Clause-level constituents


This section focuses on the annotation of constituents at the clausal level. Separate sections are devoted to the internal syntax of constituents and to the various types of subordinate clauses.


Adjective phrase (ADJP)

Predicate adjectives

Bare ADJPs at the sentence level are predicates of the copular verbs listed below or of
small clauses.
APPEAR, BE, BECOME, CHANCE, CONTINUE, FALL, FEEL, GET, GROW, KEEP, LOOK, PLEAD (in legal sense), PROVE, REMAIN, SAVOR, SEEM, SHOW, SMELL, SOUND, STAY, TASTE, TURN, WAX
( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Thenne))
          (BED was)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kyng))
          (ADJP (ADVR wonderly) (ADJ wroth))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.29))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (D the) (ADJ laste)))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Terquyne))
          (VBD wexed)
          (ADJP (ADJ faynte)))
  (ID CMMALORY,192.2836))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
              (VBD semed)
              (ADJP (ADJR yonger)
                    (PP (P $than)
                        (NP (D that)
                            (OTHER othir)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,666.4837))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (BED was)
          (ADJP (ADVR so)
                (ADJ fre)
                (CP-DEG (C +tat)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NS men))
                                (VBD resceyued)
                                (ADVP-LOC (ADV +tere))
                                (NP-OB1 (Q all)
                                        (N manere)
                                        (PP (P of)
                                            (NP (NS fugityfes)
                                                (PP (P of)
                                                    (NP (OTHER o+ter)
                                                        (NS places)))
                                                (PP (P for)
                                                    (NP (PRO$ here)
                                                        (ADJ euyl)
                                                        (NS dedes)))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMANDEV,43.1072))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO She))
          (VBD made)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS gates))
                  (ADJP (ADJ fast))))
          (. .))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (VBD saw)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D thes) (NUM two) (NS bodyes))
                      (ADJP (ADJ dede))))
      (ID CMMALORY,53.1774))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (D the) (N monestery)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD founde)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D a) (N preste))
                  (ADJP (ADJ redy)))
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (D the) (N awter)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,660.4612))

Locative adjectives (ADJP-LOC)

See also NP complements of adjectives.

Certain adjectives (CLOSE, FAR, FAST, NEAR, NIGH) when used in a locative sense project a locative adjective phrase (ADJP-LOC), regardless of whether they are predicates or not.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
          (BEP beo+d)
          (ADJP-LOC (ADV ful) (ADJ feor)
                    (PP (P from)
                        (NP (PRO ham)))))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.161.2209))

( (IP-IMP (ADVP-TMP (ADV Nu))
          (NP-VOC (PRO$ mine) (ADJ leoue) (NS sustren))
          (, .)
          (PP (P from)
              (NP (Q al) (ADJ uuel) (N speche)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tt)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BEP is)
                                  (ADVP (ADV +tus))
                                  (ADJP (ADJ +treofald)
                                        (, .)
                                        (ADJP-PRN (ADJ Idel) (, .) (ADJ ful) (, .) (CONJ &) (ADJ attri)))))))
          (, ;)
          (VBI halde+d)
          (ADJP-LOC (ADJ feor))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ ouwer) (NS earen))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.71.809))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD lyved)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV first))
          (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (N anker) ($ his))
                  (N lyf))
          (ADJP-LOC (ADJ faste)
                    (PP (P by)
                        (NP (D +te) (N ryver)
                            (PP (P of)
                                (NP (NPR Rone))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,295.2161))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD dwelled)
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (D +te) (N brigge)))
          (PP (P uppon)
              (NP (NPR Sevarne)))
          (, ,)
          (ADJP-LOC (ADJ faste)
                    (PP (P by)
                        (NP (NPR Wales))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,393.2880))

(NODE (IP-INF-PRP (FOR for)
                  (BE ben)
                  (ADJP-LOC (ADJP (ADJ hegh)
                                  (PP (P on)
                                      (NP (NPR heuene))))
                           (, .)
                           (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ nehg)
                                        (NP (PRO$ ure) (NPR drihten))))))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBP wunie+d)
          (ADJP-LOC (ADJ lah))
          (PP (P on)
              (NP (NPR eor+d+de)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMHALI,129.26))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ fals) (N duke)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NX (N traytoure))))
              (BED was)
              (ADJP-LOC (ADVR so) (ADJ nyghe)
                        (NP (NP-POS (D the) (N$ Kyngys))
                            (N presens))))
      (ID CMGREGOR,221.2167))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
              (VBD com)
              (ADJP-LOC (ADVR as) (ADJ nyghe)
                        (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Bors))
                        (PP (P as)
                            (NP (D a) (N+N bowe-draught)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,25.769))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (EX there))
              (VBD com)
              (NP-1 (Q none))
              (ADJP-LOC (ADJ nyghe)
                        (NP (PRO hym)))
              (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR as) (ADJ farre))
                      (PP (P as)
                          (CP-CMP (WNP-2 0)
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-2)
                                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                          (MD myght)
                                          (VB reche)
                                          (PP (P with)
                                              (NP (PRO$ hys) (N swerde))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,26.814))

( (IP-MAT (ADJP-LOC (ADVR ase) (ADJ nech)
                    (PP (P as)
                        (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (ADJP-LOC *T*-1)
                                        (NP-SBJ (PRO$ ure) (N mu+d))
                                        (BEP is)
                                        (PP (P to)
                                            (NP (N world) (N ispeche)))))))
          (, .)
          (ADJP-LOC (ADVR as) (ADJ feor)
                    (NP *ICH*-2))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-2 (NPR god))
          (PP (P hwenne)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                      (VBP speke+d)
                                      (PP (P (P21 to) (P22 ward))
                                          (NP (PRO him))))
                              (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                     (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                             (VBP bide+d)
                                             (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
                                             (NP-OB1 (Q ani) (N bone)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.61.633))

For phrases of the type TWO MILES FROM LONDON, TWO MILES HENCE/THENCE, TWO MILES OFF, see Measure phrase.

Other clause-level ADJPs (ADJP-SPR)

See also Small clauses.

The dash tag -SPR is mnemonic for 'secondary predicate'; see Secondary predicate NPs for a list of verbs that take secondary predicates. But this dash tag is also appended to all clause-level ADJPs that are not the predicate of a copular verb or small clause, or labelled ADJP-LOC. In addition to secondary predicates, ADJP-SPRs thus also include adjectival adjuncts (parallel to adjunct participial clauses) and the first ADJP in full correlative comparatives.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV anone))
          (ADJP-SPR (ADJ lyke)
                    (NP (D a)
                        (ADJ lusty) (N knyghte)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD assentid)
          (PP (ADV+P therto))
          (PP (P with)
              (NP (ADJ good) (N wille)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,5.112))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (ADV+P theryn))
          (VBD stack)
          (NP-SBJ (D a) (ADJ fayre) (N swerd))
          (ADJP-SPR (ADJ naked))
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (D the) (N poynt)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,7.193))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P Be)
              (ADVP (ADV than)))
          (VBD com)
          (PP (P into)
              (NP (D the) (N felde)))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Ban))
          (ADJP-SPR (ADVR as) (ADJ ferse)
                    (PP (P as)
                        (NP (D a) (N lyon))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,25.784))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N knyght))
          (VBD sanke)
          (PP (RP downe) (P to)
              (NP (D the) (N erthe)))
          (ADJP-SPR (ADJ dede))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,26.821))

Movement out of ADJP

Our annotation system does not fix the order of syntactic dependents with respect to the head in ADJPs (which contrast in this respect with other phrasal categories), and so complements of adjectives that immediately precede the head are not treated as instances of movement.

For examples of movement out of ADJP, see Traces in ADJP.

Adverb phrase (ADVP)

ADVPs must be headed by adverbs. Noun phrases that are used adverbially are labelled NP-ADV.

Directional adverbs (ADVP-DIR)

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP (ADV so))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD bare)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (ADVP-DIR (ADV forth))
          (PP (P unto)
              (NP (NPR syre) (NPR Ector))))
  (ID CMMALORY,6.151))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (ADVP (ADV so))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBD cam)
              (ADVP-DIR (ADV hyder))
              (ADVP (ADV egerly)))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.246))

(NODE (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
              (PP (P on)
                  (NP (NUM twelfth) (N day)))
              (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (D the) (NS barons))
              (VBD cam)
              (ADVP-DIR (ADV thyder)))
      (ID CMMALORY,10.283))

(NODE (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
                  (VB wayte)
                  (PP (P upon)
                      (NP (D the) (NPR Northe)))
                  (PP (P fro)
                      (NP (NPR Trent)))
                  (ADVP-DIR (ADV+WARD forwardes)))
      (ID CMMALORY,11.320))

Locative adverbs (ADVP-LOC)

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV ther))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD pyght)
          (NP-OB1 (Q many) (NS pavelyons))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,3.39))

(NODE (IP-SUB (PP (P for)
                  (NP (N profit)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (D +te) (N soule)))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N body))
              (BEP be)
              (VAN put)
              (ADVP-LOC (ADV by-hynde)))
      (ID CMAELR3,32.176))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
              (IP-PPL (NP-OB1 (QP (Q noon) (CONJ or) (Q litul))
                              (N ioye))
                      (HAG hauyngge)
                      (ADVP-LOC (ADV wit-ynne)))
              (, ,)
              (VBP sechy+t)
              (NP-OB1 (Q al) (PRO$ here) (N ioye))
              (ADVP-LOC (ADV wit-oute)))
      (ID CMAELR3,33.202))

