Treatment of individual words

For treatment of proper nouns, see
proper nouns and especially Unique entities.
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ+T

In general, the information on this page focuses on morphologically simple items, including bound morphemes like -WARD. Morphologically complex words are the focus of Splitting and joining words.

A

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR God))
          (HVP a)			← A = HAVE
          (NP-OB1 (N mercy))
          (. !)))

ABOARD

The variants of ABOARD are treated as follows. NP-COM is used only when BOARD is spelled as a separate word. Cf. AMID.
(PP (P on)				(PP (P+N aboard)
    (NP (N board)			    (NP (N ship)))
        (NP-COM (N ship))))

(PP (P on)				(PP (P+N aboard)
    (NP (N board)			    (PP (P of)
        (PP (P of)				(NP (D the) (N ship))))
            (NP (D the) (N ship)))))

ABOUT

ABOUT in adverbial use is tagged ADV. See also Number phrase (NUMP).
(NP-TMP (ADV about) (D the) (ADJ same) (N time))

ABOUT as a raising predicate is treated as the head of a prepositional phrase.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (BEP is)
          (PP (P about)
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB rain)))
          (. .)))

ADIEU

ADIEU can be tagged as INTJ or as N.
(IP-MAT (QTP (INTJ Adieu))
        (, ,)
        (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
        (VBD murmured))

(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB bid)
        (NP-OB2 (Q+ONE someone))
	(NP-OB1 (N adieu)))

ADO

ADOWN

AFAR (see FAR)

AGAIN

(ADVP (ADV again)		← no ADVP-TMP

See also ONCE AGAIN.

AGO

AGO is treated as a temporal adverb (despite being derived from AGONE, originally used as the predicate of an absolute small clause).
(ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (D a) (N week))
          (ADV ago))

ALBEIT, ALL BE IT (THAT)

Treated differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora. See ALBEIT, Concessive clauses.

ALIVE

Always treated as
fused, even in modern English, because of ungrammaticality in prenominal position.

ALL

See also ALBEIT, Concessive clauses.

ALL is always tagged Q, but it is not always easy to distinguish floated quantifier ALL from adverbial/intensive ALL. We therefore apply the following default rules.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ hyhe) (N masse))
              (BEP be)
              (ADVP (Q all))
              (DAN done))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.197))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR$ Gryfflettis) (N spere))
              (ADVP (Q all))
              (VBD to-shevirde))
      (ID CMMALORY,38.1206))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ hir) (N horse))
              (BED was)
              (ADVP (Q all))
              (VAN beswette))
      (ID CMMALORY,626.3508))

ALL BUT

When used as a sort of qualifier, ALL BUT is treated as a measure phrase as follows:

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (MD will)
          (BE be)
          (ADJP (NP-MSR (Q all)
                        (PP (P but)))
                (ADJ delirious)
		(IP-INF (TO to)
			(VB see)
			(NP-OB1 (PRO you)))))
   (. .))

ALMIGHTY

ALONE

When ALONE can be paraphrased by ONLY, it is tagged as a focus particle (FP).
He is all alone/ADJ .

alone/ADJ of all the children

God alone/FP knows .

ALONGSIDE

Treated like aboard, amid.

ALSO (see ALSWA, NOT (ONLY) X BUT (ALSO) Y)

ALSWA

ALSWA and ASSWA are not treated alike. ALSWA appears in various reduced forms (ALS, ALSE, ALSO, AS), which can be spelled together or apart.

ALSWA/ALSO is generally tagged with its own tag ALSO. Cf. OR ELSE.

fruit and also_ALSO nuts

I have also_ALSO seen smaller ones.

lordes_NS of_P gret_ADJ honour_N ,_, &_CONJ Also_ALSO power_N

&_CONJ Brutes_NPR$ Sones_NS also_ALSO loueden_VBD wonderly_ADV wel_ADV
to-gydere_ADV

&_CONJ also_ALSO +tey_PRO were_BED vnarrayed_VAN

In Middle English, ALSWA and its variants can be used as an adverb (= IN THAT WAY), either as a modifier or absolutely. It is then tagged ADV when spelled together and al_Q swa_ADV when separated.

+Gef_P +ge_PRO finde+d_VBP +tt_C +ge_PRO don_DOP alswa_ADV as_P +ge_PRO
rede+d_VBP ._, +tonke+d_VBI god_NPR $._, +georne_ADV ._.

Riht_ADV alswo_ADV do_DOI +du_PRO ,_,

Al_Q swa_ADV me_MAN mai_MD ,_, mang_P alles_Q kennes_NS liues_NS menn_NS
,_, sume_Q gode_N and_CONJ sume_Q euele_N finden_VB ._.

Al_Q swo_ADV he_PRO de+d_DOP +to_D men_NS +de_C sennen_NS habbe+d_HVP
forhaten_VBN te_TO laten_VB ,_,

ALSWA in Middle English also has a prepositional use. It is then tagged P when spelled together and al_Q swa_P when separated. See also AS, SO, THAN (preposition).

for_CONJ alswa_P weter_N acwenche+d_VBP fur_N ;_, alswa_ADV
acwenche+d_VBP sunne_N ._.

Luue_VBI +dine_PRO$ nexte_ADJ al_Q swa_P +de_PRO seluen_N ,_,

Al_Q swa_P +de_D angel_N was_BED +gedriuen_VAN ut_RP of_P heuene_N
riche_N for_P modinesse_N ,_, swa_ADV was_BED Adam_NPR ,_,

ALTOGETHER

AMEN

AMID (and variants)

The variants of AMID are treated as follows. NP-COM is used only when MID spelled as a separate word. Cf. ABOARD.
(PP (P in)				(PP (P+N amidst)
    (NP (N midst)			    (NP (NS difficulties)))
        (NP-COM (NS difficulties))))

(PP (P in)				(PP (P+N amidst)
    (NP (N midst)			    (PP (P of)
        (PP (P of)				(NP (NS difficulties))))
            (NP (NS difficulties)))))

AN

For cases ambiguous between AN (D) and ONE (ONE), see AN.

For AN meaning IF, see AND.

AND

AND is generally tagged CONJ, including in number sequences.
two_NUM hundred_NUM and_CONJ fifty-four_NUM
(CONJP (CONJ and)
       (FRAG (ADVP (ADV so))
             (ADVP (ADV forth))))

(CONJP (CONJ and)
       (FRAG (ADVP (ADV so))
             (RP on)))
( (IP-MAT ...
          (FRAG (CONJ and)
                (CP-CAR (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
                        (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                (ADVP (ADV sincerely))
                                (VBP regret))))))

AN(D) meaning IF is tagged P.

(PP (P and)
    (CP-ADV (C 0)
            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
                    (MD myghte)
                    (VB please)
                    (NP-OB2 (D the) (N kynge))
                    (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                              (VB make)
                              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO her))
                                      (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N quene))))))
   (ID CMMALORY,4.108))

AND THAT gapping

The constituent dominating the entire sequence is FRAG. (IP-ABS, the alternative that comes to mind, is not always appropriate.)
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (VBD came)
          (, ,)
          (FRAG (CONJ and)
                (NP (D that / this))
		(ADVP (ADV willingly)))
          (. .)))

ANE (see ONE)

ANOTHER (see OTHER)

AS (complementizer)

See also AS, SO (preposition).

AS is tagged C in the following (relatively rare) cases.

  1. in free relatives (HE DOES AS HE IS TOLD)
    Only_FP doo_DOI as_C I_PRO say_VBP +te_PRO
    
    do_DOI as_C the_D prophete_N saith_VBP
    
  2. in complement clauses, including degree complement clauses, where Modern English has THAT
    +ta_P ha_PRO weren_BED iseten_VAN up_RP ;_, sehen_VBD as_C +te_D
    engles_NS wi+d_P smirles_NS of_P aromaz_NS smireden_VBD hire_PRO$
    wunden_NS
    
    I_PRO shall_MD so_ADVR avaunce_VB $you_PRO as_C ye_PRO shall_MD be_BE
    pleased_VAN
    
  3. in exclamations
    O_INTJ ;_, mine_PRO$ Leoue_ADJ sustren_NS as_C eue_NPR haue+d_HVP
    monie_Q dochtren_NS ._, +tt_C fole+ge+d_VBP hare_PRO$ moder_N ._, +tt_C
    ondswere+d_VBP on_P +tisse_D wise_N ._.
    
    O_INTJ +te_D mihte_N of_P mei+dhad_N as_C +tu_PRO art_BEP iwepnet_VAN
    to_TO weorrin_VB a-+gein_P us_PRO ._.
    
  4. in locative relative clauses, especially with THERE, THIDER, WHERE, etc.
    And_CONJ ye_PRO shall_MD nevir_ADV reste_VB one_ONE nyght_N there_ADV
    as_C ye_PRO do_DOP another_D+OTHER ,_,
    
    ha_PRO beon_BEP istihe_VAN +tider_ADV as_C hare_PRO$ brudlac_N+N
    schal_MD
    
    a+tt_P ha_PRO beon_BEP istihe_VAN +tider_ADV as_C hare_PRO$ brudlac_N+N
    schal_MD ... sitten_VB buten_P ende_N
    
    Hwer_WADV as_C ani_Q of_P +teose_D wes_BED +ter_ADV wes_BED +te_D
    cundel_N o+der_CONJ +te_D alde_ADJ moder_N of_P +te_D attri_ADJ neddre_N
    of_P onde_N
    
    for_CONJ swa_ADV ach_MD ancre_N hire_PRO ane_ONE in_P anli_ADJ stude_N
    as_C ha_PRO is_BEP chirmin_VB &_CONJ chiterin_VB hire_PRO$ beoden_NS
    

AS, SO (degree)

See also SO AS (THAT), SO (THAT).

This item includes the first AS in AS GOOD AS GOLD or AS WELL AS. For the second AS, see AS, SO, THAN (preposition).

When modifying adjectives, adverbs, or quantifiers in comparative or degree contexts, AS (ALS, ALSE, ALSO, ALSWA, etc.) and SO (SE, SWA, etc.) are tagged ADVR. In these contexts, AS and SO can be paraphrased by TO SUCH A DEGREE/EXTENT.

( (ADJP (ADVR as) (ADJ unbelievable))

( (ADJP (ADVR as) (ADJ unbelievable)
        (PP (P as)
            (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
	            (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                            (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                            (MD may)
                            (VB sound))))))

( (ADVP (ADVR as) (ADV comfortably)
        (PP (P as)
            (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
	            (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                            (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                            (BED was)
                            (ADJP (ADJ possible)))))))

( (NP (QP (ADVR as) (Q many))
      (NS olives)
      (PP (P as)
          (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (VBP grow)
                          (PP (P in)
                              (NP (NPR Greece))))))))

( (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ simple))

( (NP (QP (ADVR so) (Q many))
      (ADJ good)
      (NS examples)))

( (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ unbelievable)
        (CP-DEG (C that)
                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                        (VBD defied)
                        (NP-OB1 (N belief))))))

( (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ merciful)
        (IP-INF-DEG (TO to)			← IP-INF-DEG when IP-INF is complement of licensing degree head (SO)
                    (VB forgive)
                    (NP-OB1 (Q all) (PRO$ our) (NS sins)))))

( (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ unbelievable)
        (PP (P as)
            (IP-INF (TO to)			← bare IP-INF when IP-INF is complement of intervening head (AS), not of licensing degree head (SO)
                    (VB defy)
                    (NP-OB1 (N belief))))))

When used as a sort of qualifier, AS GOOD AS or AS MUCH AS are treated as a measure phrase as follows:

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS hens))
          (BEP are)
          (ADJP (NP-MSR (ADVR as) (ADJ good)
                        (PP (P as)))
                (ADJ dead)))
   (. .))

AS, SO, THAN (preposition)

This item includes the second AS in AS GOOD AS GOLD, AS WELL AS, and SUCH AS. For the first AS, see AS, SO (degree).

