List of syntactic tags and empty categories

Syntactic tags

Basic syntactic tags


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ


A
ADJP adjective phrase
ADJP-LOC locative adjective phrase
ADJP-PRD predicate adjective phrase
ADJP-SPR adjective phrase, secondary predicate
ADJX adjectival constituent, ambiguous projection (ADJ, ADJ', or ADJP)
ADVP adverb phrase
ADVP-DIR directional adverb phrase
ADVP-LOC locative adverb phrase
ADVP-TMP temporal adverb phrase
ADVX adverbial constituent, ambiguous projection (ADV, ADV', or ADVP)
B
C
CONJP conjunction phrase
CP-ADV adverbial clause
CP-CAR clause-adjoined relative
CP-CLF cleft
CP-CMP comparative clause
CP-DEG degree complement
CP-EOP empty operator clause
CP-EXL exclamation (direct or indirect)
CP-FRL free relative clause
CP-QUE question (direct or indirect)
CP-REL relative clause
CP-THT complement clause
D
E
F
FRAG sentence fragment
G
H
I
ITJP interjection phrase
IP-IMP imperative
IP-INF infinitival complement
IP-INF-ABS absolute infinitive
IP-INF-PRP purpose infinitive
IP-MAT matrix clause
IP-PPL participial clause
IP-PPL-ABS absolute participial clause
IP-SMC small clause
IP-SMC-ABS absolute small clause
IP-SUB subordinate clause
J
K
L
LATIN Latin text
M
N
NP noun phrase
NP-ADT adjunct noun phrase
NP-ADV adverbial noun phrase
NP-COM NP complement (as in LE FILS LE ROI)
NP-DIR directional noun phrase
NP-LOC locative noun phrase
NP-LFD left-dislocated noun phrase
NP-MSR measure noun phrase
NP-OB1 first object
NP-OB2 second object
NP-PART partitive noun phrase
NP-PRD predicate noun phrase
NP-PRN parenthetical or appositive noun phrase
NP-RFL reflexive noun phrase
NP-SBJ noun phrase subject
NP-SPR noun phrase, secondary predicate
NP-TMP temporal noun phrase
NP-VOC vocative noun phrase
NUMP number phrase
NX nominal constituent, ambiguous projection (N, N', or NP)
O
P
PP prepositional phrase
Q
QP quantifier phrase
QTP quotation phrase
QX quantifier phrase, ambiguous projection (Q, Q', or QP)
R
REF reference
RRC reduced relative clause
S
T
U
V
W
WADJP wh- adjective phrase
WADVP wh- adverb phrase
WNP wh- noun phrase
WPP wh- prepositional phrase
WQP wh- quantifier phrase
X
XX tag for unknown phrasal category
Y
Z

Extended syntactic tags

The basic syntactic tags listed above can be modified by the following extended tags (also referred to as dash tags).

Suffix tag Definition Example
-LFD left-dislocated constituent ADVP-LOC-LFD left-dislocated locative adverb phrase
-PRN parenthetical or appositive NP-PRN parenthetical or appositive noun phrase
-RSP resumptive constituent NP-SBJ-RSP resumptive subject
-SPE direct speech (only on CP, IP) CP-REL-SPE relative clause, direct speech
IP-MAT-SPE matrix clause, direct speech

"-#" (a hyphen followed by a numeric index) is used to coindex antecedents and their traces, as well as expletives (overt or empty) that are associated with a clause or noun phrase.

"=#" (an equals sign followed by a numeric index) is used to coindex gapped clauses with full clauses. See Gapping, Right-node raising.

Empty categories

0 empty operator
*arb* empty subject in causative constructions
*con* subject elided under conjunction (default)
*proimp* empty expletive subject
*pro* unambiguous "small pro"
*ICH* abbreviation mnemonic for "insert constituent here"; trace of extraposition, scrambling, or other movement that does not fit neatly into the A/A' dichotomy
*T* trace of wh- movement
* trace of A-movement