Temporal adverbs (ADVP-TMP)

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV thenne))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (VBD told)
          (NP-OB2 (D the) (N duke)
                  (NP-PRN (PRO$ her) (N husband))))
(ID CMMALORY,2.17))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADVR Also) (ADV soone)
                    (PP (P as)
                        (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                                        (NP-SBJ (NPR kyng) (NPR Uther))
                                        (VBD knewe)
                                        (PP (P of)
                                            (NP (PRO$ theire) (N departyng)))
                                        (ADVP (ADVR soo) (ADV sodenly))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
          (ADJP (ADV wonderly) (ADJ wrothe))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.20))

(NODE (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP (ADV ever))
              (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
              (VBD cam)
              (PP (P at)
                  (NP (D the) (N castel)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Tyntigail))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.90))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV anone))
          (ADJP-SPR (ADJ lyke)
                    (NP (D a) (ADJ lusty) (N knyghte)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD assentid)
          (PP (ADV+P therto))
          (PP (P with)
              (NP (ADJ good) (N wille)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,5.112))

Other adverbs (ADVP)

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (BED were)
              (ADVP (ADV myghtyly))
              (VAN withstonde))
      (ID CMMALORY,45.1484))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP (ADV so))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD wente)
          (ADVP (ADV pryvaly))
          (PP (P into)
              (NP (D the) (N courte))))
  (ID CMMALORY,46.1529))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD com)
          (ADVP (ADV togidirs))
          (NP-MSR (QP (ADVR as) (Q muche))
                  (PP (P as)
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO$ their) (NS horsis))
                                      (MD $myght)
                                      (VB dryve)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1705))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P whan)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (VBD com)
                              (PP (P to)
                                  (NP (D the) (N see))))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD sente)
          (NP-DIR (N home))
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N+NS footemen))
          (ADVP (ADV agayne))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,18.566))

Noun phrase (NP)

At the clausal level, NPs are either labelled with a dash tag indicating their function, or they bear an index linking them to a trace or associate.

Subject (NP-SBJ)

All clauses contain a marked subject except imperatives (where subjects are indicated only when overt) and infinitives with PRO subjects. Apart from these two cases, when a clause has no overt subject, an empty subject is added. The infinitival complements of ECM verbs have subjects; see ECM versus object control.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (N kynge))
          (VBD (VBD lyked) (CONJ and) (VBD loved))
          (NP-OB1 (D this) (N lady))
          (ADVP (ADV wel))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.12))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (Q many) (NS knyghtes))
          (HVD had)
          (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N despite))
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (PRO hym)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,47.1553))

( (IP-MAT (' ')
          (IP-IMP-SPE (ADVP-TMP (ADV Now))
                      (VBI make)
                      (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
                              (ADJP (ADJ redy))))
          (, ,)
          (' ')
          (VBD said)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR Merlyn))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,4.77))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (PP (ADV+P therefore))
              (VBI take)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))		← overt subject in imperative
              (NP-OB1 (D thys) (N hede)))
  (ID CMMALORY,49.1636))

Expletive subjects

Only THERE and IT and their empty counterparts are treated as expletives. Extraposed clauses coreferential with determiner subjects are treated as appositives.

Overt expletive subjects

Presentational THERE

It is not always easy to distinguish presentational from locative THERE. In doubtful cases, the default is presentational (EX). Nevertheless, it is wise to include locative THERE in searches for presentational THERE, and vice versa.

Presentational THERE is marked as the (grammatical) subject and coindexed with the logical subject, which is labelled as bare NP.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (EX there))
              (BED was)
              (NP-2 (D a) (ADJ myghty) (N duke)
                    (CP-REL *ICH*-3))
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (NPR Cornewaill)))
              (CP-REL-3 (WNP-4 0)
                        (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-4)
                                (VBD helde)
                                (NP-OB1 (N warre))
                                (PP (P ageynst)
                                    (NP (PRO hym)))
                                (NP-MSR (ADJ long) (N tyme)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (NP-POS (NPR Saynt) (NPR$ Albons))))
          (NP-SBJ-1 (EX ther))
          (VBD mette)
          (PP (P with)
              (NP (D the) (N kynge)))
          (NP-1 (D a) (ADJ grete) (N hoost)
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (D the) (N North))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,6.165))

Expletive IT

In many cases, expletive IT is coindexed with an NP or clause, but in cases without an associate, such as IT IS RAINING, it is not specially distinguished from non-expletive subject IT.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
              (MD myghte)
              (VB please)
              (NP-OB2 (D the) (N kynge))
              (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                        (VB make)
                        (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO her))
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N quene)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.108))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO it))
              (BEP is)
              (NP-OB1 (NPR$ Goddes) (N wille))
              (CP-THT-1 (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                (MD shalle)
                                (BE be)
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO$ our) (N kynge)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,11.305))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (PP (P for)
              (NP (D +ti)))
          (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-1 (N neod)
                (IP-INF (TO to)
                        (HV $habben)
                        (NP-OB1 (ADJS best) (N warde))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.86.1048))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
          (NEG ne)
          (BEP is)
          (NP-1 (Q non) (N drede))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAYENBI,63.1169))

Empty expletive subjects

Empty counterpart to presentational THERE

An empty expletive counterpart to presentational THERE is added when the logical subject is indefinite, and either of the following two conditions is met:

All other potential presentational cases are treated as having inverted subjects.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
              (BEP es)
              (NP-2 (N nede)
                    (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                            (TO to)
                            (DO do))))
      (ID CMBENRUL,32.1062))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P In)
              (NP (ADJ caald) (N cuntre)))
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (BEP es)
          (NP-1 (N nede)
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (ADJR warmer) (NS hend))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBENRUL,36.1170))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (ADVP-LOC (ADV Yondir))
                  (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
                  (BEP is)
                  (NP-1 (D a)
                        (ADJ shrewde) (N geste)))
      (ID CMMALORY,188.2709))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (P overthwarte)
              (NP (D the) (N horse)))
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (VBD lay)
          (NP-1 (D an) (VAN armed) (N knyght)
                (RRC (VAN bounden)))
          (. .))(ID CMMALORY,190.2777))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (D the) (N ende)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D the) (N brydge)))))
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (BED was)
          (NP-1 (D a) (ADJ fayre) (N vyllage))
          (. ,))(ID CMMALORY,195.2946))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (PP (P vpon)
              (NP (D the) (N body)))
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (VBD lay)
          (NP-1 (D a) (ADJ fyn) (N plate)
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (N gold)))))
  (ID CMMANDEV,11.215))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P In)
              (NP (D +tat) (N desert)))
          (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
          (VBP duellen)
          (NP-2 (Q manye)
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (NPRS Arrabyenes)))
                (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                        (C +tat)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN men))
                                (VBP clepen)
                                (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                        (NP-OB1 (NPRS Bedoynes) (CONJ &) (NPRS Ascopardes))))))
          (. .)) (ID CMMANDEV,42.1039))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (D +tat) (N place)))
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (VBP cometh)
          (NP-1 (Q+N noman)
                (PP (P saf)
                    (NP (FP only) (PRO$ here) (N prelate)
                        (CP-REL (WNP-3 0)
                                (C +tat)
                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                        (VBP maketh)
                                        (NP-OB1 (PRO$ here) (N sacrifise))))))))
  (ID CMMANDEV,55.1372))

Empty counterpart to expletive IT

An empty counterpart to expletive IT is added in connection with extraposed subject clauses and in impersonal constructions.

With extraposed subject clauses, the expletive is coindexed with the clause.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (PP (P Of)
              (NP (NPR eve)
                  (NP-PRN (PRO$ ouwer) (ADJ+N aldemoder))))
          (BEP is)
          (VAN iwriten)
          (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (ADVP (NP (Q$ alre))
                                  (ADV earest))
                            (PP (P in)
                                (NP (PRO hire)))
                            (NP-SBJ (N sunne))
                            (VBD in+geong)
                            (PP (P of)
                                (NP (N+N hechsich+de)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.43.387))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV Euer))
          (MD sal)
          (BE be)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (PRO$ his) (N +toht)))
          (CP-THT-1 (C +tat)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (NS munkis))
                            (BEP be)
                            (ADVP (ADV wel))
                            (VAN lered)
                            (, ,)
                            (CP-ADV (C +tat)
                                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tai))
                                            (VBP dute)
                                            (NP-OB1 (NPR god))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBENRUL,5.133))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (PP (P for)
              (NP (D +ti)))
          (BEP es)
          (ADJP (ADJ gude))
          (CP-THT-1 (C +tat)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                            (DOP doe)
                            (ADVP-DIR (ADV o-way))
                            (NP-OB1 (PRO$ yure) (ADJ wicke) (NS dedis)
                                    (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                           (NX (NS +tohtes))))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMBENRUL,12.416))