When AS (ALS, ALSE, ALSO, ALSWA, etc.), SO (SE, SWA, etc.), or THAN introduce NP or clausal complements (whether adverbial, comparative, or degree clauses), they are tagged P. See also ALSWA, ASSWA.

When (SUCH) AS introduces examples, it can take complements of essentially any syntactic category, including (exceptionally) CP-THT.

Examples with AS
such_SUCH examples_NS as_P arise_VBP
problems_NS such_SUCH as_P often_ADV arise_VBP

in_P the_D same_ADJ way_N as_P I_PRO did_VBD it_PRO

'_' I_PRO wylle_VBP wel_ADV ,_, '_' said_VBD the_D kynge_N ,_,
'_' as_P thow_PRO wilt_MD have_HV it_PRO ._. '_'

and_CONJ the_D same_ADJ nyght_N ,_, as_P I_PRO shal_MD ansuer_VB unto_P
God_NPR ,_, this_D child_N was_BED begoten_VAN upon_P me_PRO

and_CONJ suche_SUCH knyghtes_NS as_P Uther_NPR Pendragon_NPR loved_VBD
best_ADVS

ye_PRO shall_MD sende_VB unto_P me_PRO three_NUM knyghtes_NS of_P
youres_PRO$ suche_SUCH as_P ye_PRO truste_VBP

he_PRO nis_NEG+BEP nawiht_NEG alse_ADVR leful_ADJ alse_P him_PRO
bi-houede_VBD

ha_PRO make_VBD him_PRO sunegen_VB on_P hire_PRO swa_ADVR hali_ADJ as_P
he_PRO wes_BED
Examples with SO (only Middle English)
Toward_P +te_D preostes_N$ tiden_N hercni+d_VBI se_ADVR for+d_ADV se_P
+ge_PRO ma+gen_MD ,_.

and_CONJ swa_ADV se_P +tu_PRO for+geuest_VBP +tam_D monne_N +te_C wi+d_P
+te_PRO agulte+d_VBP ;_, swa_ADV +tin_PRO$ drihten_NPR for+geue+d_VBP
+te_PRO +tine_PRO$ misdede_N ._.

Nis_NEG+BEP me_PRO nan_Q ofrende_N swa_ADVR lief_ADJ swa_P godes_NPR$
luue_N and_CONJ alre_Q mannes_NS$

hie_PRO hauen_HVP al_Q swa_ADVR michel_Q swa_P hie_PRO +dar_ADV uppe_P
l+anden_VBP ,_,
Examples with THAN
more_QR unscrupulous_ADJ than_P we_PRO could_MD have_HV imagined_VBN

but_CONJ I_PRO wote_VBP wel_ADV ye_PRO are_BEP of_P an_D hyher_ADJ
blood_N than_P I_PRO wende_VBD {of}_CODE ye_PRO were_BED

Nan_Q +ting_N ne_NEG fli+d_VBP mon_N sonre_ADVR +tenne_P his_PRO$
a+gen_ADJ heorte_N ._.

and_CONJ nime+d_VBP him_PRO .vii._NUM deofle_NS +te_C beo+d_BEP
muchele_Q wurse_ADJR +tenne_P he_PRO

AS IT WERE

AS IT WERE is always treated as parenthetical when WERE takes no complement. When WERE takes a complement, the PP generally receives no dash tag, but may be treated as parenthetical if warranted by the context.

(PP-PRN (P as)					← always parenthetical
        (CP-ADV (C 0)
                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                        (BED were))))
(PP (P as)					← parenthetical or not depending on context
    (CP-ADV (C 0)
            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                    (BED were)
                    (PP (P with)
                        (NP (NS hands))))))

AS WELL AS

Instances of
AS WELL AS are always treated as a comparative construction, even when AS WELL AS is interpreted as a correlative conjunction.
( (IP-IMP (VBI Give)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
          (NP-OB1 (N meat))
          (ADVP (ADVR as) (ADV well)
                (PP (P as)
                    (NP (N drink))))))

Often, the PP headed by the prepositional AS is extraposed, in which case it is coindexed with an *ICH* trace within the ADVP containing the degree modifier AS.

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADVR as) (ADV well)
	         (PP *ICH*-1))
           (NP-SBJ (NS boys))
           (PP-1 (P as)
                 (NP (NS girls)))
           (MD can)
           (VB play)
           (NP-OB1 (D this) (N game)))
   (. .))

(NODE (NP-PRN (ADVP (ADVR as) (ADV wel)
                    (PP *ICH*-3))
              (NS men)
              (PP-3 (P as)
                    (NP (N wymmen))))
      (ID CMAELR3,27.40))

( (IP-IMP (VBI Tak)
          (NP-OB1 (D this) (N rewle)
                  (ADJP (ADJ generall)))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (ADVR as) (ADV wel)
                (PP *ICH*-1))
          (PP (P on)
              (NP (D the) (N bak)))
          (PP-1 (P as)
                (PP (P on)
                    (NP (D the) (N wombe) (N syde))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMASTRO,664.C2.63))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N gardyn))
          (BEP is)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV alweys))
          (ADJP (ADJ grene) (CONJ &) (VAG florisshing))
          (, ,)
          (NP-MSR (Q all) (D the) (NS cesouns)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D the) (N +geer))))
          (ADVP (ADVR als) (ADV wel)
                (PP *ICH*-1))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (N winter)))
          (PP-1 (P as)
                (PP (P in)
                    (NP (N somer))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMANDEV,35.878))

ASLEEP

Always treated as
fused, even in modern English, because of ungrammaticality in prenominal position.

ASSWA

Unlike ALSWA, ASSWA is always treated as a unitary item.

(ADV asswa)			(ADV (ADV21 as) (ADV22 swa))

for_CONJ as_ADV21 swa_ADV22 as_P mon_N islein_VAN is_BEP grislich_ADJ
&_CONJ atelich_ADJ in_P monnes_N$ ech+ge_N alswa_ADV is_BEP +te_D
sunnefule_ADJ bifor_P godes_NPR$ echnen_NS ._.

AS FAR AS

(NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR as)
              (ADJ far)
              (PP (P as)
                  (NP (NPR London)))))

(NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR as)
              (ADJ far)
              (PP (P as)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                  (BEP am)
                                  (VAN concerned))))))

(NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR as)
              (ADJ far)
              (PP (P as)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BEP is)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ reasonable)))))))

AT

For AT BEST and the like, see ADJP complements of P.

AY (see EVER)

A+TET

A+TET (and variants) meaning UNTIL is treated as a unitary preposition, since it can take NP complements as well as clauses.
+Teos_D Meiden_N +tet_C ich_PRO munie_VBP stot_VBD +turh_P
+teos_D steauene_N stercliche_ADV istrenget_VAN ant_CONJ
abad_VBD baldeliche_ADV a+det_P me_MAN com_VBD

+tt_C neauer_ADV a+det_P tes_D dei_N ne_NEG funde_VBD we_PRO
nohwer_Q+WADV nan_Q swa_ADVR deop_ADV ilearet_VAN +te_C
durste_MD sputi_VB wi+d_P us_PRO

ne_CONJ we_PRO nusten_NEG+VBD hwet_WPRO we_PRO duden_DOD
a_P21 +det_P22 he_PRO undutte_VBD us_PRO

BACK

Locative or directional BACK is tagged ADV, not RP.

BECAUSE

BECAUSE is treated as a fused form. When it is written together, the clause following it is treated as the CP-ADV complement of the compound head P+N. When it is written apart, the clause following it is treated as a THAT complement of the noun CAUSE.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR$ Balynes) (N oste))
          (MD myght)
          (NEG $not)
          (BE be)
          (VAN lette)
          (RP in)
          (PP (P+N because)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (HVD had)
                              (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N lady)))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMMALORY,63.2096))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (Q lytyll))
          (VBP appereth)
          (PP (ADV+P +tereof))
          (PP (P+N because)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                              (BEP is)
                              (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ longe))
                                      (PP (P sith)
                                          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                                                          (BED was)
                                                          (VAN destroyed))))))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMMANDEV,10.179))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (N cause)				← by cause that
                  (CP-THT (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (VBD knewe)
                                  (NEG not)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N sheld))))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD demed)
          (CP-THT (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                          (BED was)
                          (NEG not)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO he))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMMALORY,68.2300))

BESIDE(S)

BID

BID takes both bare infinitive and TO infinitive complements. In the bare infinitive case, BID is treated as an inherent ECM verb on the grounds that the postverbal noun phrase can be *arb* in Middle English.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
          (VBD bade)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D the)	← postverbal NP = complement subject
                          (NS grooms)) 
                  (VB feed)
		  (NP-OB1 (D the)
			  (NS horses)))
	  (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
          (VBD bade)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (VB feed)
		  (NP-OB1 (D the)
			  (NS horses)))
	  (. .)))

In the TO infinitive case, the ordinary criteria for deciding between ECM and object control apply. The postverbal noun phrase is treated as an indirect object because BID can be used as a ditransitive verb, as discussed directly below.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
          (VBD bade)
          (NP-OB2 (D the)		← object control; postverbal NP = matrix indirect object
                  (NS grooms)) 
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB feed)
		  (NP-OB1 (D the)
			  (NS horses)))
	  (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
          (VBD bade)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D the)	← ECM because of passive complement
			  (NS horses)) 
		  (TO to)
		  (BE be)
                  (VAN fed))
	  (. .)))

To bid s.o. farewell, welcome is always treated as a ditransitive construction; if necessary, VERY is treated as an adjective.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (VBD bade)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
          (NP-OB1 (ADJ very) (N welcome))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (VBD bade)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
	  (ADVP (ADV heartily))
          (NP-OB1 (N farewell))))

BOTH

BOTH is tagged CONJ when part of the correlative conjunction BOTH ... AND and Q when a quantifier. Cf. EITHER, NEITHER.
both_CONJ ryche_ADJ and_CONJ poure_ADJ

on_P bothe_Q partyes_NS

BUT

BUT can be tagged CONJ (the default), FP, or P.
(NP (NP (N meat))
    (CONJP (CONJ but)
           (NP (NEG not)
	       (NS vegetables))))

The distinction between the conjunction use of BUT on the one hand and the prepositional and focus particle uses on the other is generally clear, but the distinction between the latter two can be difficult. BUT is tagged as P if it can be replaced naturally by EXCEPT or THAN.

nobody but_P you		← not NEG ... BUT construction

nothing but_P blue skies	← not NEG ... BUT construction

a speech which I should not have mentioned, but_P
as_C (= EXCEPT THAT) it shews in so lively
a view the wretched situation of his mind at that time

yet he had no sooner accepted it, but_P (= THAN) he was thrown into great
perplexity
Where replacement by EXCEPT or THAN is not possible (or at least not natural), BUT is tagged FP and attached as low as possible in the tree. The most common case is the NEG ... BUT construction, where NEG + BUT is semantically equivalent to ONLY.

NEG includes NOT or (in Middle English) NE, but not morphologically complex negative quantifiers like NOBODY, NO-ONE, NOTHING, in connection with which BUT is tagged as P (see above).

