P à)
                  (NP (ADJNUM huyt) (ADJNUM cens))))))

(NP-ACC (ADJP (PP (P jusques)
		  (PP (P à)
		      (NP (ADJNUM seize)))))
	(NCPL personnes))

(NP-MSR (ADJP (PP (P jusques)
		  (PP (P à)
		      (NP (ADJNUM quatre) (CONJO ou) (ADJNUM six)))))
	(NCPL lieues)
	(PP (P de)
	    (NP (D la) (NCS ville))))

PRÈS

(NP-ACC (ADJP (ADVP (ADV près)
	            (PP (P de)
			(NP (ADJNUM huyct) (ADJNUM cens)))))
	(NCPL hommes))

(NP (NP (ADJNUM deux) (NCPL jours))
    (CONJP (CONJO et)
	   (NP (ADJP (ADV près)
		     (PP (P d')
			 (NP (ADJNUM une))))
	       (NCS nuyt))))

Partial wh-movement

The scope-marking wh- phrase (que), the intermediate content-bearing wh- phrase, and the trace are all co-indexed.
( (CP-QUE-MAT (WNP-1 (WPRO Que))
              (IP-SUB (VJ penses)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
                      (CP-THT (WADVP-1 (WADV comment))
                              (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
				      (CL-NP-ACC (CL l'))
				      (AJ a)
				      (VPP fait))))
	      (PONFP ?)))
The default for cases that are ambiguous between partial and long-distance wh- movement is long-distance movement (in other words, the lower que is treated as a complementizer.
( (CP-QUE-MAT (WNP-1 (WPRO Que))
              (IP-SUB (VJ penses)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
                      (CP-THT (CONJS qu')
                              (IP-SUB (NP-ACC *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
				      (AJ a)
				      (VPP fait))))
	      (PONFP ?)))

Quantifiers

(NP (Q assez) (NCPL robes))

(NP (Q assez)					← Q = head with post-head partitive
    (NP-PART (DF de) (NCPL robes)))

(NP (Q beaucoup)
    (NP-PART (DF de) (NCPL gens)))

(NP (NCPL gens)					← Q = post-head modifier
    (QP (Q beaucoup)))

(NP-ACC (DF de) (NCPL robes)
        (QP (Q assez)))

QUE to QUI

(IP-PPL (VG donnant)
        (PP (P par)
 	    (NP (NCS effect)))
        (NP-ACC (NCS argent) (CONJO et) (NCS estat)
	        (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO qu'))
		        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
			        (VJ congnoissoit)
			        (CP-THT (CONJS qui)			← QUE to QUI
				        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
					        (NP-DTV (CL luy))
					        (VJ plaisoient)))))))


( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D Le) (NCS roy))
	  (VJ faisoit)
	  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
		  (VX parler)
		  (NP-DTV (DAT à)
			  (Q tous)
			  (PRO ceulx)
			  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO qu'))
				  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
					  (VJ pensoit)
					  (CP-THT (CONJS qui)		← QUE to QUI
						  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
							  (NP-2 (CL luy))
							  (MDJ pourroient)
							  (IP-INF (NP-DTV *ICH*-2)
								  (VX ayder))))))))
	  (PONFP ;)))

Reduced relative clauses (RRC)

Do examples like the following require a category RRC?
(PP (P en)					← like this?
    (NP (D une) (NCS fosse)
        (RRC (RRC (ADJP (ADJ large))
                  (PP (P par)
                      (NP (D le) (NCS bas))))
              (CONJP (RRC (ADJP (ADJ estroicte))
                          (ADVP (ADV dessus)))))))

(PP (P en)					← or like this?
    (NP (D une) (NCS fosse)
        (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ large)
                    (PP (P par)
                        (NP (D le) (NCS bas))))
              (CONJP (ADJP (ADJ estroicte))
                           (ADVP (ADV dessus))))))

Resumptive expressions

See also
IL Y A.
(NP (D le) (NCS duc)
    (CP-REL (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO qui))
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
		            ...)
            (CONJP (CONJO et)
                   (WNP-2 (WPRO que))
                   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (DZ-RSP-2 son) (NCS pays))
                           (VJ estoit)
			   (ADJP (ADJ foible))))))

Rightward movement

See

SI ... NON

The SI ... NON construction is treated as a conditional clause with gapping, which is given a function in its matrix clause wherever possible (in a manner analogous to free relative clauses). For simplicity, the gapping is not indicated explicitly (contrary to Jana Beck's convention for the Ancient Greek counterpart of this construction). When SINON is spelled as a single orthographic word, it is split.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Elle))
          (NEG n')
          (VJ aime)
	  (NP-ACC (CP-ADV (CONJS si)			← SI ... NON
                          (FRAG (NP (PRO lui))
                                (ADVP (ADVNEG non)))))
          (PONFP .)))

( (IP-IMP (CONJO Et)
          (CP-ADV (CONJS si)				← SI ... NON
                  (FRAG (NP (PRO ce))
                        (ADVP (ADVNEG non))))
          (VJ alez)
          (CL-NP-RFL (CL en))
          (CL-PP (CL en))
          (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-ACC (Q Nuls)
                  (PP *ICH*-1))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO elle))
          (NEG n')
          (VJ aime)
          (PP-1 (CP-ADV (CONJS si@)			← SI NON
                        (FRAG (ADVP (ADVNEG @non))
			      (NP (PRO lui)))))
          (PONFP .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Elle))
          (NEG n')
          (VJ veut)
	  (NP-ACC (NCS chose))
	  (CP-ADV (CONJS si)				← SI NON
		  (FRAG (ADVP (ADVNEG non))
			(CP-THT (CONJS que)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO il))
                                        (VJ vient)))))
          (PONFP .)))