In impersonal constructions, complement clauses, if present, are co-indexed with the expletive subject, as in the case of the extraposed subject clauses just discussed.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-SBJ *exp*)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (VBP repentys)
              (ADVP (ADV sore))
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ youre) (ADJ grete) (N damage)))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,26.826))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-5 *exp*)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (BEP is)
              (ADJP (ADJ la+d))
              (IP-INF-5 (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                        (TO to)
                        (VB gremien)))
      (ID CMJULIA,98.44))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO hem))
              (VBD thought)
              (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N palyse))
                                (MD sholde)
                                (ADVP (Q all))
                                (VB to-dryve))))
      (ID CMMALORY,634.3765))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (VBD semed)
          (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                    (BE be)
                    (PP (P of)
                        (NP (D the) (N ayge)
                            (PP (P of)
                                (NP (NUMP (NUM three) (NUM hondred))
                                    (NS wynter))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,660.4629))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
                  (NP-OB2 (PRO Me))
                  (VBP merueylyth)
                  (NP-MSR (Q mech))
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D +tis) (N woman)))
                  (CP-QUE-1 (WADVP-2 (WADV why))
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-2)
                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
                                    (VBP (VBP wepith) (CONJ &) (VBP cryith))
                                    (ADVP (ADV so)))))
      (ID CMKEMPE,143.3317))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (VBD thought)
          (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (EX there))
                            (BED was)
                            (VBN com)
                            (PP (P into)
                                (NP (PRO$ hys) (N londe)))
                            (NP-2 (NS gryffens) (CONJ and) (NS serpentes))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,33.1031))

Impersonal NEED, SHAME, WOE

In impersonal constructions with NEED, SHAME, WOE (NEED/SHAME/WOE IS (TO) ME, IT IS NEED/SHAME/WOE (TO) ME), NEED/SHAME/WOE is treated as a subject. NEED/SHAME/WOE can be the associate of an expletive subject (overt or empty). The argument expressing the need or the cause of shame or woe, if present, is treated as a complement of the (logical) subject. When this complement is an NP, it is labelled NP-COM. The experiencer argument, if present, is labelled NP-OB2 (see
NP-OB2 in copular constructions).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-1 (N nied))				← NEED as logical subject
          (. !)) (ID CMVICES1,31.360))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
          (NP-3 (D +Da) (NS +dohtes)
                (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                        (C +de)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                (VBP cume+d)
                                (PP (P of)
                                    (NP (NPR gode))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO +de))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-2 (Q michel) (N nied)			← NEED as logical subject
                (CP-THT (C +dat)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *ICH*-3)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
                                (ADVP (ADV wel))
                                (VBP understande))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,87.1005))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ &)
              (NP-SBJ (N schome)			← SHAME
                      (IP-INF *ICH*-1))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO ow))
              (BEP is)
              (IP-INF-1 (IP-INF (TO to)
                                (VB schuderin)
                                (NP-MSR (ADJR lengre))
                                (PP (P under)
                                    (NP (N schelde))))
                        (CONJP (CONJ &)
                               (IP-INF (TO *)
                                       (VB schunien)
                                       (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-2 0)
                                                       (C +tt)
                                                       (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ge))
                                                               (MD schule)
                                                               (VB *)
                                                               (PP (P to)
                                                                   (NP *T*-2)))))))))
  (ID CMKATHE,31.200))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N Wa))				← WOE without complement
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO him)
                  (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
          (PP (P+D for-+ti))
          (PP-PRN (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (NPR seint) (NPR Austin))
                                  (VBP sei+d))))
          (, .)
          (CP-REL-2 (WNP-3 0)
                    (C +tt)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                            (BEP is)
                            (PP (P wi+d)
                                (NP (QP (ADVR to) (Q muche))
                                    (N luue)))
                            (PP (P to)
                                (NP (Q ei) (ADJ eor+dlich) (N +ting)))
                            (VAN iteiet)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMHALI,148.290))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (N Wa)				 ← WOE with clausal complement
                      (CP-THT *ICH*-2))
              (BEP is)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO$ mine) (N saule))
              (, ;)
              (CP-THT-2 (C +tet)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ mi) (N lif))
                                (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADV +tus) (ADJ longe)))
                                (VBP ilest)))
              (. .)) (ID CMLAMB1,157.492))

First object (NP-OB1) and second object (NP-OB2)

Because of the difficulties inherent in trying to label objects consistently by case, we label complement NPs simply as first and second object. The rules for deciding which object to label as first and second are intended to be unambiguous and to work well for automatic retrieval, but they do not always yield the linguistically correct analysis. Given the variability and changes in case marking in the course of the history of English, the approach taken seems the only practical one.

Broadly speaking, the first object includes direct objects and predicate nominals, while the second object category includes indirect objects and other oblique uses.

Single NP object = NP-OB1

NP-OB1 with ordinary monotransitive verbs

The single object of a monotransitive verb is generally labelled NP-OB1.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D Thys) (N damesell))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV than))
          (VBD behelde)
          (NP-OB1 (D thys) (ADJ poure) (N knyght)))
  (ID CMMALORY,46.1538))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR Arthure))
          (VBD toke)
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde))
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (D the) (N sheethe)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NX (N gurdil))))))
  (ID CMMALORY,46.1508))

NP-OB1 in copular constructions

When the second NP in a copular construction is coreferential with the subject (THAT WOMAN IS HILARY CLINTON) or predicated of the subject (SALLY IS MY DOCTOR), it is labelled NP-OB1. Copular constructions include clauses containing BE or another
copular verb as well as reduced relative clauses, small clauses, and absolute clauses.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (BED was)
              (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ lyckly) (N man)))
      (ID CMMALORY,46.1539))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
          (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ good) (N man)
                  (RRC (VAN named)
                       (PP (P of)
                           (NP (PRO$ his) (N body)))))
      (. ,)) (ID CMMALORY,46.1527))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Now))
          (NP-SBJ (N maydenhood))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (N gold))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMAELR3,27.29))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N blowere)
                  (IP-INF (TO to)
                          (VB melte)
                          (NP-OB1 (D +tys) (N gold))))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (NPR deuel))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMAELR3,27.31))

Single NP object = NP-OB2

NP-OB2 with impersonal verbs

With impersonal verbs, an NP complement is always labelled NP-OB2. In the absence of an overt subject, an
empty expletive subject is added. Accompanying clauses are coindexed to expletive IT or its empty counterpart.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-SBJ *exp*)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (VBP repentys)
              (ADVP (ADV sore))
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ youre) (ADJ grete) (N damage)))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,26.826))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-VOC (N Sir))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Balyne)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ *exp*)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (VBP forthynkith)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ youre) (N displeasure)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,49.1622))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
              (VBP plese)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO the)))
      (ID CMAELR4,15.437))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO the))
              (VBP list))
      (ID CMASTRO,669.C2.219))

NP-OB2 with verbs of motion and other intransitives

In the PPCME2, certain verbs of motion and other intransitives (notably, ones that allow the verb BE as the perfect auxiliary) take NP-OB2 complements. The lexical items in questions have died out, and their equivalents in the later corpora take NP-OB1 complements.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N brea+d)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO$ hare) (VAG stinkinde) (N +trote))))
              (, .)
              (NEG ne)
              (VBP nach+gi)			← APPROACHES
              (NP-OB2 (PRO ou))
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV neauer)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.68.753))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-OB2 (Q ba) (PRO ham))
          (VBP tide+d)				← BEFALLS
          (NP-SBJ (ONE+N andom))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.141.1903))

(NODE (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO$ min) (N heorte))
              (BEP is)
              (VBN edflo+ge)			← ESCAPED
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.39.343))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
              (BEP beo+d)
              (VBN iflo+gen)			← FLED
              (NP-OB2 (D +te) (N world)))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.130.1717))

NP-OB2 in copular constructions

When the second NP in a
copular construction is neither coreferential with nor predicated of the subject, it is labelled NP-OB2.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N Woe))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
          (. !)))

(NODE (IP-MAT (NP-OB2 (PRO ham))
              (NEG+BEP nis)
              (NP-SBJ (Q+N nawicht)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (N scheame)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.160.2202))

(NODE (NP (Q alle) (ADJ hali) (NS hale+gen)
          (CP-REL (WNP-7 0)
                  (C +te)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-7)
                          (BED weren)
                          (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
                          (ADVP-TMP (ADV $ear))
                          (PP (PP (P $for) (CODE {TEXT:earfor})
                                  (NP (NS bre+dren)))
                              (CONJP (PP (P for)
                                         (NP (NS freont))))
                              (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                     (PP (P for)
                                         (NP (NS sustren))))))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.229.3320))

(NODE (PP (P gyf)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
                          (NP-SBJ (N gewill))
                          (BED w+are))))
      (ID CMKENTHO,137.95))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (VBP loki)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
          (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WD hwuch) (N wunne))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (PP (ADV+P +trof))
                          (NP-OB2 (PRO hire))
                          (VBP iwur+de)))		← BECOMES/HAPPENS/IS
          (. .))
  (ID CMHALI,153.365))

NP-OB2 with cognate object verbs

We treat verbs like DELIGHT, HELP, PAIN, PRAY, THANK, etc. as taking an abstract direct object that incorporates into the verb. The superficial object is therefore annotated as NP-OB2.