(NODE (NP (D a)
          (N treasure)
          (, ,)
	  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
		  (C 0)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
			  (VBD knew)
			  (, ,)
			  (CP-THT (C 0)
				  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
					  (MD cou'd)
					  (NEG not)
					  (FP but)
					  (BE be)
					  (ADJP (ADV extremely)
						(ADJ dear)
						(PP (P to)
						    (NP (PRO him)))))))))
      (, ;)
  (ID BEHN,161.98))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D This)
		  (IP-INF-PRN *ICH*-1))
	  (MD $can)
	  (NEG $not)
	  (CODE {TEXT:cannot})
	  (BE be)
	  (NP-OB1 (FP but) (D a) (ADJ great) (N folly))
	  (, ,)
  (ID BRINSLEY,45.193))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
	  (NP-SBJ=1 (PRO it))
	  (MD $can)
	  (NEG $not)
	  (CODE {TEXT:cannot})
	  (FP but)
	  (VB make)
	  (IP-INF (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (Q all) (N+N Mankind))
			  (TO to)
			  (VB tremble))
		  (CONJP (CONJ and)
			 (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *con*)
				 (TO *)
				 (BE be)
				 (VAN filled)
				 (PP (P with)
				     (NP (N Horror))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-THT-1 (C that)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (SUCH such) (D a) (ADJ wretched) (N Creature))
			    (MD should)
			    (VB live)
			    (PP (P upon)
				(NP (D the) (N Earth)))))
	  (. :))
  (ID LISLE,IV,122C1.413))

(NODE (IP-MAT (CONJ neither)
              (MD can)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
              (VB chuse)
              (IP-INF (FP but)
                      (BE be)
                      (ADVP (ADV reasonablie))
                      (VAN satisfied))
              (. ,))
      (ID tchambe,Q_CHM_A_1597_TC_JCHAMBERLAIN:I,32.46))


(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
              (MD could)
              (NEG not)
              (VB chuse)
              (IP-INF (FP but)
                      (VB like)
                      (NP-OB1 (PRO her))))
      (ID tosborn,Q_OSB_A_1653_FN_DOSBORNE:41.923))

Examples of the following sort are semantically distinct (the BUT seems semantically vacuous and syntactically equivalent to TO), but they are annotated the same way.

(NODE (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD will)
              (NEG not)
              (VB fayle)
              (IP-INF (FP but)
                      (VB remembre)
                      (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO$ your) (N$ lordships))
                              (N sute)
                              (PP (P for)
                                  (NP (D the) (VAN forfayted))))
                      (CODE <P_413>)
                      (NP-MSR (QR less))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Salisbury)
                              (PP (P at)
                                  (NP (NPR Denbigh)
                                      (, ,)
                                      (RRC (BAG being)
                                           (NP-OB1 (D the)
                                                   (N land)
                                                   (PP (CODE )
                                                       (NP (PRO$ your) (N lordship))))))))))
              (. .))
      (ID tleyces,Q_LEY_A_1586_T_WCECIL:413.2820))

(NODE (IP-SUB-7 (NP-SBJ *T*-5)
                (MD could)
                (NEG not)
                (VB stay)
                (IP-INF (FP but)
                        (VB salute)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO you))
                        (, ,)
                        (PP (ADV togither)
                            (P with)
                            (NP (PRO$ your) (ADJ honorable) (N espouse)))))
      (ID troyal1,Q_RO1_A_1590_FO_ELIZABETH1:60.356))

Inherently negative or questioning verbs (DENY, DOUBT, FEAR, HINDER, LET, MISTRUST, PREVENT, QUESTION) as well as other verbs or degree words when negated sometimes take finite clausal complements preceded by BUT. As in the NEG ... BUT construction, BUT is tagged FP and attached low (that is, as part of the complement clause).

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV yet))
	  (NP-SBJ (D that))
	  (BEP is)
	  (NEG not)
	  (ADJP (ADV altogether)
		(ADVR so)
		(ADJ necessary)
		(CP-DEG (FP but)
			(C that)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (ADJ low) (NS Walls))
				(MD may)
				(VB serve)
				(NP-OB1 (N turn)))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID LANGF,127.319))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VBP doubt)
	  (NEG not)
	  (CP-THT (FP but)
		  (C 0)
		  (IP-SUB (PP (P at)
			      (NP (ADJ yonder) (N tree)))
			  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
			  (MD shall)
			  (VB catch)
			  (NP-OB1 (D a) (CODE <font>) (N Chub))))
	  (CODE <$$font>)
	  (. ,))
  (ID WALTON,215.150))

Relative clauses of the following type are handled similarly.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=1 (EX there))
     	      (BEP is)
   	      (NP-1 (Q no)
		    (N part)
		    (PP (P of)
		        (NP (D the) (N skin)))
                    (CP-REL (FP but)
		            (WNP-2 0)
			    (C 0)
			    (IP-SUB-4 (NP-SBJ (D the) (N blood))
			              (BEP is)
				      (VAN dispers'd)
				      (PP (P into)
					  (NP *T*-2))
      (ID HOOKE,212.152))

(NODE (PP (P as)
   	  (CP-ADV (WADVP-5 0)
		  (C 0)
   		  (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-5)
			  (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N man)
			 	  (CP-REL *ICH*-6))
   			  (VBP handleth)
			  (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
			  (, ,)
  			  (CP-REL-6 (FP but)
				    (WNP-2 0)
				    (C 0)
				    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
					    (VBP handleth)
					    (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
					    (ADVP (ADV well))))))))
      (ID BACON,1,13R.4))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
	  (NP-SBJ=1 (EX there))
	  (BEP is)
	  (ADVP (ADV hardly))
	  (NP-1 (D a)
		(ADJ large)
		(N Feather)
		(CP-REL *ICH*-2))
	  (PP (P in)
	      (NP (D the)
		  (N wing)
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (D a) (N Bird)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-2 (FP but)
		    (WNP-3 0)
		    (C 0)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
			    (VBP contains)
			    (NP-OB1 (NUMP (ADV neer) (D a) (NUM million))
				    (PP (P of)
					(NP (ADJ distinct) (NS parts))))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID HOOKE,166.176))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
	  (ALSO also)
	  (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N man)
		  (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
	  (BED was)
	  (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
	  (ADJP (ADJ present))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-REL-2 (FP but)
		    (WNP-1 0)
		    (C 0)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
			    (ADVP (ADV wel))
			    (VBD knew)
			    (CP-THT (C that)
				    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N harme))
					    (BED was)
					    (ADVP-TMP (ADV euer))
					    (ADJP (SUCH such))
					    (PP (P since)
						(NP (PRO$ his) (N birth)))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID MORERIC,48.89))

BY

For BY FAR and the like, see ADJP complements of P.

CASE

(PP (P in)
    (NP (N case)
        (CP-THT (C that)			← CP-THT, not CP-ADV
                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                        (VBP come)))))

CITY

When used on its own to refer to the oldest part of London, CITY is tagged NPR. In collocation with OF LONDON, the referent of CITY is not always clear, and it is tagged N by default. Note the difference with TOWER.
(NP (D the) (NPR City))		but:	(NP (D the) (N City)
					    (PP (P of)
					        (NP (NPR London))))

CONSIDER

(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB consider)
        (NP-OB1 (Q+N someone))
        (PP (P as)
            (NP (D a) (N friend))))

COUPLE

See discussion of COUPLE under NP-COM complements of N.

DARE

DATA

Tagged as singular (N) when construed with singular agreement; otherwise as plural (NS).

DEAR

DIRECTLY

(CP-ADV (ADV directly)
        (C 0 / as / that / when)
        (IP-SUB we heard the news)

DO

DO WELL TO

The infinitive in the DO WELL TO construction is annotated as IP-INF-ADT.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO You))
          (MD would)
          (DO do)
          (ADVP (ADV well))
          (IP-INF-ADT (TO to)
                      (VB make)
                      (NP-OB1 (N reservations)))
          (. .)))

DOUBLE, TRIPLE, etc.

DOZEN

See DOZEN, Number phrase (NUMP).

EARLY

(ADVP-TMP (ADV early)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (D the) (N morning))))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV late)
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (N night))))

EITHER

EITHER is tagged CONJ when part of the correlative conjunction EITHER ... OR and Q when a quantifier. There is also an adverbial use, related to the conjunctive use, in which EITHER does not precede the material that it takes semantic scope over. Cf. BOTH, NEITHER.
either/CONJ you or I should do the job .

either/CONJ you should do the job ,/.
or I should .

either_Q way

on either/Q side

I wouldn't do the job, either/ADV.

EKE

EKE is always tagged ALSO.
in-to_P mornyngge_N and_CONJ eke_ALSO in-to_P wepyngge_N

to_P me_PRO byhoue+t_VBP gret_ADJ bysynesse_N and_CONJ eke_ALSO trauayle_N

Of_P this_D roote_N eek_ALSO spryngeth_VBP a_D seed_N of_P grace_N

And_CONJ eek_ALSO Job_NPR seith_VBP that_C in_P helle_NPR is_BEP noon_Q
ordre_N of_P rule_N

ELSE

The word ELSE in the sequence OR ELSE is tagged ELSE. Cf. AND ALSO.
(PP (PP (P with)
        (NP (D a) (ADJ sherpe) (N spere)))
    (CONJP (CONJ othir) (ELSE ellis)
	   (PP (P with)
	       (NP (D a) (ADJ sherpe) (N swerde)))))

When it clearly means something like OTHER or OTHERWISE, it is tagged ADJ or ADV. ELSE as a post-head modifier (as in somebody else, somewhere else) is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
	  (ADVP (ADV else))
	  (NP-SBJ (D this) (N exposition))
	  (BED were)
	  (NEG not)
	  (ADJP (ADJ right))
	  (. .)))

ENOUGH

ENOUGH is a degree word and hence tagged as a comparative. It is tagged ADJR if it stands alone or modifies a noun. Otherwise, it is tagged ADVR.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (HVP have)
          (HVN had)
	  (NP-OB1 (ADJR enough))
          (. .)))

(NP (ADJR enough) (N room)
    (PP (P for)
        (NP (Q+N everybody))))

ENOUGH as a post-head modifier (as in money enough, rich enough) is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

ETC.

ETC. and its spelling variants are tagged FW.

EVEN

Ordinarily, EVEN is tagged FP. But when it means CLOSE AT HAND (as it can in Middle English), it is tagged ADV.
as_P they_PRO com_VBD by_P an_D ermytage_N evyn_ADV by_P a_D chyrcheyerde_N

EVER

EVER is always tagged ADV. See also EVERY.
swottre_ADJR +ten_P eauer_ADV eani_Q +ting_N

for_P whi_WADV for_P the_D knytting_N togidrere_ADV of_P the_D heed_N
to_P the_D body_N hooly_ADJ scripture_NPR spekith_VBP sumtyme_Q+N of_P
euer_ADV either_Q vndir_P oo_ONE resoun_N

(ADVP (ADV ay) (D the) (ADVR worse))

(ADJP (ADV ever) (D the) (ADJR better))

similarly:

(ADJP-LOC (ADV never) (D the) (ADJR nearer))

EVERY (and variants)

EVERY (with its variants), though derived from EVER-EACH, is tagged as a unitary Q.
Et_P +te_D biginning_N of_P eauer_Q21 vh_Q22 tide_N

eauer_Q21 euch_Q22 bruche_N

EXCEEDING

EXCEEDING is ordinarily tagged VAG, but as ADV when it means EXCEEDINGLY.
an/D exceeding/VAG benefit/N
exceeding/ADV strange/ADJ

EXIT (in stage directions)

EXIT is listed as a headword in the OED in its stage direction sense and is tagged as VBP, in accordance with
our convention regarding FW. The same goes for EXEAT and EXEUNT, except when the subject is in Latin.
( (META (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *pro*)
                (VBP Exit / Exeat)
                (. .))))

( (META (IP-MAT (VBP Exit / Exeat)
                (NP-SBJ (NPR Miss) (NPR Hoyden))
                (. .))))

( (META (IP-MAT (VBP Exeunt)
                (NP-SBJ (NPR Romeo) (CONJ and) (NPR Juliet))
                (. .))))

( (META (LATIN (FW Exeunt) (FW omnes / ambo))
        (. .)))

EXEANT is not listed as a headword in the OED and is hence tagged as FW.

( (META (FW Exeant)
        (. .)))

( (META (LATIN (FW Exeant) (FW omnes / ambo))
        (. .)))