In the above cases, the SINON construction is in the scope of negation. Very rarely (once in the existing corpus), this is not the case, and it is therefore clear that SINON has undergone reanalysis, yielding a head meaning 'except'. In such cases, SINON is tagged depending on the syntactic context either as an ADV forming part of a complex subordinating conjunction (as in the naturally occurring example) or as P (as in the artificial variant).

(IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP (ADV depuis))
        (NP-SBJ *pro*)
        (CL-NP-ACC (CL le))
        (VJ racompta)
        (PP (P en)
            (NP (D la)
		(NCS façon)
		(CP-REL (WNP-4 (WPRO que))
		        (IP-SUB (NP-ACC-FS *T*-4)
				(NP-SBJ *pro*)
				(AJ avez)
				(VPP-FS oye)))))
	(PON ,)
        (CP-ADV (ADV sinon)
		(CONJS qu')
		(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO elle))
			(NEG ne)
			(VJ dormoit)
			(ADVP (ADVNEG point)))))

(IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP (ADV depuis))
        (NP-SBJ *pro*)
        (CL-NP-ACC (CL le))
        (VJ racompta)
        (PP (P en)
            (NP (D la)
		(NCS façon)
		(CP-REL (WNP-4 (WPRO que))
		        (IP-SUB (NP-ACC-FS *T*-4)
				(NP-SBJ *pro*)
				(AJ avez)
				(VPP-FS oye)))))
	(PON ,)
        (CP-ADV (ADV sinon)
		(PP (P avec)
		    (NP (D une)
                        (ADJP (ADV tres) (ADJ petite))
                        (NCS alteration)))))

Small clauses (IP-SMC)

Items that license small clause complements (mostly verbs, but note the preposition AVEC) include the following.

APPELER, AVEC, AVOIR,
CLAIMER, CONNAÎTRE, CROIRE, CUIDER,
FAIRE,
NOMMER,
OIR,
(SE) RENDRE,
SAVOIR, (SE) SENTIR,
TENIR, TROUVER,
VOIR

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NCS raison))
	  (VJ voulsist)
	  (CP-THT (CONJS qu')
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ilz))
			  (VJ eussent)
			  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (DZ leur) (NCS peuple))
				  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ franc)))))))

( (IP-MAT (CONJO et)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*) 
	  (VJ avisera)
	  (CP-QUE (CONJS si)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO elle))
			  (VJ a)
			  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D les) (NCPL braz))
				  (ADVP (ADV bien))
				  (VPP couvers))))))

(CP-REL-1 (WNP-2 (WPRO laquelle))
          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ilz))
	          (AJ ont)
		  (VPP tenue)
		  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
		          (ADJP-PRD (ADJ franche)))
		  (PP (P jusques)
		      (PP (P a)
			  (ADVP (ADV cy)))))))

In general, PPs are not treated as small clause predicates. Exceptions are possible with AVEC.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO J'))
          (AJ ai)
          (VPP pris)
          (NP-ACC (NPRS Jeanne))
          (PP (P pour)
              (NP (NCS folle)))
          (PONFP .)))

 (PP (P avec)
      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D le@) (VPP @dict) (NCS conte))
	      (PP (P pour)
		  (NP (NCS embassadeur)))))

SOIT clauses

Simple SOIT clauses are treated as V1 adverbial questions (CP-QUE-ADV).
(CP-QUE-ADV (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *proimp*)		← preverbal subject position by default
                    (VJ soit)
                    (PP (PP (P en)
                            (NP (NCS eglise)))
                        (CONJP (CONJO ou)
                               (ADVP (ADV ailleurs))))))

TOUT SOIT QUE clauses are treated like ALBEIT in the PPCME2, which is a calque on the French. JA SOIT QUE clauses and JA FÛT QUE clauses are treated analogously.

(CP-ADV (QP (Q tout))
	(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 *proimp*)		← preverbal subject position by default
	        (VJ soit)
                (CP-THT-1 (CONJS que)
                          (IP-SUB ...))))

(CP-ADV (QP (Q tout))
        (IP-SUB (VJ soit)
                (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO ce))
	        (CP-THT-1 (CONJS que)
                          (IP-SUB ...))))

(CP-ADV (ADVP (ADV ja@))
        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 *proimp*)		← preverbal subject position by default
	        (VJ @soit)
                (CP-THT-1 (CONJS que)
                          (IP-SUB ...))))

(CP-ADV (ADVP (ADV ja@))
        (IP-SUB (VJ @soit)
                (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO ce))
	        (CP-THT-1 (CONJS que)
                          (IP-SUB ...))))

Split topicalization

See
Leftward or rightward movement?

SUS

courir sus
mettre sus

TOUT SOIT QUE

See
SOIT clauses.

V1 clauses

See
See

Verb fronting

For verb fronting in connection with concessive clauses, see
Free relative clauses.

For clause-initial verbal heads, see Clause-initial heads.

Weather predicates

Weather predicates take an impersonal subject and, if necessary, a direct object.

If the head of the direct object is ambiguous between noun and adjective, it is construed as an adjective with the understood head TEMPS.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PROIMP Il))
          (VJ faisoit)
          (NP-ACC (ADJP (ADJ beau) (CONJO et) (ADJ clair)))
          (PONFP .)))