With THANK, if the thing for which thanks is given is expressed by an NP, it is labelled NP-ADT.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBP deliteth)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (PP (PP (P in)
                  (NP (D the) (N kepynge)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO$ his) (N tresor)))))
              (, ,)
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (PP (NEG nat)
                         (P in)
                         (NP (D the) (N rescowynge)
                             (CONJP (CONJ ne)
                                    (NX (N releevynge)))
                             (PP (P of)
                                 (NP (PRO$ his) (ADJ+N evene-Cristen)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,316.C1.1187))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
              (VBP paynest)
              (IP-INF (NP-1 (PRO him))
                      (FOR uor) (TO to)
                      (BE by)
                      (PP (P ylych)
                          (NP *-1)))
              (, .)
              (PP (P ase)
                  (CP-ADV (WADVP-2 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-2)
                                  (NP-SBJ (ADJ guod) (N zone))
                                  (MD ssel)
                                  (BE by)
                                  (PP (P ylich)
                                      (NP (PRO$ his) (ADJ guode) (N uader)))))))
      (ID CMAYENBI,101.1970))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBP prey)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMAELR3,40.408))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR god))
              (NEG ne)
              (MD cunne)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV neauer))
              (VB +tonc)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ his) (N sonde))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.102.1244))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
              (VBD +tonkede)
              (NP-OB2 (N Mon))
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ his) (ADJ+NS goddede))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.166.2307))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +teo)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tt)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (NP-OB1 (D +tis) (N warninge))
                                  (PP (P ed)
                                      (NP (PRO$ hire) (CODE {TEXT:edhire}) (N suster)))
                                  (VBP underfe+d))))
          (VBP +tonke)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hire))
          (ADVP (ADV +georne))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.188.2670))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBP thank)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO +gow)
                  (QP (Q alle)))
          (, ,)
          (NP-VOC (NS serys))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (ADV heyly))
          (NP-ADT (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-MSR (N fore-noon) (CONJ &) (N aftyr-noon))
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                  (HVP haue)
                                  (HVN had)
                                  (ADVP (ADV resonably))
                                  (NP-TMP (D +tis) (N day)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMKEMPE,28.627))

NP-OB2 with DO SO

DO SO is a proform for the verb plus direct object. Any remaining object NP is therefore treated as NP-OB2.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN me))
              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
              (ADVP (ADV swa))
              (DOD dude))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.98.1184))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Swa))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (DOD dede)
          (NP-OB2 (NPR seinte) (NPR Petre)
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +de)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hine))
                                  (HVD hadde)
                                  (VBN forsaken))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,111.1358))

Single NP object with LIKE and similar verbs (LACK, NEED, WANT)

As is well known, LIKE and similar verbs (LACK, NEED, WANT) occur in two constructions in the history of English. In the earlier construction (ME LIKE(N) PEARS), these verbs are parallel to modern PLEASE, and the subject is the theme argument. In the modern construction that replaces it (I LIKE PEARS), the subject is the experiencer.

In the older construction, which continues into Early Modern English with LIKE, the theme is labelled NP-SBJ, and the experiencer NP-OB2.

In the PPCME2, the experiencer is often mistagged as NP-OB1.

(NODE (PP (P if)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +tat))
                          (NP-OB2 (PRO +gow))
                          (VBP nede+t))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,51.1503))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D this) (ADJ wise) (N man))
              (VBD saugh)
              (CP-THT (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
                              (VBD wanted)
                              (NP-SBJ (N audience)))))
      (ID CMCTMELI,219.C2.95))

In the modern construction, the experiencer is labelled NP-SBJ, and the theme NP-OB1, as with ordinary monotransitive verbs.

NP-OB1 + NP-OB2

Ditransitive verbs are defined as verbs that can appear with two NP objects. We have divided them into two classes:

Class I ditransitives

Class I ditransitives include verbs that originally generally took the accusative of person and genitive of thing. In Modern English, the second object is usually a PP with FROM or OF. Common meanings are DELIVER, DEPRIVE, REMIND, SAVE. Some of the verbs of Class I are:
alesen, benimen, bereueden, forgremen, munen, mune+gen
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
              (VBD alesede)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO hem))
              (NP-OB2 (ADJ eche) (N dea+de)))
      (ID CMTRINIT,5.44))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
              (PP (P mid)
                  (NP (PRO$ his) (ADJ o+gene) (N dea+de)))
              (NP-OB1 (Q al) (N+N mankin))
              (VBD alesde)
              (PP (P of)			← ALESAN with NP and OF phrase
                  (NP (ADJ eche) (N dea+de))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,189.2608))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (ADVP (ADV eft))
              (PP (P +durh)
                  (NP (PRO$ his) (ADJ muchele) (N mildce)))
              (NP-OB2 (PRO hes))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
              (VBP benime)
              (, ,)
              (PP (P +ar) (D +dane)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP (D +dese) (N liue)))
                                  (VBP fare)))))
      (ID CMVICES1,15.157))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN man))
              (MD scolde)
              (VB beniman)
              (NP-OB1 (Q ealla) (D +ta) (NS minetere)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +te)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (BED w+aron)
                                      (PP (P on)
                                          (NP (NPR Englelande))))))
              (NP-OB2 (PRO$ heora) (NS liman)))
      (ID CMPETERB,46.148))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-OB2 *T*-2)
              (NP-SBJ (NPR adam))
              (VBD forgremede)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO us)
                      (QP (Q alle))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,35.476))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +Te) (N louerd)
                  (NP-PRN (NPR seint) (NPR lucas)))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO giu))
          (VBP mune+d)
          (PP (P on)
              (NP (PRO$ his) (NPR godspel)))
          (NP-OB2 (NP (D +te) (ADJ wunderlich) (N (N21 hider) (N22 kume)))
                  (, .)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (D +te) (ADJ erue+dliche) (N herbiwist)))
                  (, .)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (D +te) (ADJ wunderliche) (N (N21 he+den) (N22 si+d))))
                  (, .)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (PRO$ ure) (N louerd)
                          (NP-PRN (NPR seint) (NPR iohan)
                                  (NP-PRN (NPR baptiste))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMTRINIT,125.1687))

Class II ditransitives

Class II ditransitives includes all ditransitive verbs not included in the first class. These verbs originally usually took accusative and dative or two accusatives. An incomplete but representative list includes the following:
ask, assign, behaten, beseech, bid, command, counsel, cu+den, declare, earn, ensure, forbid, frainen, give, grant, haten, kennen, learn (= teach), let (someone blood), leuen, muster, ordain, promise, prove, reden, say, show, teach, tell, tholien, (um)bethink, unnen, wissen, yield, +garken, +getten
( (IP-IMP-SPE (ADVP-TMP (ADV Now))
              (, ,)
              (NP-VOC (ADJP (ADJ jantyll) (CONJ and) (ADJ curtayse))
                      (N knyght))
              (, ,)
              (VBI geff)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde))
              (ADVP (ADV agayne))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,47.1556))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (HVP have)
              (VBN shewed)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
              (NP-OB1 (N unkyndnesse)))
      (ID CMMALORY,48.1574))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
              (VB for+gyue)
              (NP-OB2 (D a) (ADJ synful) (N man))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (NS synnes)))
      (ID CMAELR3,43.513))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD graunted)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (NP-OB1 (NPR Constantyn)
                  (NP-PRN (PRO$ his) (N bro+ter)))
          (, ,)
          (IP-INF-PRP (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
                      (FOR+TO for-to)
                      (VB helpe)
                      (, ,)
                      (PP (P with)
                          (NP (N Poer)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (N folk))))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMBRUT3,46.1381))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (D Thys) (N swerde)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                      (BEP am)
                                      (VAN gurte)
                                      (PP (P withall)
                                          (NP *T*-1)))))
              (DOP doth)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorow)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NX (N comberaunce))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,45.1496))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
          (VBD asked)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (NP-OB1 (D a) (N gyffte)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C that)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (VBD promysed)
                                  (NP-OB2 (PRO her))
                                  (PP (P whan)
                                      (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
                                                      (VBD gaff)
                                                      (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
                                                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,48.1592))

This class also includes monotransitives accompanied by an "affected" NP (benefactives, etc.), usually corresponding to a Modern English prepositional phrase headed by FOR.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD made)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO them))
          (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N chere))
          (ADVP (ADV out)
                (PP (P of)
                    (NP (N mesure)))))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.13))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (CONJ And)
              (ADVP (ADV so))
              (NP-SBJ (D thys) (NPR lady) (NPR Lyle)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Avylion))))
              (VBD toke)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO hir))
              (NP-OB1 (D this) (N swerde)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
                                      (VBD brought)
                                      (PP (P with)
                                          (NP (PRO hir))))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,50.1670))

NP object + clause

NP-OB1 + clause with monotransitives

With monotransitives (i.e., verbs that do not occur with two NP objects), the NP object in cases with an NP and a clause is labelled NP-OB1. See
ECM versus object control for further relevant discussion.
( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ and)
              (VBI suffir)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (DO do)
                      (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
                      (NP-OB1 (NS thankynges)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,662.4679))

(NODE (IP-SUB (PP (PP (P in)
                      (NP (D this) (N necessitee)))
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (PP (P in)
                             (NP (D this) (N nede)))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (VBP caste)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO yow))
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB overcome)
                      (NP-OB1 (PRO$ youre) (N herte))))
      (ID CMCTMELI,239.C1.847))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV thanne))
          (NP-SBJ (ADJ hooly) (NPR chirche))
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (N juggement)))
          (VBP destreyneth)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
          (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
                  (DO do)
                  (NP-OB1 (ADJ open) (N penaunce)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,289.C1.40))