FAR

FAR is always tagged ADJ. See NP measure phrases for the conventions concerning adjectives used as measure phrases. AFAR is treated as a unitary variant of FAR. FARTHER, FURTHER is treated as the comparative of FAR and tagged ADJR in all uses.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
          (MD must)
	  (VB go)
   	  (NP-MSR (ADJR further)))
          (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-MSR (ADJR further)))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
	  (VBP see)
	  (NP-OB1 (D the) (VAG following) (N problem))
          (. .))

(CP-ADV (C that)
        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
	        (MD might)
		(NP-ADV (D the) (ADJR better)		← exceptional NP-ADV because of conjunction
		        (CONJP (CONJ &)
			       (ADJX (ADJR farder))))
	        (BE be)
		(VAN knowen)
		(PP (P with)
		    (NP (N prayse)
		        (PP (P of)
			    (NP (ADJ vulgare) (NS folk)))))))

FAREWELL

FAREWELL is always tagged as a unitary item, either as INTJ or N.
(IP-MAT (QTP (INTJ farewell))
        (, ,)
        (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
        (VBD murmured))

(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB bid)
        (NP-OB2 (Q+ONE someone))
	(NP-OB1 (N farewell)))

(NP (D a) (ADJ fond) (N (N21 fare) (N22 well)))

FAST

FAST as the predicate of a small clause (SHE MADE THE GATES FAST) is tagged ADJ and projects a bare ADJP. In locative uses like FAST BY THE CASTLE, it is tagged ADJ and projects a locative ADJP (ADJP-LOC). Otherwise, FAST is tagged ADV.
fast_ADV asleep_P+N
The_D two_NUM brothers_NS strove_VBD fast_ADV for_P the_D land_N .
The_D arrows_NS flew_VBD fast_ADV and_CONJ furiously_ADV .
to_TO run_VB faster_ADVR

FIRST

FIRST is tagged ADJ when used as an ordinal number and ADV when used as a temporal adverb. In neither case is it tagged as a superlative.

(NP (D the) (ADJ first) (N time))

(PP (P at)
    (NP (D the) (ADJ first)))		← note contrast with AT FIRST

(PP (P at)
    (ADVP (ADV first)))			← note contrast with AT THE FIRST

(ADVP-TMP (ADV first))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV first)
          (PP (P of)
	      (NP (Q all))))

+t=e=_D firste_ADJ me_MAN callyd_VBD Lotryn_NPR ,_, +t=e=_D secounde_ADJ
Albanac_NPR ,_, &_CONJ +t=e=_D thryd_ADJ kambyr_NPR ._.

So_ADV firste_ADV they_PRO put_VBD kynge_NPR Idres_NPR in_P the_D cite_N
of_P Nauntis_NPR

for-as-miche_P+ADVR+Q as_P +tai_PRO were_BED of_P Engistes_NPR$
Kynrede_N ,_, +tat_C first_ADV hade_HVD al_Q +te_D lande_N of_P
Britain_NPR ;_.

FOR

For FOR CERTAIN and the like, see ADJP complements of P.

FOR can be an ordinary preposition or subordinating conjunction (P), an infinitive marker (FOR), or a coordinating conjunction (CONJ).

Where ambiguous between FOR and P, FOR is tagged P if construed with one of the verbs listed below, and as FOR otherwise.

ask, ache, aim, burn, burst, call, care, clamour, contend, crave, hope, itch, long, plan, prepare, sue, wait, yearn

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
	  (VBD called)
	  (PP (P for)
	      (NP (PRO him)))
	  (IP-INF (TO to)
		  (VB solve)
		  (NP-OB1 (D the) (N problem)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO it))
          (MD would)
	  (BE be)
	  (ADJP (ADJ desirable))
	  (IP-INF-1 (FOR for)
		    (NP-SBJ (PRO him))
		    (TO to)
		    (VB solve)
		    (NP-OB1 (D the) (N problem)))))

When used as a causal conjunction, FOR is generally tagged as a coordinating conjunction (CONJ). It is tagged as a subordinating conjunction (P) in the following cases, which are essentially restricted to Middle English.

FORASMUCH

The AS in FORASMUCH is tagged ADVR, but the AS clause is always labelled CP-ADV (not CP-CMP). Depending on the spelling, the CP-ADV is treated as the complement of the compound P+ADVR+Q or of the quantifier. INASMUCH and INSOMUCH are treated the same way.
(PP (P+ADVR+Q forasmuch)		(PP (P for)
    (PP (P as)				    (QP (ADVR as) (Q much))
        (CP-ADV ...)))			        (PP (P as)
					            (CP-ADV ...))))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P when)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Humbar))
                              (VBD saw)
                              (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hem))
                                      (VB come)))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
          (ADJP (ADV sore) (VAN adrad))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P+ADVR+Q forasmyche)
              (PP (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (NS men))
                                  (VBD wist)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
                                  (NEG not)))))
          (. ,))
          (ID CMBRUT3,13.347))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
              (BEP be)
              (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (D +te) (N$ kynges)
                              (PP *ICH*-1))
                      (N douter)
                      (PP-1 (P of)
                            (NP (NPR heuene))))
               (, ,)
               (PP (P for)
                   (QP (ADVR as) (Q muche)
                       (PP (P as)
                           (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                           (HVP hast)
                                           (VBN ywedded)
                                           (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N sone)
                                                   (NP-PRN (NPR Criste)))))))))
        (ID CMAELR3,33.204))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ For)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (DOP dooth)
          (NP-OB1 (N wrong))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (NPR Jhesu) (NPR Crist)))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P in)
              (QP (ADVR as) (Q muche)
                  (CODE <P_311.C1>)
                  (PP (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                                      (VBP bynymeth)
                                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N service)
                                              (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                                      (C that)
                                                      (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                              (NP-SBJ (NS men))
                                                              (MD oghte)
                                                              (DO doon)
                                                              (PP (P to)
                                                                  (NP (NPR Crist)
                                                                      ))
                                                              (PP (P with)
                                                                  (NP (Q alle) (N diligence)))))))))))
          (, ,)
          (PP-PRN (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WNP-2 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                  (VBP seith)
                                  (NP-SBJ (NPR Salomon)))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMCTPARS,311.C1.973))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (HVP haue)
              (VBN preuyd)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO +te))
              (PP (P be)
                  (NP (NP (Q many) (NS tribulacyons))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (NP (Q many) (ADJ gret) (N heuynes)))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (CONJ &)
                             (NP (Q many) (ADJ grevows) (N sekenes)))))
              (PP (P in)
                  (QP (ADVR so) (Q mech)
                      (CP-ADV (C +tat)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                      (HVP hast)
                                      (BEN ben)
                                      (VAN $a-noynted)
                                      (PP (P for)
                                          (ADJP (ADJ deed)))))))
              (. ,))
              (ID CMKEMPE,51.1159))

( (IP-MAT (NP-VOC (N Suster))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
          (HVP hast)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV ofte))
          (VBN axed)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (PRO me)))
          (NP-OB1 (D a) (N forme)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (N lyuyng)))
                  (RRC (VAG accordyng)
                       (PP (P to)
                           (NP (PRO$ thyn) (N estat)))))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P+ADVR+Q inasmuche)      ← written as one word
              (PP (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                                  (BEP art)
                                  (VAN enclosed)))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMAELR4,1.10))

FORMER

FORTH

FORTH has a focus particle use.

When used as a directional adverb, it projects an ADVP-DIR.

FORTNIGHT and similar expressions

(PP (NP-MSR (NUM+N Seven-night))
    (P after)
    (NP (D the) (N Fight)))

(NP-TMP (D the) (ADJ very) (N Day)
        (PP (NP-MSR (N Fortnight))
    	    (P before)
            (NP (NPR Michaelmas-Day))))

(NP (D the) (NPR Wednesday)
    (ADVP (NP-MSR (NUM+N seven-night))
	  (ADV after)))

(NP-TMP (D this) (N day)
        (NP-TMP (N fortnigt)))

(NP-TMP (NPR Saturday)
	(CP-ADV (IP-SUB (VBP come)	← by analogy to COME THE REVOLUTION
                        (NP-SBJ (NUM+N senight)))))

(NP-TMP (NPR Monday)
        (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                        (ADVP-TMP (ADV last))
                        (BED was)))
        (NP-TMP (NUM+N sevenight)))

FORWHI

See Splitting and joining, FORWHI plus clause.

FURTHER (see FAR)

GO

The annotation of the GO (AND) ... construction depends on whether AND is present. With AND, the construction is treated as an instance of
conjunction. Without AND, GO is treated as licensing a purpose infinitive (not a bare infinitive complement, as with the TRY (AND) ... construction).
(IP-INF (VB go) (CONJ and) (VB eat))

(IP-INF (IP-INF (VB go))
        (CONJP (CONJ and)
               (IP-INF (VB make)
                       (NP-OB1 (D a) (N reservation)))))

(IP-INF (VB go)
        (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
                    (VB eat)))

(IP-INF (VB go)
        (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
                    (VB make)
                    (NP-OB1 (D a) (N reservation))))

GOOD-BYE

GREAT BRITAIN

HALF

HALF is tagged NUM by default. It can also be tagged as Q or N. The following cases of the default are common:

HALF is tagged Q when it acts adverbially (roughly comparable to PARTIALLY) or when it precedes a determiner.

if_P the_D bishop_N that_C is_BEP but_FP half_Q given_VAN to_P Gods_NPR$
service_N does_DOP nothing_Q+N ...

half_Q a_D year_N

they_PRO had_HVD gotten_VBN half_Q the_D world_N

Otherwise, HALF is tagged N. See also the discussion of HALF under NP-COM complements of N.

(PP (P in)
    (NP (Q no) (N half)))

(NP (D the) (ADJ latter) (N half))

(NP (D this) (N half)			← HALF = SIDE
    (NP-COM (NPR Humber)))

(PP (P on)
    (NP (D this) (N half)		← HALF = SIDE
        (NP-COM (D the) (N sea))))

HER

The morphologically ambiguous HER is treated as accusative by default (including when part of the reflexive pronoun HERSELF).

HOWBEIT, HOW BE IT (THAT)

Treated differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora. See HOWBEIT, Concessive clauses.

HOWEVER

HOWEVER is tagged WADV+ADV. The quantifier and adverbial senses are distinguished in the syntax.

IF

IF is tagged P when introducing adverbial clauses and WQ when introducing questions (including direct questions) (parallel to WHEN). See IF questions for more details.

Ambiguous cases can be resolved by replacing IF by IN CASE. If the replacement is not possible or gives rise to a different meaing, IF is treated as WQ by default.

If_P you_PRO notice_VBP anything_Q+N strange_ADJ, let_VBI us_PRO know_VB

I_PRO will_MD ask_VB if_WQ they_PRO noticed_VBD anything_Q+N strange_ADJ

Tell_VBI me_PRO if_WQ you_PRO notice_VBP anything_Q+N strange_ADJ

Than_ADV she_PRO salewed_VBD the_D kynge_N and_CONJ the_D quene_N
and_CONJ asked_VBD if_WQ that_C sir_NPR Launcelot_NPR were_BED there_ADV
,_.

thynke_VBI at_P +te_D begynnynge_N if_WQ +tat_C it_PRO be_BEP Goddes_NPR$
will_N or_CONJ noghte_NEG ._.

and_CONJ sche_PRO asked_VBD him_PRO +gif_WQ +tat_C he_PRO were_BED a_D
knyght_N

IF NOT

IF is treated as taking FRAG complement (possibly unary-branching and generally binary-branching).
(NP (NUM two)
    (PP (P if)
        (FRAG (NEG not)
              (NP (NUM three))))
    (NS years)

ILKE

ILKE is tagged ADJ when it follows a determiner (or basically means SAME rather than EACH).
+tat_D ilk_ADJ day_N

with_P +tilke_D+ADJ Iuditha_NPR

+tey_PRO schulde_MD in_P +tilke_D+ADJ dayes_NS faste_VB and_CONJ be_BE
chaste_ADJ

ILKE is tagged Q when it means roughly EACH. The nominal head with which it is construed can have a determiner, as in ILK A ONE.

in_P ilk_Q anger_N +tat_C he_PRO suffers_VBP

ilk_Q ane_ONE bryghter_ADJR +tan_P other_OTHER

ilk_Q a_D man_N

ilk_Q a_D morsel_N

ILL

ILL in the sense of "sick" is tagged ADJ.