KNOW, SEE, and similar verbs generally take a single noun phrase or clausal complement. In the Bible, such verbs occasionally take two complements, as in the following examples, presumably by analogy to the analogous construction in the Hebrew or Greek original.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ But)
	      (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	      (VBP know)
	      (NP-OB1 (PRO you))
	      (, ,)
	      (CP-THT-SPE (C that)
			  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
				      (HVP haue)
				      (NEG not)
				      (NP-OB1 (D the)
					      (N loue)
					      (PP (P of)
						  (NP (NPR God))))
				      (PP (P in)
					  (NP (PRO you)))))
	      (. .))
  (ID AUTHNEW-E2-H,V,40J.626))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (ADVP (ADV Howbeit))
	      (NP-SBJ (PRO wee))
	      (VBP know)
	      (NP-OB1 (D this) (N man))
	      (CP-QUE-SPE (WADVP-1 (WADV whence))
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP *T*-1)
				      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
				      (BEP is)))
	      (. :))
  (ID AUTHNEW-E2-H,VII,20J.909))

(NODE (PP (P when)
	  (CP-ADV (C 0)
	          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
		          (VBD saw)
			  (NP-OB1 (NPR Mary))
   		          (CP-THT (C that)
				  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
				                  (VBD rose)
						  (RP vp)
						  (ADVP (ADV hastily)))
					  (, ,)
					  (CONJP (CONJ and)
						 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
						         (VBD went)
							 (RP out)))))))))

NP-OB1 + clause with complex predicates

Complex predicates include all cases of HAVE + NP with a verbal equivalent (HAVE FEAR = FEAR, HAVE KNOWLEDGE = KNOW, HAVE MARVEL = MARVEL, etc.). Some other common complex predicates are:
bear witness,
bow (one's) heart,
do (no) force / pain,
give example / (one's) heart / heed / (one's) intent / leave / notice / occasion / order,
have care / (great) comfort / head / (no) joy / leave / mind / need / occasion / stomach / (good) will / s.o. to witness,
kindle (one's) heart,
lay (one's) force,
make countenance / effort / fiaunce / (no) mention / note / (no) semblant / shift ,
nim (see take),
send word,
set case / (one's) desire / heart / thought,
stir (one's) heart,
take care / counsel / (one's) heart / heed / keep / leave / note / notice / occasion / order / pains / tent / yeme
turn (one's) heart
The noun member of a complex predicate is labelled NP-OB1. The accompanying clause is treated as a clause-level constituent, rather than as a complement of the noun. Analogous cases with postnominal PPs (for instance, TAKE ADVANTAGE / CARE / NOTICE OF) are treated in the same way.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ uor)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO hi))
          (HVP habbe+t)
          (NP-OB1 (N drede))
          (CP-THT (C +tet)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR god))
                          (, /)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO ham))
                          (MD wyle)
                          (VB fayly)))
          (. /))
  (ID CMAYENBI,32.520))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (P after)
              (NP (N mete)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD toke)
          (NP-OB1 (N conseil))
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (NS kyngus) (, ,) (NS Erles) (CONJ and) (NS Barons)))
          (, ,)
          (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WD what) (N ansuere))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (MAN me))
                          (MD my+gt)
                          (VB +geue)
                          (PP (P to)
                              (NP (D +te) (NS messagers)))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMBRUT3,82.2487))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (PP (P with)
              (NP (PRO$ his) (N hand)))
          (VBD made)
          (NP-OB1 (N contenaunce))
          (CP-THT (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (MAN men))
                                    (MD sholde)
                                    (VB holden)
                                    (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hem))
                                            (ADJP (ADJ stille))))
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (IP-SUB=1 (VB yeven)
                                           (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
                                           (NP-OB1 (N audience))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTMELI,219.C1.85))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (HVD had)
          (NP-OB1 (N mervayle))
          (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV whye))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (BED was)
                          (ADVP (ADV so))
                          (VAN abaysshed)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,655.4467))
(IP-PPL (VAG taking)
        (NP-OB1 (N care))
        (PP (P of)
            (NP (D the) (NS children))))

(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB take)
        (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N notice))
        (PP (P of)
            (NP (D the) (N insult))))

NP-OB1/NP-OB2 + clause with ditransitives

When a
ditransitive verb takes an animate NP and a clause, rather than two NPs, the label of the animate NP remains the same as in the case with two NPs, preserving the parellelism between the two cases.
( (IP-MAT (NEG ne)
          (MD mihten)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO hie))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
          (VB benemen)						← Class I ditransitive
          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 (ONE anne) (N +touht))
                  (TO to)
                  (VB +tenken)
                  (PP (P buten)
                      (PP (P alswa)
                          (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                          (VBD walde))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,143.1774))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
              (VBP munege+d)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO us))					← Class I ditransitive
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB wakien)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.115.1451))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD munegede)
          (NP-OB1 (Q alle)					← Class I ditransitive
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tet)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BED weren))))
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (ADVP (ADV stronge))
                  (VB fechte))
          (. .))
  (ID CMLAMB1,151.395))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (D a) (N man))
              (VBD tolde)					← Class II ditransitive
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (D the) (N Castell)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Four) (NPR Stonys)))))
              (CP-THT (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                              (BED were)
                              (VAN delyverde)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,52.1738))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD preyde)						← Class II ditransitive
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hir))
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB prey)
                  (PP (P for)
                      (NP (D a) (N woman)
                          (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO whech))
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                          (VBD lay)
                                          (PP (P in)
                                              (NP (N poynt)
                                                  (PP (P of)
                                                      (NP (N deth))))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMKEMPE,53.1202))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV anone))
          (VBD asked)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO them))					← Class II ditransitive
          (CP-QUE (WPP-1 (P frome)
                         (WADVP (WADV whens)))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                          (VBD com)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,16.480))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ and)
              (VBI telle)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO hem))				← Class II ditransitive
              (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV how))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                              (HVP have)
                              (VBN spedde)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,49.1638))

Thematically necessary missing object

Verbs that can appear with two objects sometimes appear only with one. The sole object in these cases is labelled depending on its animacy in accordance with the guidelines concerning
Class I and Class II ditransitives. The following examples illustrate thematically necessary missing objects for Class II ditransitives (inanimate (theme) object = NP-OB1; animate (recipient or beneficiary) object = NP-OB2).
( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Now))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (MD will)
          (VB telle)
          (NP-OB1 (D a) (N story))			← NP-OB1 only
          (. .)))

( (IP-IMP (NP-VOC (NPR Father))
          (VBI forgive)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ their) (NS trespasses))		← NP-OB1 only
          (. .)))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV Now))
              (MD shall)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VB telle)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO you))			← NP-OB2 only
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N damesell)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,45.1495))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (' ')
              (NP-VOC (NPR Fader))
              (, ,)
              (VBI for+gif)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO hem))			← NP-OB2 only
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMAELR3,48.704))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD +gef)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO$ hire) (N lauerd))		← NP-OB2 only
          (. .))(ID CMANCRIW,II.43.393))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N kyng))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV anone))
          (VBD grantede)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO him))				← NP-OB2 only
          (ADVP (ADV frely))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMBRUT3,52.1525))

Passive

Whichever object is promoted to subject in the passive of Class II ditransitive verbs, the remaining object is treated in a way that maximizes the parallelism between active and passive,

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
	  (VAN given)
	  (NP-OB1 (D the) (N letter)))
  (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the) (N patient)))
          (BED was)
	  (VAN let)
	  (NP-OB1 (N blood))
  (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the) (N letter)))
          (BED was)
	  (VAN given)
	  (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
  (. .))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-VOC (N Sone))
              (' ')
              (, ,)
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBP sey+t)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Crist)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO$ +ty) (NS synnes))
              (BEP be+t)
              (VAN for+gyue)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
              (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,43.505))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (D +tat)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +tat)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                      (VBP askest))))
              (BEP is)
              (NEG not)
              (VAN bynome)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMAELR3,50.782))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (NS guodes))
              (BEP bye+t)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO ous))
              (VAN yfayled)
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMAYENBI,71.1344))

Non-argument (adjunct) NP (NP-ADT)

This is something of a catch-all category, which includes the following types:

NP adverb (NP-ADV)

NPs acting adverbially are labelled NP-ADV. The use of NP-ADV is relatively restricted and includes the following types:

Adverbial free relative clauses

Free relatives of the sort WHATEVER HAPPENS and COME WHAT MAY are labelled NP-ADV.

Adverbial genitives

Original adverbial genitives are labelled NP-ADV. Some always appear with the genitive -S (WILLES), but others vary (ALGATE(S), NEDE(S), etc.).

The head noun in these cases is tagged N, NS rather than genitive (see Possessive and genitive nouns).