IN

For IN PARTICULAR and the like, see ADJP complements of P.

See also IN ORDER TO.

INASMUCH, INSOMUCH (see FORASMUCH)

INNER

INNERMOST

INSIDE

(NP (D the) (N inside) (N track))

(PP (P on)
    (NP (D the) (N inside)))

(PP (P inside)
    (NP (D the) (N house)))

(PP (P inside)
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (D the) (N house))))

KIND

See discussion of KIND under NP-COM complements of N.

LAST

LAST is tagged either ADJ or ADV (but in neither case as a superlative).
(NP (D the) (ADJ last) (N chapter))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (VBD read)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV last))))

(PP (P at)
    (NP (D the) (ADJ last)))	

(PP (P at)
    (ADVP (ADV last)))

LATE

For the treatment of phrases like LATE AT NIGHT, see
EARLY.

LATER

LATTER

LEAST

LEAST is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

LESS

LESS is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

LESS THAN

In The Book of Margery Kempe, LES +TAN with the meaning UNLESS is treated like FORTHI.

LET

( (IP-IMP (VBI $Let)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO $'s))
                  (CODE {TEXT:Let's})
                  (VB do)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (VBD let)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (NPR George))
                  (VB do)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))

The expression LET (SOMEONE) BLOOD is a Class II ditransitive construction.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (N doctor))
          (VBD let)
          (NP-OB2 (D The) (N patient))
          (NP-OB1 (N blood))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (N patient))
          (BED was)
          (VAN let)
          (NP-OB1 (N blood))))

LET ALONE

(IP-IMP-PRN (VBI let)
            (IP-SMC (ADJP (ADJ alone))
                    (NP-SBJ ...)))

LIKE (adjective)

See also NP complements of ADJ.

(NP (D the) (ADJ like))

(NP (PRO$ his) (ADJ like))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NS Dingos))
          (VBP look)				← copular verb
          (ADJP (ADJ like)			← ordinary predicative ADJP
                (NP (NS dogs)))
          (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (ADJP-SPR (ADJ Like)			← secondary predicate
                    (NP (NS dogs)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (HVP have)				← ordinary verb
          (NP-OB1 (ADJ impressive) (NS teeth))
          (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (HVD had)
          (ADJP (ADJ like)
                (IP-INF (TO to)
                        (HV have)
                        (VBN killed)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO him))))
          (. .)))

LIKE (verb)

See Single NP object with LIKE and similar verbs (LACK, NEED, WANT).

LITTLE

As a general rule, LITTLE is tagged ADJ when it can be replaced by SMALL or SHORT and as Q elsewhere (but see A LITTLE below).
(NP (D a) (ADJ little) (N boy))

(NP (D a) (ADJ little) (N time / way / while))

(NP (D a) (ADJ little) (N bit))
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (N wine))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (BEP are)
	  (ADJP (ADVR too) (ADJ little)))
  (. .))

(NP (Q little) (N work))

(NP (QP (ADVR too) (Q little))
    (N work))

(ADJP (NP-MSR (Q little))
      (ADJ worth))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (HVP have)
          (NP-OB1 (QP (ADVR too) (Q little))
		  (N bread)))
  (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (VBP work)
          (NP-MSR (Q little)))
  (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (VBP work)
          (NP-MSR (QP (ADVR too) (Q little))))
  (. .))

When the collocation A LITTLE precedes a mass noun or, more generally, when it functions as a measure phrase, it is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora. In the PPCME2, A LITTLE is sometimes treated as containing an ADJ and sometimes a Q (see examples below). The distinction is too difficult to maintain in this context, and in the later corpora, A LITTLE is always treated as a measure phrase containing an ADJ (understood to be modifying an empty nominal head). In other words, A LITTLE is treated analogously to A LITTLE BIT. Note the consequences for the enclosing phrasal labels (see Measure phrase, Quantifier phrase for discussion).

PPCME2						Later corpora

(NP (D a) (ADJ litel) (N reste))		(NP (NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ litel))
						    (N reste))

(NP (QP (D a) (Q littill))			(NP (NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ littill))
    (N wyn))					    (N wine))

						(NP (NP-MSR (D a)
							    (ADJP (ADV very) (ADJ little))
						    (N wine))

						(IP-PPL (NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ little))
						        (VAN surprised))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO Wit))			same as PPCME2
          (MD moten)
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV +giet))
          (NP-MSR (D a)
                  (ADJ litel))
          (VB swinken)))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)				( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P of)		                          (PP (P of)
              (NP (D that)			              (NP (D that)
                  (ADJ grete)		                          (ADJ grete)
	          (N beawte`)))					  (N beauty)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))				  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (HVD had)				          (HVD had)
          (NP-OB1 (QP (D a) (Q litill))		          (NP-OB1 (NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ litill))
                  (N pryde))))					  (N pryde))))

LONG

LONG is always treated as an adjective. See NP measure phrases for the conventions concerning adjectives used as measure phrases.
a long_ADJ story_N

five_NUM feet_NS long_ADJ

not_NEG long_ADJ behind_ADV

to_TO have_HV dwelled_VBN here_ADV the_D longest_ADJS

LOWER

LOWERMOST

MAKE BOLD, MAKE MERRY

In both of these expressions, MAKE is treated as taking a small clause complement with an empty subject.
( (IP-MAT (META (NP (CODE <font>) (NPR Ford) (, .) (CODE <$$font>)))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VBP make)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
		  (ADJP (ADJ bold)
			(, ,)
			(IP-INF (TO to)
				(VB presse)
				(, ,)
				(PP (P with)
				    (NP (QP (ADVR so) (Q little))
					(N preparation)))
				(PP (P vpon)
				    (NP (PRO you))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID SHAKESP,46.C1.390))

(NODE (IP-SUB (PP (P when)
    	          (CP-ADV (C 0)
		          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N neede))
			          (BED was)
				  (ADJP (ADJ great)))))
	      (, ,)
	      (NP-SBJ (PRO hee))
   	      (MD would)
	      (VB make)
	      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
		      (ADJP (ADJ bold)
			    (IP-INF (TO to)
				    (VB use)
				    (NP-OB1 (PRO him)))))
	      (. .))
      (ID ARMIN,24.295))

(NODE (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
	          (VB make)
		  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
			  (ADJP (ADJ merry)))
		  (PP (P in)
		      (NP (NPR Essex))))
      (ID PENNY,52.350))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
	      (VB make)
   	      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
		      (ADJP (ADJ merry)))
	      (PP (P with)
	          (NP (NP (PRO you))
		      (CONJP (CONJ and)
 			     (NP (PRO$ your) (N Wife)))))
	  (. .))
  (ID RALEIGH,1,218.193))

MAN

MANNER

See discussion of MANNER under NP-COM complements of N.

MANY

(NODE (NP (QP (D a) (ADJ great) (Q many))
          (NS problems)))

MARY, MARRY and spelling variants

MEANS

MEANS is invariably tagged as a plural noun, even when preceded by a singular determiner (THIS, THAT) or conjoined with a singular noun.

METHINKS

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO $Me))
          (VBP $thinks)
          (CODE {TEXT:Methinks})
          (CP-THT-1 ...)))

MICHEL (see MUCH)

MIDDLE

See discussion of MIDDLE under NP-COM complements of N.

MORE

See also ONCE MORE.

MORE is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

When used as a sort of qualifier, MORE THAN is treated as a measure phrase as follows:

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (MD will)
          (BE be)
          (ADJP (NP-MSR (QR more)
                        (PP (P than)))
                (ADJ happy)
		(IP-INF (TO to)
			(VB help)
			(NP-OB2 (PRO you)))))
   (. .))

MOST

MOST is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

MUCH

MUCH is treated slightly differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

NAWIHT (see NOT)

NE

NE is tagged CONJ when used as a conjunction (NOR) and NEG when used as a negative particle (NOT).

NEAR

When used adverbially to mean ALMOST, NEAR and NIGH are tagged ADV, and NEARER is tagged ADVR. See also Number phrase (NUMP).
for_CONJ hit_PRO ys_BEP nere_ADV nyght_N ._.

kynge_NPR Idres_NPR _CODE was_BED nere_ADV discomfited_VAN

Otherwise, NEAR and NIGH are tagged ADJ, and NEARER is tagged ADJR. Depending on the meaning, they project a locative ADJP (ADJP-LOC) or a measure phrase (NP-MSR). See also NP complements of ADJ.

But_CONJ thou_PRO arte_BEP more_QR nere_ADJ thy_PRO$ deth_N than_P I_PRO
am_BEP ,_.

Kyng_NPR Edmunde_NPR went_VBD +to_ADV neir_ADJ

NEED(S)

See NEED(S) (adverbial), NEED (impersonal), NEED (modal vs. verb)

NEITHER

NEITHER is tagged CONJ when it is a coordinating conjunction or part of the correlative conjunction NEITHER ... NOR, and as Q when a quantifier. There is also an adverbial use, related to the conjunctive use, in which NEITHER does not precede the material that it takes semantic scope over. Cf. BOTH, EITHER.
neither_CONJ God nor man

neither_CONJ is this the right answer .

but_CONJ neither_CONJ is this the right answer .

neither_Q of them

they couldn't do it neither/ADV .

NETHER

NETHERMOST

NEVER

(NP (ADV never) (D a) (N penny))	← ADV, not NEG

For NEVER + D + ADJR/ADVR, see EVER.

NEWS

NEWS is tagged as N rather than NS.

NEXT

NEXT is tagged as ADJS when used as a locative head (possible in early English).
swich_SUCH shamefast_ADJ folk_N been_BEP next_ADJS foryevenesse_N

+te_D man_N mai_MD be_BE god_NPR next_ADJS

NEXT with the meaning NEIGHBOUR is tagged N.

Luue_VBI +dine_PRO$ nexte_N al_Q swa_P +de_PRO seluen_N

All other uses of NEXT are tagged ADJS when NEXT is a prenominal modifier and ADVS otherwise. See also NP complements of ADJ.

As an adverb, NEXT projects an ADVP-TMP, whether used in a strictly temporal sense or as a discourse sequencing particle.

(NP (D the) (ADJS next) (N turn))

(NP-TMP (ADJS next) (NPR Sunday))

(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB come)
	(ADVP-TMP (ADVS next)))

(PP (ADVS next)
    (P before)
    (NP (PRO$ his) (N death)))

(ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (NUM three) (NS dayes))
 	  (ADVS next)
	  (PP (P before)
	      (NP (NPR Easter))))

NIGH (see NEAR)

NO

NO is ordinarily tagged Q. When parallel to YES, it is tagged INTJ. When functioning as sentential negation, notably in WHETHER OR NO clauses, it is tagged NEG.
(NP (Q no) (N mention))

(NP-MSR (ADJP (Q no) (ADJR longer)))

(NP-MSR (ADJP (Q no) (ADJR further)))

(QP (Q no) (QR more))

( (IP-MAT (' ')
          (QTP (INTJP (INTJ No)))
	  (' ')
          (VBD said)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (. .)))