Phrases headed by GATE(S)

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-ADV (Q+N algates))
              (NP-SBJ (N necessitee))
              (VBP constreyneth)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB axe))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMCTMELI,233.C1.620))

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADV (Q+N algate))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (MD sholde)
          (BE be)
          (ADVP (ADV so))
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (N resoun)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,321.C2.1441))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO sho))
              (NEG ne)
              (MD may)
              (NP-ADV (Q nan) (N gate))				← in no way
              (VB breke))
      (ID CMBENRUL,35.1139))

NEED(S)

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (MD must)
          (NP-ADV (N needs))					← necessarily
          (VB move)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N Richtwisnesse))
          (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                      (VBP sai+d))
          (MD mod)
          (BE beon)
          (NP-ADV (N nede))					← necessarily
          (ADJP (ADJ sturne))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.197.2817))

( (IP-MAT (NP-OB1 (D +Tis) (N charyte))
          (MD most)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
          (NP-ADV (N nyede))					← necessarily
          (HV haue)
          (, ,)
          (IP-PPL (VAG louyngge)
                  (NP-OB1 (NP (NPR God))
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (NP (PRO$ +tyn) (ADJ+N euene-cristene))))
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (ADJ clene) (N herte)))
                  (, ,)
                  (PP (PP (P wit)
                          (NP (ADJ good) (N conscience)))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (PP (P wit)
                                 (NP (N fey)
                                     (RRC (NEG not)
                                          (VAN (VAN feyned)
                                               (CONJP (CONJ ne)
                                                      (VAG fayllynge)))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,34.228))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (PP (P if)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR heuen) (CONJ and) (NPR erthe))
                              (BEP ben)
                              (ADJP (ADJ sory)))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
          (MD must)
          (NP-ADV (N nedes))
          (BE be)
          (ADJP (ADJ sory))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR4,21.630))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-ADV (N nedes))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (MD moste)
              (VB dye))
      (ID CMBRUT3,92.2770))

Phrases headed by THANKS, +TONC(ES), UN+TONC(ES)

( (NP-ADV (NS thanks)
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (NPR God)))))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (CODE <P_II.46>)
                          (C +tt)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (DOD dude)
                                  (NP-OB2 (PRO hire)))))
          (BED wes)
          (PP (P $in)
              (NP (D $+te) (CODE {TEXT:in+te}) (N frum+de)))
          (ADVP (ADV sare))
          (NP-ADV (PRO$ hire) (N vn+tonkes))		← against her will
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.46.424))

( (IP-IMP (PP (P Gif)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                              (VBP agultest)
                              (PP (P wi+d)
                                  (NP (PRO$ +tine) (ADJ+N efen-nexta)))
                              (NP-ADV (N un+donkes))))) ← unwillingly
          (, ;)
          (VBI bet)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
          (NP-ADV (PRO$ +tin) (N +tonkes))		← willingly
          (ADVP (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (WADV hu) (ADV se))
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                (MD miht)
                                (VB *)
                                (PP (P wi+d)
                                    (NP (PRO him))))))
          (PP (P+D for-+ton)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ic))
                              (VBP wat)
                              (ADVP (ADV+ADV fulwel))
                              (CP-THT (C +tet)
                                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                              (MD miht)
                                              (VB agultan)
                                              (PP (P wi+d)
                                                  (NP (PRO$ +tine) (ADJ euen) (N nexta))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMLAMBX1,17.211))

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADV (PRO$ His) (ADJ ah+genes) (N +tonkes))	← by his own will
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD +trowede)
          (PP (P for)
              (NP (PRO us))))
  (ID CMLAMBX1,121.1195))

WILLES and WALDES

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO heo))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
              (VBP $breke+d)
              (NP-ADV (N willes)))				← willingly
              (ID CMANCRIW,I.46.55))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
          (NP-ADV (Q al) (N willes))
          (ADVP (ADVR se) (ADV scheomeliche))
          (VBP tukest)
          (. .))
  (ID CMHALI,154.386))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ &)
              (NP-ADV (N willes) (CONJ &) (N waldes))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
              (VBD beach)
              (PP (P to)
                  (NP (D +te) (N deouel)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.224.3249))

Phrases headed by WISE

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (ADJ Halie) (ADJ alde) (NS ancres))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
          (MD ma+ge)
          (DO don)
          (NP-ADV (Q summes) (N weis))				← in some way
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.58.574))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
              (NEG ne)
              (MD ma+ge)
              (NP-ADV (Q nanes) (N weis))			← in no way
              (ADVP (ADV allunge))
              (VB (VB21 wi+d) (VB22 seggen)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.69.764))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (NEG ne)
          (MD kan)
          (VB seye)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (NP-ADV (Q noon) (OTHER+N oother-wewyes))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (NPR englissh)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMCTPARS,318.C2.1308))

Elided correlative comparatives (THE MORE YOU SAVE, THE BETTER; THE MORE, THE MERRIER; EVER LONGER, THE MORE)

Elided correlative comparatives are treated as NP-ADV.

Full correlative comparatives (THE MORE YOU SPEND, THE MORE YOU SAVE) are treated differently.

( (NP-ADV (NP-MSR (D the) (QR more)
		  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
				  (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
				  (VBP save))))
          (ADJP (D the) (ADJR better))))

( (NP-ADV (NP-MSR (D the) (QR more))
          (ADJP (D the) (ADJR merrier))))

( (NP-ADV (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADV ever) (ADJR longer)))
          (ADJP (D the) (ADJR worse))))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV +ter))
          (VBP waxe+d)
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N wa))
          (, .)
          (NP-ADV (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR+ADJR selengere)))
                  (ADVP (ADVR se) (ADVR wurse)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.77.908))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
              (VB (VB crie) (CONJ and) (VB wepen))
              (NP-ADV (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADV evere) (ADJR lenger)))
                      (NP-MSR (D the) (QR moore))))
      (ID CMCTMELI,217.C1b.11))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBP forte+d)
          (NP-OB1 (D +tat) (N child))
          (, ;)
          (NP-ADV (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR swo) (ADJ leng)))
                  (NP-MSR (QP (ADVR swo) (QR more))))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (PRO$ here) (N wille)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMTRINIT,87.1180))

EACH IN HIS OWN WAY and the like

In these constructions, the PP is not bracketed as a complement of the noun (note the difference with
FACE TO FACE).
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO heo))
              (HVP habbe+d)
              (Q alle)
              (CODE <P_I.50>)
              (ADVP (ADV togederes))
              (NP-OB1 (NP (ONE an) (N luue))
                      (CONJP (CONJ ant)
                             (NP (ONE an) (N wil))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-ADV (NP (Q vhc) (ONE an))
                      (PP (P as)
                          (NP (OTHER o+der)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,I.50.96))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD made)
          (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N joy))
          (NP-ADV (NP (Q eche))
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (OTHER othir))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,16.483))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thei))
              (BEP ben)
              (ADJP (ADJ divers))
              (NP-ADV (NP (D that) (ONE on))
                      (PP (P fro)
                          (NP (D that) (OTHER othir)))))
      (ID CMBOETH,434.C2.246))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (VBD sware)
          (NP-ADV (NP (Q every) (N knyght))
                  (PP (P uppon)
                      (NP (PRO$ his) (N swerde))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,198.3046))

FACE TO FACE

In these constructions, the PP is bracketed as a complement of the noun (note the difference with
EACH IN HIS OWN WAY).
( (IP-MAT (CONJ Vor)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV +tanne))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
          (MD ssolle)
          (VB yzy)
          (NP-ADV (N face)
                  (PP (P to)
                      (NP (N face))))
          (ADVP (ADV clyerlyche))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAYENBI,88.1717))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
              (VBP seo+d)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
              (PP (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (BEP is))))
              (, .)
              (NP-ADV (N nebbe)
                      (PP (P to)
                          (NP (N nebbe))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMSAWLES,182.242))

HAND AND FOOT, BODY AND SOUL, and the like

(NODE (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *con*)
              (VB binden)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
              (, ,)
              (NP-ADV (Q ba+de) (NS handen) (CONJ and) (NS fiet)))
      (ID CMVICES1,17.203))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD bounde)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
          (NP-ADV (NS Hondes) (CONJ and) (NS feete))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMBRUT3,39.1192))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
              (ADJP-SPR (ADJ cwic))
              (BEP beo)
              (VAN forbearnd)
              (NP-ADV (CONJ ba+de) (N lim) (CONJ &) (N li+d))
              (PP (P $i)
                  (NP (VAG $leitinde) (CODE {TEXT:ileitinde}) (N leie))))
      (ID CMJULIA,99.63))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
              (ADVP (Q al))
              (NP-OB2 (PRO ham))
              (BEP is)
              (VAN to-limet)
              (NP-ADV (N li+d) (CONJ ba) (, .) (CONJ &) (N lire)))
      (ID CMHALI,142.221))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO us))
              (VBP sende+d)
              (, .)
              (PP (P into)
                  (NP (NPR helle)))
              (NP-ADV (N saule) (, .) (CONJ and) (N lichame))
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB wuniende)
                      (PP (P on)
                          (NP (ADJ eche) (N fur)))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,61.845))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD smote)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
          (RP downe)
          (NP-ADV (N horse) (CONJ and) (N man))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,22.670))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (ADV+P there-with))
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N castell))
          (VBD brake)
          (NP-ADV (N roffe) (CONJ and) (NS wallis)))
  (ID CMMALORY,64.2158))

HIM ANE and the like

HIM ANE means more or less BY ONESELF.
(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (MAN Me))
                (MD schal)
                (VB siten)
                (NP-ADV (PRO him) (FP ane)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.123.1576))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (ADJ eadi) (NPR iohan))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (ADJ anli) (N stude)
                  (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                          (C as)
                          (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (BED wes)))))
          (NP-OB1 (Q alle) (D +teos) (NUM +treo) (NS Meden))
          (VBD (VBD21 of) (VBD22 ernede))
          (NP-ADV (PRO him) (FP ane))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.125.1615))

Directional NP (NP-DIR)

A bare NP with a verb of motion indicating a direction (to or from) is labelled NP-DIR.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (VBD cam)
              (NP-DIR (N home)))
      (ID CMMALORY,8.219))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD rode)
          (NP-DIR (PRO$ his) (N way))
          (PP (P untyll)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                      (VBD came)
                                      (PP (P to)
                                          (NP (PRO$ his) (N broder)
                                              (NP-PRN (NPR sir) (NPR Kay)))))
                              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                     (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                             (VBD delyverd)
                                             (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
                                             (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,8.231))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P thorow)
              (NP (D the) (N wytte)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Merlion)))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD ledde)
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N oste))
          (NP-DIR (N+WARD northwarde))
          (NP-ADT (D the) (ADJS pryveyst) (N wey)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C that)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (MD coude)
                                  (BE be)
                                  (VAN thought))))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P unto)
              (NP (D the) (N foreste)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Bedgrayne)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,18.571))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-VOC (NPR Lauerd))
              (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (VBP sei+d))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO$ min) (N heorte))
              (BEP is)
              (VBN icomen)
              (NP-DIR (PRO me))
              (ADVP (ADV eft))
              (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.39.347))

Locative NP (NP-LOC)

A bare NP indicating a location is labelled NP-LOC.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (VBP ought)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (BE be)
                  (NP-LOC (N home))
                  (PP (P by)
                      (ADVP (ADV now))))
          (. .)))