NO MATTER WHAT

(NP-ADV (Q no) (N matter)
        (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
		        (VBP happens))))

(NP-ADV (Q no) (N matter)
        (CP-QUE (WNP (WPRO what))))		← sluicing

NONE

NONE is ordinarily tagged Q, but is tagged NEG in WHETHER OR NO clauses.
(CP-QUE-SUB-ADV (WQ whether)
                (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (MD wole)
 	                          (VB werke)
                                  (PP (P by)
		                      (NP (D that) (N conseil))))
                        (CONJP (CONJ or)
                               (IP-SUB=1 (NEG noon)))))

NOR

NOR is generally a coordinating conjunction (CONJ). Occasionally, it is used as a preposition (P).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO You))
          (MD shall)
          (VB hear)
          (NP-OB1 (QP (Q much) (QR more))
                  (PP (P nor)
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
			              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                      (MD can)
		                      (VB *))))))
   (. .))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (EX there))
              (MD scholde)
              (HV a)
              (BEN be)
              (NP-1 (QR more)
                    (N labor)
                    (IP-INF (FOR for)
                            (TO to)
                            (VB sete)
                            (RP done)
                            (NP-OB1 (ADJ Flemeche) (N money)))
                    (PP (P nor)
                        (CP-CMP (WNP-2 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                        (MD can)
                                        (VB here)
                                        (PP (P of)
                                            (NP *T*-2)))))))
     (ID tcely01,Q_CEL_A_1478_FN_RCELYSR:33.600))

NOT

NOT is ordinarily tagged NEG, but with the meaning NOTHING, it is tagged Q.
al_Q for_P nawt_Q +tu_PRO prokest_VBD me_PRO

Ant_CONJ +tah_ADV nis_NEG+BEP inempnet_VAN her_ADV nawt_Q of_P
heouenliche_ADJ luren_NS +te_C passi+d_VBP alle_Q wi+d-uten_P euenunge_N
._.

for_P +tt_D ful+de_N nis_NEG+BEP hit_PRO nawt_Q

In early texts where NAWIHT has not yet differentiated into NOT and NOUGHT, it is tagged Q if an object is required, and NEG otherwise, even when it occupies a position not usually associated with NOT.

and_CONJ he_PRO him_PRO naue+t_NEG+HVP nawiht_NEG iholpen_VBN

he_PRO him_PRO nawiht_NEG ne_NEG help_VBD

NOT THAT ...

(CP-ADT (NEG Not)
        (C that)
        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                (VBP know)))

NOTWITHSTANDING

NOTWITHSTANDING is tagged as a unitary ADV when used absolutely and as a unitary P when it takes a complement clause or NP.
We love him notwithstanding_ADV.

We love him, notwithstanding_P his various faults.

We love him, notwithstanding_P that he is often late for appointments.

NOUGHT (see NOT)

NOW THAT

(ADVP-TMP (ADV now)
          (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                  (C 0 / that)
                  (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                          (BEP are)
                          (VAN trained))))

OF

For OF CERTAIN and the like, see ADJP complements of P.

ON

For ON INSTANT and the like, see
ADJP complements of P.

ONCE

When ONCE has a meaning analogous to TWICE, THRICE, it is tagged NUM.
(NP-TMP (FP but) (NUM once))

(NP-TMP (NUM once)			← ONCE = head; MORE = posthead; cf. one time more
	(QP (QR more)))

(ADVP (NUM once) (ADV again))		← ONCE = premodifer; AGAIN = head

(ADVP (NUMP (ADV yet) (NUM once))
      (ADV again))

When ONCE introduces a subordinate clause, it is tagged P.

(PP (P once)
    (CP-ADV (C 0)
            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
                    (HVP have)
		    (NP-OB1 (D the) (N answer)))))

Otherwise, ONCE is tagged as a temporal adverb.

(ADVP-TMP (ADV once)
          (PP (P upon))
              (NP (D a) (N time)))

(PP (P at)
    (ADVP (ADV once)))

ONE, ONES

For cases ambiguous between ONE (ONE) and AN (D), see AN.

ONE with the meaning ALONE in a copular construction or small clause is tagged ADJ.

+ter_ADV ha_PRO weren_BED ane_ADJ bi_P ham_PRO seolf_N

$hu_WADV hise_PRO$ deciples_NS flu+gen_VBD alle_Q from_P
him_PRO &_CONJ leafden_VBD him_PRO ane_ADJ ._.

When ONE means ONLY, ALONE and follows the noun or pronoun it focuses or when it follows NOT in the meaning NOT ONLY, it is treated as a focus particle (FP).

wi+d-uten_P Crist_NPR ane_FP

hie_PRO bie+d_BEP ut-iworpen_VAN +durh_P dieules_NPR$ lare_N ,_,
naht_NEG for_P hem_PRO seluen_N ane_FP ,_, ac_CONJ for_FOR o+dre_OTHERS
ec_ALSO awei_ADV te_TO affleien_VB

+De_D mann_N ne_NEG leue+d_VBP naht_NEG $be_P bread_N ane_FP

for_CONJ +te_D nome_N of_P ester_NPR ne_NEG sei+d_VBP naut_NEG ane_FP
ab_FW scondita_FW ._, +tt_D is_BEP naut_NEG ane_FP ihud_VAN

Focus particle ONE can appear in the genitive (when modifying a genitive).

&_CONJ in_P his_PRO$ anes_FP seruise_N hare_PRO$ lif_N lea+de+d_VBP
"and in the service of him alone [she] leads her life"
In all other uses (cardinal number, noun, pronoun, etc.), ONE is tagged with its own tag ONE (or ONES if marked for plural).

TONE (= THE + ONE) is tagged D+ONE even in the presence of another determiner. Cf. ANOTHER, TOTHER.

(NP (D+ONE thone) (N Halfe))

(NP (D The) (D+ONE tone))

ONLY

ONLY can be tagged as an adjective (ADJ) or as a focus particle (FP).
	
(NP (D a) (ADJ only) (N child))

(NP (FP only) (D a) (N child))

OR

OR is ordinarily tagged CONJ. As a variant of ERE (= BEFORE), it is tagged P.

OTHER

OTHER is tagged CONJ when it means either EITHER or OR.
(PP (CONJ other)				←  OTHER = EITHER
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (PRO$ his) (NS capons)))
    (CONJP (CONJ or)
	   (PP (P of)
	       (NP (PRO$ his) (N money)))))


( (IP-MAT (CONJ other) (ELSE els)		←  OTHER = OR
	  (NP-SBJ (NUM two) (NS sydes))
	  (BEP bee)
	  (ADJP (ADJ equall))))

Otherwise, it is tagged with its own tag OTHER. The tag OTHERS is used for clearly plural referents, even without overt plural marking. Under certain circumstances, the dollar tag appears directly on OTHER(S).

(NP (Q all) (OTHER other) (ADJ good) (NS orders))

(NP (NP (D the) (ONE one))
    (CONJP (CONJ and)
           (NP (D the) (OTHER other))))

(NP (Q each) (OTHER other))

(NP (NP-POS (D the) (OTHER$ others))
    (N fynger))

(NP (Q many) (OTHERS other))

(PP (P on)
    (NP (OTHERS$ others) (NS shoulders)))

ANOTHER and TOTHER (= THE + OTHER) are tagged D+OTHER even in the presence of another determiner. Cf. TONE.

(NP (D+OTHER th'other))

(NP (D the) (D+OTHER tother))

OUTER

OUTERMOST

OUTSIDE

Treated like
INSIDE.

OVER

When it functions as a degree modifier, OVER is tagged as ADVR. See Splitting and joining for details of this OVER in compounds.

PASSING

PASSING is ordinarily tagged VAG. It is tagged ADV when it means EXCEEDINGLY and in phrases like PASSING THREE THOUSAND. See Number phrase (NUMP).
Than_ADV was_BED he_PRO passyng_ADV hevy_ADJ

and_CONJ sir_NPR Percivale_NPR was_BED passynge_ADV glad_ADJ a_D
passynge_ADV good_ADJ knyght_N

PAST

In keeping with our policy of not distinguishing between the adjectival and verbal use of participles, participial PAST (PASSED, PASS'D, etc.) is always tagged VBN.
(NP (VBN past) (NS times))

(PP (P in)
    (NP (NS times)
        (RRC (VBN past)))

(NP-TMP (NPR Wednesday)
        (RRC (VBN past)))

(NP-TMP (NPR Wednesday)
        (RRC (ADVP-TMP (ADV last))
	     (VBN past)))

(NP-TMP (NUM three) (NS days)		← note treatment as NP-TMP
        (RRC (VBN past))
PAST also has a prepositional use.
(PP (P past)
    (NP (PRO$ his) (N+N bedtime)))

PEOPLE

PEOPLE is tagged as a singular noun (N) when preceded by an unambiguously singular determiner (A, THAT, THIS), and as a plural noun (NS) elsewhere.

PLEASE

In the phrase MAY IT PLEASE X, PLEASE may take an infinitival complement or a THAT clause with overt complementizer.
( (IP-MAT (MD May)
          (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO it))
          (VB please)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
          (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                    (VB send)
                    (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
                    (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N trunke)))
          (. ,))
      (ID tbasire,Q_BAS_D_1666_FN_PBASIRE:256.496))

( (IP-MAT (MD Maye)
          (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO yt))
          (VB please)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO$ her) (N Ma=tie=))
          (CP-THT-1 (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                            (MD may)
                            (VB knowe)
                            (NP-OB1 (PRO$ her) (N pleasure))
			    (...))))
  (ID torigin,Q_OR2_A_1565_T_TRANDOLPH:200.1220))

( (IP-MAT (VBP Please)
          (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO yt))
          (NP-OB2 (PRO$ your) (N Highnesse))
          (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                    (VB understand)
                    (CP-THT (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-TMP (D the) (ADJ xiiij=th=.) (N day)
                                            (PP (P of)
                                                (NP (D this) (N Month))))
                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                    (VBD wrote)
                                    (PP (P to)
                                        (NP (PRO$ your) (N Grace)))
                                    (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (ADJ last) (NS Lettres)))))
          (. ,))
      (ID torigin,Q_OR1_A_1519_T_RWINGFIELD:139.479))

More commonly, however, a finite clause following PLEASE appears without an overt complementizer. In this case, the clause containing PLEASE is treated as a parenthetical, and the clause following it as the matrix clause.

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-PRN (VBP Pleas)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO itt))
                      (NP-OB2 (PRO$ your) (N Grace)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (HVP have)
          (NP-TMP (D thys) (N daye))
          (VBN visite)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N Lady)
                  (NP-PRN (NPR Margarite)))
          (. ,))
      (ID torigin,Q_OR1_A_1519?_T_RPACE:156.583))

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-PRN (MD Maye)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                      (VB please)
                      (NP-OB2 (PRO$ your) (N Honor)))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBD commytted)
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N Keper)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D the) (ADJ same) (N Game))))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (N warde)))
          (, ,)
          (IP-PPL (VAG meanynge)
                  (ADVP (ADV nevertheles))
                  (PP (P uppon)
                      (NP (N sute)))
                  (IP-INF (TO to)
                          (VB bayle)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
                          (PP (P untill)
                              (NP (D the) (ADJ general) (NS Sessions)))))
          (. .))
      (ID torigin,Q_OR2_D_1569_T_BRANDOLPH:256.1272))

The expression PLEASE GOD is also treated as parenthetical with an expletive subject (MAY IT PLEASE GOD).

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBP desire)
          (IP-INF (IP-INF (TO to)
                          (VB knowe)
                          (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV when))
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                                          (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
                                          (VBP meane))))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (IP-INF (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                                             (VBP pleas)
                                             (NP-OB2 (NPR God)))
                                 (, ,)
                                 (TO to)
                                 (VB moue)
                                 (NP-OB1 (D this) (N way)))))
          (. .)) (ID tharley,Q_HAR_A_1643_FN_BHARLEY:198.1736))

PLENTY

(NP (ADJ great) (N plenty)
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (N wine))))

(NP (N wine)
    (NP-PRN (ADJ great) (N plenty)))

STORE is treated in the same way.

POST

( (IP-INF (TO to)
          (VB arrive)
          (NP-ADV (N post))))

PRAY (including PRITHEE)

Apparent uses of PRAY as an interjection are treated as parenthetical clauses with silent arguments (see below).