Measure phrase (NP-MSR)

In cases that are ambiguous between complements (say, NP-OB1) and adjuncts (say, NP-MSR), the default is complement. A simple test for doubtful cases is to passivize the sentence; if the relevant noun phrase can be the subject of a passive, it should be annotated as NP-OB1.

  ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
            (VBD ate)
            (NP-ACC (ADVR too) (Q much))
            (. .)))

  ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
            (VBD ate)
            (NP-ACC (QP (ADVR too) (Q much))
                    (N spinach))
            (. .)))

  ( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
            (VBD ate)
            (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR too) (ADJ long)))
            (. .)))
  

Measure phrases occur as sentential constituents. We also explicitly label measure phrase modifiers of other constituents (see, for instance, Measure phrase modifiers of N). Only NP measure phrases are indicated as such. PP measure phrases (FOR THREE DAYS, etc.) are not indicated, following our policy of not specifying the function of PPs.

The distinction between NP-MSR and QP, described immediately below, is not straightforward, and it is likely that some instances of one category are mistagged as the other. It is therefore wise to search for measure phrases in terms of the disjunction NP-MSR|QP.

At the sentence level, noun phrases expressing measure are labelled NP-MSR. As is generally the case with noun phrases, categories other than nouns may act as the head of NP-MSR.

( (NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ long) (N time)))

( (NP-MSR (D a)
          (ADJP (ADV very) (ADJ long))
          (N time)))

( (NP-MSR (ADJ long)))

( (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADV very) (ADJ long))))

( (NP-MSR (QR more)))

( (NP-MSR (QP (Q much) (QR more))))

Measure phrases at levels lower than the sentence (notably, within ADJP and ADVP) are treated slightly differently. Here, measure expressions headed by Q are not surrounded by NP-MSR. But other measure phrases continue to be surrounded by NP-MSR brackets, even when they consist of a single word.

(ADJP (Q much) (ADJR higher))

(ADJP (QP (ADV very) (Q much))
      (ADJR higher))

(ADJP (QP (Q much) (QR more))
      (VAG imposing))

(ADJP (QP (QP (ADVR so) (Q much))
          (QR more))
      (VAG imposing))

(ADJP (NP-MSR (ADJ far))
      (ADJR higher))

(ADJP (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADV quite) (ADJ far))
      (ADJ distant))

(ADJP (NP-MSR (Q+WPRO somewhat))
      (ADJR higher))

(ADJP (NP-MSR (Q some) (WPRO what))
      (ADJR higher))

(ADJP (NP-MSR (Q many) (NS times))
      (ADJR higher))

(ADJP (QP (NP-MSR (Q many) (NS times))
          (QR more))
      (ADJR higher))

(ADVP (NP-MSR (NUM half))
      (ADVR so) (ADV sore))

When extracted out of ADJP or ADVP, measure phrases leave traces of the appropriate category (either NP-MSR or QP). Extracted QP measure phrases receive no surrounding NP-MSR, even when they end up at the clausal level, contrary to the general convention of surrounding all clause-level measure phrases with NP-MSR brackets.

( (IP-MAT (QP-1 (ADVR so) (Q much))
	  (BEP is)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO$ your) (CODE <font>) (N Zenith))
	  (CODE <$$font>)
	  (ADJP (QP *ICH*-1)
		(ADJ distant)
		(PP (P from)
		    (NP (D the) (N Equinoctiall))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID BLUNDEV,152V.129))

( (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO what)
		 (QP *ICH*-2))
	  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
		  (MD would)
		  (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
		  (HV have)
		  (QP-2 (QR more)))
	  (. ,))
  (ID PENNY,156.366))

Measure phrase of distance

Measure phrases of distance modify verbs of motion.
( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV So))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR Balyn))
          (VBD rode)
          (NP-MSR (QR more)
                  (PP (P than)
                      (NP (D a) (N pace)))))
  (ID CMMALORY,60.1998))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P $At)
              (NP (D $te) (CODE {TEXT:atte}) (ADJ last)))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR Balan)
                  (, ,)
                  (NP-PRN (D the) (ADJR yonger) (N broder)))
          (, ,)
          (VBD withdrewe)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
          (NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ lytel)))
  (ID CMMALORY,68.2327))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP-DIR (ADV+WARD +tiderwarde))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD went)
          (NP-MSR (QP (ADVR as) (Q miche))
                  (PP (P as)
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                      (MD my+gt)
                                      (VB *)))))
          (. .))(ID CMBRUT3,62.1869))

Measure NPs may also modify a direction or location. Particles modified by a measure NP exceptionally project an ADVP.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD smote)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
          (PP (P behynde)
              (NP (NP-POS (PRO$ his) (N$ horse))
                  (N ars))
              (NP-MSR (D a) (N+N spere-lengthe)))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,181.2438))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (HVD hefde)
              (VBN ilad)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO $heom))
              (PP (NP-MSR (ADJ feor))
                  (P i)
                  (NP (D +te) (CODE {TEXT:i+te}) (N wildernesse))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.163.2242))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD wille)
              (NEG not)
              (BE be)
              (ADVP-LOC (NP-MSR (ADJ long))
                        (ADV behynde))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,3.62))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (D the) (N castel)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Tyntygaill))))
              (BEP is)
              (ADVP-LOC (NP-MSR (FP but) (NUM ten) (N myle))
                        (ADV hens))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,4.86))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ next) (N rest) (N stop))
          (BEP is)
          (ADVP-LOC (NP-MSR (NUM ten) (N miles))
                    (RP off))
          (. .)

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N helme))
              (VBD smote)
              (PP (P into)
                  (NP (D the) (N erthe))
                  (NP-MSR (NP (D a) (N foote))
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (NP (QR more)))))
              (, ,)
              (CP-ADV (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP (ADV nyghe))
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N nek))
                              (BED was)
                              (VAN broke))))
      (ID CMMALORY,188.2720))

Phrases of the type TWENTY MILES FROM LONDON are treated as being headed by an empty adjective DISTANT and labelled ADJP-LOC. When the PP complement precedes the measure phrase, it is treated as having moved out of the ADJP.

(NODE (NP (NPR Hamburgh)
          (, ,)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C +tat)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (BEP is)
                          (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (NUM fyve) (N myle))
                                    (PP (P from)
                                        (NP (NPR Rependoun)))))))
      (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,367.2675))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
              (BED weryn)
              (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM v) (CONJ er) (NUM vj))
                                (N myle))
                        (PP (P fro)
                            (NP (NPR Lynne)))))
      (ID CMKEMPE,226.3675))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P In)
              (NP (D +tat) (ADJ same) (N weye)))
          (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (NUM half) (N myle))
                    (PP (P fro)
                        (NP (NPR Ierusalem))))
          (VBD appered)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N sterre))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (D the) (NUM .iij.) (NS kynges)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMANDEV,48.1175))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ thy) (ADJ verre) (FW mot)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO$ thy) (N mone))))
              (BEP be)
              (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (QR lasse)
                                (PP (P than)
                                    (NP (NUM 0.60) (NS signes))))
                        (PP (P fro)
                            (NP (NPR caput) (NPR draconis)))))
      (ID CMEQUATO,38.269))

Measure phrase of time

Measure phrases of time denote duration.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
              (MD maye)
              (VB ryde)
              (NP-MSR (Q all) (N nyghte))
              (PP (P unto)
                  (NP (PRO$ oure) (ADJ owne) (N castell))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.18))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-MSR (ADJ+N longtyme))
              (NP-SBJ (NPR Brut))
              (VBD dwellyd)
              (PP (P with)
                  (NP (D +te) (N kyng))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,6.138))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NP (PRO he))
                      (CONJP (CONJ &)
                             (NP (PRO$ his) (NS men))))
              (HVD had)
              (VBN sayled)
              (NP-MSR (NP (NUM xx) (NS dayes))
                      (CONJP (CONJ &)
                             (NP (QR more)))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,8.205))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ &)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
              (MD schule)
              (BE beon)
              (NP-OB1 (NS$ feondes) (N fode))
              (NP-MSR (N world)
                      (PP (P buten)
                          (NP (N ende))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.160.2195))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
              (HVD hefde)
              (VBN (VBN21 of) (VBN22 erned))
              (NP-OB1 (D +te) (NS pinen)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR helle))))
              (NP-MSR (N world)
                      (ADVP-TMP (ADV aa))
                      (PP (P buten)
                          (NP (N ende)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.139.1864))