PRAY (and similar verbs like BESEECH, BID, CHARGE, CONJURE, ENTREAT, REQUIRE, SAY) can take CP-THT or IP-INF complements. In both cases, the first object is labelled NP-OB2.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (ADVP (ADV hertely))
          (VBP praye)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
          (CP-THT (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                          (MD may)
                          (HV haue)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ youre) (N quytaunce))))
          (. .))
      (ID tbrereto,Q_BRE_D_1528_FS_RLEFTWICH:80.225))

( (IP-MAT (NP-VOC (N Sir))
          (, -)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBP beseech)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
          (CP-THT (C y=t=)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO$ our) (N maryag))
                          (MD may)
                          (BE be)
                          (VAN kept)
                          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ privat)))))
          (. .)) (ID tharley,Q_HAR_A_1654_FN_EHARLEY:219.1976))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBP pray)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
	  (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB come))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBP pray)
          (NP-OB2 (NPR God))
	  (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB protect)
		  (NP-OB1 (PRO you)))))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBP pray)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB sende)
                  (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
                  (NP-OB1 (N answere)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (Q all) (D this) (N letter))))
                  (PP (P with)
                      (NP (Q some) (ADJ trusty) (N body))))
          (. ,))
      (ID tbrereto,Q_BRE_D_1520S_T_JPULETSON:71.14))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (ADV+P therfore))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV eftsones))
          (VBP beseke)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO youe))
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB make)
                  (NP-OB1 (D an) (N ende))
                  (PP (P if)
                      (CP-ADV (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                      (PP (P in)
                                          (NP (Q any) (N wise)))
                                      (MD can)
                                      (VB *)))))
          (. .))
      (ID tbrereto,Q_BRE_A_1526_T_RBRERETON:73.48))

In cases without an overt complementizer or infinitival TO, it is often not clear what the proper analysis is. By convention, such cases are matched against the following possible structures; the first one that fits is applied.

PRITHEE

For POS tagging, see Items that are split. For syntactic treatment, see PRAY.

QUOTHA

RATHER

Even though RATHER has no corresponding positive or superlative, it is tagged ADVR on the grounds that it behaves like a comparative in other respects (licensing THAN complements).

REVEREND

RID

( (VB get)
  (ADJP (VAN rid)
        (PP (P of)
            (NP (Q+N something)))))

RX (= RECIPE)

RX is always treated as FW at the word level. As the head of an English imperative, it is additionally annotated as VBI.
( (LATIN (FW Misce) (. .) (CODE <$$font>))
  (ID CLOWESOBS-E2-P2,41.24))

( (LATIN (CODE )
         (FW Rx.)
         (FW Diasenae) (CODE {COM:dram_symbol}) (FW j.) (FW ss.)
         (FW Sirr.) (FW fumariae) (, ,) (CODE {COM:ounce_symbol}) (FW j.)
         (FW Aquae) (FW scabiosae) (, ,) (CODE {COM:ounce_symbol}) (FW iij.))
  (ID CLOWESOBS-E2-P2,41.23))

( (IP-IMP (VBI (FW Rx.))
	  (NP-ACC (NUM two)
		  (NS spoonefuls)
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (ADJ French) (N barly))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID CLOWESOBS-E2-P2,41.36))

SAME

(PP (P in)
    (NP (D the) (ADJ same) (N way)
        (PP (P as)
            (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                    (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (PP (P (CODE {in}))		← note "chopped" preposition
                               (NP *T*-1))
                            (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                            (DOP do)
                            (NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))))

(PP (P in)
    (NP (D the) (ADJ same) (N way)
        (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                (C that)
                (IP-SUB (PP (P (CODE {in}))		← note "chopped" preposition
                            (NP *T*-1))
                        (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                        (DOP do)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO it))))))

SAVE

SAVE and SAVING when used as prepositions are tagged P.
all save/P one

alle_Q the_D remenaunt_N of_P Normandy_NPR ,_, savyng_P Chyrborowe_NPR

+tou_PRO wost_VBP neuer_ADV what_WPRO ,_, sauyng_P +tat_C +tou_PRO
felist_VBP in_P +ti_PRO$ wille_N a_D nakid_ADJ entent_N vnto_P God_NPR
._.

SAVING (see SAVE)

SCORE

See SCORE, Number phrase (NUMP).

SEVEN-NIGHT (and variants)

See FORTNIGHT.

SHORTLY

When SHORTLY clearly means 'in a short while', it projects a temporal adverb phrase (ADVP-TMP). Otherwise, it projects a bare adverb phrase (ADVP).

SIDE

SIDE (and also HALF) routinely take bare NP complements in Middle English, and this usage continues into Modern English. See also discussion of SIDE under NP-COM complements of N.

SIDEWAYS

(N+N$ sideways)		← WAYS = old adverbial genitive

SLEEP

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (VBD dropped)
	  (RP off)
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (N sleep)))))

SO (adverb)

When not used in a degree sense (ADVR) or as a preposition (P), SO is tagged ADV. In its adverbial use, SO can generally be paraphrased by IN THAT WAY.
(IP-INF (ADVP (ADV so))
        (TO to)
        (VB say)))

He_PRO is_BEP a_D wise_ADJ man_N ,_.

and_CONJ must_MD be_BE so_ADV acknowledged_VAN
by_P the_D world_N ._.

See AS ... SO clauses for a common case.

SO (degree) (see AS, SO (degree))

SO (preposition) (see AS, SO, THAN (preposition))

SO AS (THAT), SO AS TO

See also SO (THAT).

When SO modifies an AS clause, the entire AS clause is treated as a PP, and SO as a premodifier. When SO has this sense, it is optional, and the entire construction can be paraphrased as IN THE WAY THAT. This construction is essentially restricted to Middle English.

( (IP-IMP (DOI Do)
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N work))
	  (PP (ADV so)
              (P as)
	      (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
			      (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
			      (VBD said)))))
   (. .))

Otherwise, SO in SO AS (THAT) and SO AS TO clauses is treated as a degree adverb (ADVR) or as a preposition (P), depending on its sense. In the degree adverb sense, SO either modifies an adjective or adverb or a natural paraphrase can be found where that is the case; in the preposition sense, SO AS TO can be more or less naturally paraphrased by IN ORDER TO. AS, too, is treated as a preposition with a CP-ADV or CP-DEG complement (rather than as a complementizer).

(PP (P so)
    (PP (P as)
        (CP-ADV (C that/0)
                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                        (VBD made)
			(NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ big) (N splash))))))

(ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ big)
      (PP (P as)
          (CP-DEG (C that/0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                          (VBD made)
			  (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ big) (N splash))))))

(PP (P so)
    (PP (P as)
        (IP-INF (TO to)
                (VB make)
		(NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ big) (N splash)))))

(ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ big)
      (PP (P as)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB make)
	  	  (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ big) (N splash)))))

(ADJP (ADJ big)
      (ADVP (ADVR enough)
            (PP (P so)
                (PP (P as)
                    (IP-INF (TO to)
                            (VB make)
            	  	    (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ big) (N splash)))))))

SO BE IT (THAT)

Treated differently in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora. See Concessive clauses.

SO (THAT)

See also SO AS (THAT), SO AS TO.

Separated SO ... THAT clauses are always treated as extraposed degree complements.

SO introducing purpose and result clauses is labelled as P with a CP-ADV complement. The complementizer may be silent. In this case, the meaning is often more akin to AS LONG AS than to SO THAT. However, the two meanings are not always clearly distinct, and they are not distinguished in the annotation.

(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
        (VBP adden)
        (NP-OB1 (N clernesse)
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (N renoun))))
        (PP (P to)
            (NP (D the) (NUM thre) (ADV+VAN forseyde) (NS thynges)))
        (, ,)
        (PP (P so)
            (CP-ADV (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (EX there))
                            (NEG ne)
                            (BEP be)
                            (PP (P amonges)
                                (NP (PRO hem)))
                            (NP-1 (Q no) (N difference)))))
        (ID CMBOETH,429.C2.42))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (NUM .iij.) (N part)
                  (PP (P toward)
                      (NP (D the) (NPR Septentrion))))
          (BEP is)
          (ADJP (ADV full) (ADJ cold))
          (PP (P so)
              (CP-ADV (C +tat)
                      (IP-SUB (PP (P for)
                                  (NP (NP (ADJ pure) (N cold))
                                      (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                             (NP (ADJ contynuell) (N frost)))))
                              (NP-SBJ (D the) (N water))
                              (VBP becometh)
                              (NP-OB1 (N Cristall)))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMMANDEV,104.2529))

SOMEWHAT

SON

(NP (D the) (NPR Son))		← when referring to Jesus Christ (SON is a unique entity.

(NP (D the) (NPR Son)		← when referring to Jesus Christ (SON is a unique entity.
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (NPR God))))

(NP (D the) (N Son)		← even when referring to Jesus Christ because of syntactic form
    (PP (P of)
        (NP (N Man))))

STILL

STILL is tagged ADV when it has a temporal meaning. Otherwise, it is tagged ADJ. Unclear cases are tagged ADV by default.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (BEP is)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV still))
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
          (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (VBD lay)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
          (ADJP-SPR (ADV quite) (ADJ still)))
          (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (VBD lay)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV still))	← default
          (. .)))

STORE

See PLENTY.

SUCH

For AS in SUCH AS, see AS, SO, THAN (preposition).

SUCH is always tagged with its own tag SUCH.

SUCH is not treated completely alike in comparative contexts and in degree complement contexts. In comparative contexts, the comparative complement (or its trace, if it is extraposed) is treated as the sister of SUCH, not as its complement.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (SUCH such) (NS problems)
                  (PP (P as)
                      (NP (PRO$ yours))))
          (MD can)
          (BE be)
          (VAN solved))
   (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (SUCH such) (NS problems)
                  (PP (P as)
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (VBP arose)))))
          (BED were)
          (VAN solved))
   (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (FP only) (SUCH such) (NS foods)
                  (PP *ICH*-1))
          (MD will)
          (BE be)
          (VAN sold))
          (PP-1 (P as)
                (NP (NS nuts) (CONJ and) (NS berries)))
   (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (FP only) (SUCH such) (NS problems)
                  (PP *ICH*-1))
          (MD should)
          (VB arise)
          (PP-1 (P as)
                (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
			        (NP-SBJ we)
                                (MD can)
	  		        (VB solve)))))
   (. .))

By contrast, in degree contexts, the clausal complement, whether extraposed or not, is treated as the complement of SUCH. Accordingly, SUCH projects a phrase, specifically, an ADJP.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (BED was)
	  (PP (P in)
	      (NP (ADJP (SUCH such)
			(CP-DEG *ICH*-2))
		  (D a)
		  (N case)
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (N joy)))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-DEG-2 (C that)
			    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ=1 (PRO it))
				    (BED was)
				    (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N boot))
				    (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
					      (VB bid)
					      (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO him))
						      (VB make)
						      (NP-OB1 (N hast))))))))
	  (. :))
  (ID ARMIN,10.94))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (BEP is)
	  (NP-OB1 (D a)
		  (N man)
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (ADJP (SUCH suche)
				(CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
			  (N charite)
			  (CP-DEG-1 (C as)
				    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
					    (HVP have)
					    (NEG not)
					    (VBN seen)
					    (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJ like)))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID BEDYLL,1.2,77.7))

SUDDEN

(PP (P of/on)
    (NP (D a/the) (ADJ sudden)))

THANK GOD

Whenever possible, (I) THANK GOD is treated as a matrix clause taking a complement clause rather than as a parenthetical.

THERE

Existential THERE (EX) is distinguished from adverbial THERE (ADV). The default is EX.

R-pronoun THERE (as in THEREFORE, THEREON, etc.) is tagged ADV. Depending on whether it is spelled together with the preposition, the result is treated as a compound (exceptionally not split) or as an ordinary phrase.

(PP (ADV+P thereupon))		(PP (ADVP (ADV there)
				    (P upon))

R-pronoun WHERE is treated analogously.

THEREFORE

THEREFORE is tagged ADV+P in all readings, like any other preposition with R-pronoun. Note the change from PPCME1 where THEREFORE was sometimes treated as an adverb.

THILKE

Information concerning POS tagging, splitting.

THRICE

TIMES

TODO

TONE (= THE ONE) (see ONE)

TODAY

TODAY is tagged as N, not ADV.

TOMORROW

TOMORROW is tagged as N, not ADV.

TONIGHT

TONIGHT is tagged as N, not ADV.

TOO

TOO is tagged ADVR in degree contexts and ADV when it means ALSO.
too_ADVR happy_ADJ
too_ADVR much_Q cake_N

I_PRO like_VBP him_PRO too_ADV ._.
I_PRO too_ADV like_VBP him_PRO ._.

TOTHER (= THE OTHER) (see OTHER)

TOUCHING

TOUCHING in AS TOUCHING X is tagged VAG. In other prepositional uses, TOUCHING is tagged P.
and_CONJ in_P hym_PRO was_BED +te_D ende_N of_P +te_D empere_N
touchynge_P Charles_NPR his_$ ofspringe_N ._.

TOWER

When referring to the Tower of London, TOWER is always tagged NPR, regardless of whether it is modified by OF LONDON or not. Note the difference with CITY.
(NP (D the) (NPR Tower))	(NP (D the) (NPR tower)
				    (PP (P of)
				        (NP (NPR London))))

TREBLE

TRIPLE

TRY (AND) ...

The annotation of the TRY (AND) ... construction depends on whether AND is present. With AND, the construction is treated as an instance of
conjunction. Without AND, TRY is treated as licensing an infinitival complement (not a purpose infinitive, as with the GO (AND) ... construction).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (MD will)
          (VB (VB try) (CONJ and) (VB eat))))

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
                    (MD will)
                    (VB try))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (IP-MAT=1 (VB make)
                           (NP-OB1 (D a) (N reservation))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (MD will)
          (VB try)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB eat))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (MD will)
          (VB try)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB make)
                  (NP-OB1 (D a) (N reservation)))))

TWICE

UNDERMOST

UPPER

UPPERMOST

UPRIGHT

UPRIGHT is tagged ADJ in prenominal position and as the predicate of a copular verb or small clause, and ADV otherwise.

UTMOST

UTTERMOST

-WARD

The information here focuses on POS assignment. Issues concerning splitting and joining compounds in -WARD are discussed in general terms in Splitting and joining words, and in particular s.v. -WARD.

When used as adjectives, combinations with -WARD (BACKWARD, DOWNWARD, INWARD, OUTWARD, UPWARD) are treated as unitary adjectives.

Combinations with -WARD that are used as prepositions (FROWARD, TOWARD, etc.) are tagged as unitary prepositions.

&_CONJ firse+d_VBP him_PRO awei_ADV froward_P vre_PRO$ steuene_N

and_CONJ makede_VBD his_PRO$ weie_N toward_P ierusalem_NPR

All other uses and occurrences are tagged WARD, which is either part of a complex (+) POS tag (ADV+WARD, N+WARD, NPR+WARD, RP+WARD, etc.) or a separate tag, depending on whether -WARD is spelled as a separate orthographic word.

The first part of a -WARD compound is tagged RP only if it is on the list of adverbial particles.

(ADVP-DIR (ADV+WARD forwardes))

(ADVP-DIR (RP+WARD towarde) (CONJ and) (ADV+WARD forwardes))

(NP (D a) (ADJ northwarde) (N declination))

(NP (D its) (N declination)
    (NP-DIR (N+WARD northwarde)))		← NP-DIR by default

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
	      (CONJ But)
	      (WADVP-1 (WADV+WARD whotherward))
	      (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP-DIR *T*-1)
		      (VBP ryde)
		      (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
		      (, ?)
		      (' ')
		      (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
				  (NP-SBJ (NPR Merlion))))
	      (. .)))

(ADVP-DIR (ADV+WARD +tedir-ward))

(PP (P+D+ADJ+N+WARD to-+te-holy-place-warde))

(PP (P+PRO$+NPR+WARD to-owr-Lord-ward))

(PP (P tyll)
    (NP (NPR+WARD Jhesuwarde))

(PP (P to)
    (NP (D the) (NS justes) (WARD ward)))

(PP (P to)
    (NP (PRO$ thy) (NS dethe) (WARD ward)))

(IP-MAT-SPE (ADVP (ADV Treuly))
            (CONJ and)
	    (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	    (MD schal)
	    (ADVP-TMP (ADV neuyr))
	    (VB turne)
	    (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N face))
	    (PP (P fro)
	        (NP (PRO him) (WARD ward))))

WEEK

For SATURDAY WEEK and similar expressions, see FORTNIGHT.

WELL

WELL in the sense of "healthy" is tagged ADJ.

WHAT

WHAT, like WHICH, is tagged WD or WPRO depending on whether it is followed by a noun. See Wh- words.

WHATEVER

(NP (Q no) (N yarn)
    (NP-PRN (CP-FRL (WNP (WPRO+ADV whatever)))))

WHEN

WHEN is tagged P when introducing adverbial clauses and as WADV when introducing questions (including indirect questions) or relative clauses. As in the case of IF, ambiguous cases are taken as the wh- word.
When_WADV did they arrive?

I will ask when_WADV they arrived.

Tell me when_WADV you first noticed something strange.

Many times when_WADV they come, they bring a present.

When_P you notice anything strange, let us know.

When_P syre Ector beheld the swerd he retorned ageyne.

When_P I cam home for my broders swerd I fond nobody at home.

WHERE

WHERE is ordinarily tagged WADV, but is tagged WQ when introducing (indirect) yes-no questions (like WHETHER).
and_CONJ axede_VBD +tere_ADV of_P an_D holy_ADJ man_N +tat_C was_BED
solitaire_ADJ ,_, where_WQ he_PRO my+gte_MD overcome_VB +te_D
Longobardus_NPRS o+ter_CONJ no_NEG ._.

and_CONJ we_PRO witen_VBP not_NEG wer_WQ hit_PRO be_BEP ri+gt_ADJ ._.

R-pronoun WHERE (as in WHEREFORE, WHEREIN, etc.) is treated like its non-wh counterpart THERE.

WHETHER

See also IF.

WHETHER OR NO(T)

Depending on its position in the larger structure, OR NO(T) is treated as ordinary gapping or backwards gapping.
(CP-QUE-SUB-ADV (WQ Whether)
                (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                                  (VBP rains))
                        (CONJP (CONJ or)			← ordinary gapping
                               (IP-SUB=1 (NEG no)))))

(CP-QUE-SUB-ADV (WQ Whether)
                (IP-SUB (CONJP (CONJ or)			← backwards gapping
                               (IP-SUB=1 (NEG no)))
		        (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                                  (VBP rains))))

WHICH

(THE) WHICH, like WHAT, is tagged WD or WPRO depending on whether it is followed by a noun. See Wh- words.

WHILE

WHILE(S) (THAT) is treated as a preposition taking an adverbial clause, but THE WHILE(S) (THAT) is treated as an NP-MSR containing a relative clause.
( (IP-IMP (CONJ and)
          (PP (P whil)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N slep))
                              (BEP is)
                              (PP (P on)
                                  (NP (PRO here))))))
          (, ,)
          (VBI let)
          (IP-INF (VB cleue)
                  (PP (P to)
                      (NP (PRO$ here) (NS ribbes)))
                  (NP-SBJ (Q sum) (N sentence)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (ADJ holy) (NS wrytyngges)))))
          (. ,))
          (ID CMAELR3,31.134))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (NS men))
          (VBD toke)
          (NP-OB1 (NPR$ Machometes) (N swerd))
          (PP (RP out) (P of)
              (NP (PRO$ his) (N schethe)))
          (PP (P whils)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (VBD slepte)))))
          (ID CMMANDEV,91.2254))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
          (MD moten)
          (VB idre+gan)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ ure) (N wil))
          (NP-MSR (D +te) (N hwile)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +te)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                  (BEP beo+d)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ +gunge)))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMLAMBX1,29.348))

( (IP-IMP (VBI Fle)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (ADJ delicat) (NS metes))
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (ADJ doucet) (NS drinkes))))
          (NP-MSR (Q al) (D the) (N while)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                                  (BEP art)
                                  (NEG not)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ syke)))))
          (. ;))
          (ID CMAELR4,8.206))

WITH

In examples like with a feather in his hat, the default is to treat the lower PP as the predicate of a small clause complement of WITH rather than as a nominal modifier.
(PP (P with)				← default = this structure
    (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D a)
                    (N feather))
            (PP (P in)
   	        (NP (PRO$ his)
	            (N hat)))))

(PP (P with)				← not this structure
    (NP (D a)
        (N feather)
        (PP (P in)
	    (NP (PRO$ his)
	        (N hat)))))

WONDER

WONDER with the the meaning of WONDROUSLY is tagged ADV.

WORTH

When WORTH means VALUE, WORTH is tagged N. Otherwise, it is tagged ADJ.
an_D object_N of_P great_ADJ instrinsic_ADJ worth_N

not_NEG worth_A much_Q
worth_A ten_NUM dollars_NS
Unskillful_ADJ penance_N is_BEP little_Q worth_A .

See NP complements of ADJ.

(I) WOULD (GOD)

(I) WOULD (GOD) always takes a CP-THT complement. GOD is treated as NP-OB2.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
              (VBD wold)
              (NP-OB2 (NPR God))
              (CP-THT (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (PP *T*-3)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                              (HVD had)
                              (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (D a) (N$ monthes))
                                      (N companye))
                              (ADVP-LOC (ADV ther)))))
      (ID tallen,Q_ALL_A_1579_T_WALLEN:15.86))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
              (VBD wuld)
              (NP-OB2 (NPR God))
              (CP-THT (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                              (MD cowd)
                              (VB know)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO yt))
                              (ADVP (ADVR as)
                                    (ADV veryly)
                                    (PP (P as)
                                        (CP-CMP (WADVP-5 0)
                                                (C 0)
                                                (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-5)
                                                        (NP-SBJ (PRO y))
                                                        (VBP thynke)
                                                        (NP-OB1 (PRO yt)))))))))
      (ID torigin,Q_OR1_A_1490S?_FN_MBEAUFORT:47.143))

YESTERDAY

YESTERDAY is tagged as N, not ADV.

YET

YET is ordinarily tagged ADV, in which case it projects an ADVP-TMP if it has a temporal meaning. Following negative conjunctions, it also serves as a focus particle.
(NP (ADV yet) (D+OTHER another) (N example))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV yet))		← adversative, not temporal
 	  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (ADVP (ADV hardly))
          (VB know)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO her))
          (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (ADVP (ADV hardly))
          (VB know)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO her))
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV yet))		← temporal
          (. .)))

(NP (NP (PRO they))
    (CONJP (CONJ ne)
           (NP (FP yet) (Q ony)
               (PP (P of)
                   (NP (PRO them))))))

YONDER

YONDER is tagged D when it modifies a noun, but ADV when used adverbially.
lete_VBI it_PRO be_BEP delyverd_VAN to_P me_PRO at_P yonder_D pryvy_ADJ
posterne_N

if_P he_PRO aventure_VBP his_PRO$ body_N with_P yondir_D knyght_N at_P
the_D fountayne_N

for_CONJ I_PRO se_VBP yondir_ADV a_D kynge_N

yondir_ADV ys_BEP the_D swerde_N that_C I_PRO spoke_VBD off_P

+TA +TA

+TA +TA in the meaning WHEN (THAT) is tagged +ta_P +ta_C.
Godd_NPR he_PRO unwur+dede_VBD +da_P +ta_C he_PRO +dolede_VBD +dat_C
his_PRO$ wi+derwine_N him_PRO ouercam_VBD