Measure NPs may also modify points in time.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (HVD had)
          (VBN sought)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hir))
          (ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (NUM three) (N yere))
                    (ADV before))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,49.1610))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (ADVP (ADV So))
              (ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (NEG nat) (ADJ longe))
                        (ADV afftir))
              (NP-SBJ (NPR Joseph))
              (BED was)
              (VAN leyde)
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (PRO$ hys) (ADJ dedly) (N bedde)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,641.3988))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD com)
          (ADVP-DIR (ADV +tider))
          (PP (NP-MSR (NUM +dre) (NS degas))
              (P +ar)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D se) (N +arcebiscop)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (NPR Cantwarabyrig))))
                              (VBD come))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMPETERB,44.75))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D +tis))
          (BED was)
          (PP (P after)
              (NP (D +te) (NPR Incar-nacion)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Ihesu) (NPR Crist))))
              (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM .ij) (NUM C.) (NUM iiij.) (NUM vj))
                      (N +gere)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBRUT3,45.1347))

FROM ... TO

FROM ... TO sequences marking extent of space or time are labelled NP-MSR.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D +tat))
          (VBD durede)
          (NP-MSR (PP (P fro)
                      (NP (D +te) (N morne)))
                  (, ,)
                  (PP (P til)
                      (CP-ADV (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                      (BED was)
                                      (NP-OB1 (NUM xj)
                                              (PP (P of)
                                                  (NP (D +te) (N Clokke)))
                                              (PP (P of)
                                                  (NP (D +te) (N day))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBRUT3,228.4118))

( (IP-IMP (NP-MSR (PP (P From)
                      (NP (PRO$ ouwer) (N compelin)))
                  (PP (P o+det)
                      (CP-ADV (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Preciosa))
                                      (BEP beo)
                                      (VAN iseid)))))
          (, ,)
          (VBI halde+d)
          (NP-OB1 (N silence))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,I.60.180))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P whan)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                              (BEP is)
                              (NP-TMP (NUM ones))
                              (VAN conceyved)
                              (PP (P in)
                                  (NP (D the) (NS hertes)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (Q som) (NS men))))))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (ADV certein))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (MD wol)
          (VB lasten)
          (ADVP (ADV peraventure))
          (NP-MSR (NP (PP (P from)
                          (NP (ONE oon) (NPR Estre) (NPR day)))
                      (PP (P unto)
                          (NP (D+OTHER another) (NPR Estre) (NPR day))))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (QR moore))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,305.C2.726))

( (IP-IMP (CONJ Ant)
          (PP (P ed)
              (LATIN (FW Deus) (, ,) (FW in) (FW adiutorium)))
          (VBI make+d)
          (NP-OB1 (D an) (N cros))
          (NP-MSR (PP (P from)
                      (NP (D +te) (N foreheaued)))
                  (PP (P to)
                      (NP (D +te) (N breoste))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMANCRIW,I.58.155))

Measure phrase of degree

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D This) (NPR Vortiger))
          (VBD counceyled)
          (NP-OB1 (D +tis) (NPR Constaunce))
          (NP-MSR (QP (ADVR so) (Q mych)))
          (PP (P tyl)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                      (VBD forsook)
                                      (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N Abyte)))
                              (, ,)
                              (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                     (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                             (VBD went)
                                             (PP (P with)
                                                 (NP (PRO hym))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBRUT3,47.1435))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (D +tis) (NPR Vortiger))
          (VBD honourede)
          (NP-MSR (QP (ADVR so) (Q miche)))
          (NP-OB1 (D +to) (NUM C) (NS kny+gtes)))
  (ID CMBRUT3,48.1445))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD +tankede)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO ham))
          (NP-MSR (Q miche))
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (PRO$ here) (ADJ gode) (N seruise)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBRUT3,77.2348))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ But)
          (PP (P whan)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
                              (VBD herde)
                              (NP-OB1 (D thys)))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD repented)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
          (NP-MSR (Q much)))
  (ID CMMALORY,629.3613))

Non-argument reflexive (NP-RFL)

Reflexive pronouns with inherently reflexive verbs are labelled NP-RFL. Other reflexives are labelled according to function (-SBJ, -OB1, -OB2, -PRN, and so on).
( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P whan)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (VBD sawe)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ their) (N countenaunce)))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD dredde)
          (NP-RFL (PRO hym))
          (ADVP (ADV sore))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,203.3270))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ And)
              (PP (ADV+P therfor))
              (VBI desmay)
              (NP-RFL (PRO you))
              (NEG not)
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,5.132))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP assente)
              (NP-RFL (PRO me))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Arthure)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,39.1283))

Secondary predicate NP (NP-SPR)

See also Small clauses.

The dash tag -SPR is appended to all NPs that act as secondary predicates. The following verbs are treated as taking secondary predicates; the list is intended to be illustrative rather than exhaustive and should be compared with the list of verbs that we treat as taking small clause complements.

admit, agree, anoint, appoint, bind, bring, choose, christen, claim, confirm, consecrate, crown, defend, define, devote, elect, interpret, keep, leave, love, name, nominate, offer, ordain, preserve, set, subscribe, suffer, surname, take, testify, translate, try, vow, witness
(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB stand/mount)
        (NP-SPR (N guard)))

(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB elect)
        (NP-ACC (D a) (NPR Hapsburg))
        (NP-SPR (N emperor)))

Temporal NP (NP-TMP)

Points in time

NPs denoting points in time (THAT DAY, TUESDAY, YESTERDAY, etc.) are labelled NP-TMP. Dates are annotated with flat structure.
(NP-TMP (NPR January) (ADJ third) (NUM 1732))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-TMP (D This) (N nyght))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD shalle)
              (VB lye)
              (PP (P with)
                  (NP (NPR Igrayne)))
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (D the) (N castel)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Tyntigayll)))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,4.78))

(NODE (IP-MAT-2 (NP-VOC (ADJ Good) (NS men)
                        (CONJP (CONJ and)
                               (NX (NS woymen))))
                (, ,)
                (NP-OB1 (SUCH such) (D a) (N day))
                (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
                (MD schull)
                (HV haue)
                (NP-TMP (NPR Seynt) (NPR+NPR Thomas-day)
                        (PP (P of)
                            (NP (NPR Ynde)))
                        (, ,)
                        (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                (C +tat)
                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                        (BED was)
                                        (NP-OB1 (NPR$ Crystys) (ADJ holy) (N apostull))))))
      (ID CMMIRK,18.525))

(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (NP-TMP (NPR Sunnedei))
                (MD ah)
                (NP-SBJ (Q efri) (ADJ cristenne) (N .Mon.))
                (ADVP (ADV nomeliche))
                (PP (P to)
                    (NP (N chirche)))
                (VB cume))
      (ID CMLAMB1,139.242))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-TMP (D the) (ADJ first) (N nyght)
                      (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                              (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                      (MD shal)
                                      (VB lye)
                                      (PP (P by)
                                          (NP (NPR Igrayne))))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD shal)
              (VB gete)
              (NP-OB1 (D a) (N child))
              (PP (P on)
                  (NP (PRO her))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.74))

Frequency

NPs denoting frequency (EVERY DAY, TUESDAYS, etc.) are labelled NP-TMP.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV alwey))
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (NUM ten) (NS knyghtes))
          (BED were)
          (VAN ordeyned)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB watche)
                  (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd)))
          (NP-TMP (N day) (CONJ and) (N nyght))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,10.287))

(NODE (IP-SUB-2 (NP-SBJ (D a) (N man))
                (MD my+gte)
                (NP-TMP (NUM four) (NS si+tes))
                (VB foresake)
                (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N wif)))
      (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,25.184))

(NODE (IP-MAT-3 (NP-SBJ-2 (D +Te) (N dey)
                          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C +tat)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +tis))
                                          (BED was)
                                          (DAN i-doo)
                                          (PP (P ynne)
                                              (NP *T*-1)))))
                (BEP is)
                (NP-TMP (Q every) (N +gere))
                (VAN i-made)
                (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-2)
                        (ADJP (ADJ solempne) (CONJ and) (ADJ holy))))
      (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,37.246))

( (IP-IMP (VBI Voryet)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ +ti) (N body))
          (, /)
          (NP-TMP (NP-MSR (NUM ones))
                  (D a) (N day))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAYENBI,73.1406))

Vocative (NP-VOC)

Vocatives are labelled NP-VOC. Accompanying
interjections (AH SIR, O LORD) are treated as clause-level constituents rather than as constituents of the vocative NP.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (ADVP (ADV Wel))
              (, ,)
              (NP-VOC (PRO$ my) (N lord))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR syre) (NPR Ulfius)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD shal)
              (VB seke)
              (NP-OB1 (NPR Merlyn)))
  (ID CMMALORY,3.46))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-VOC (N Syr))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Merlyn)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP knowe)
              (NP-OB1 (Q al) (PRO$ your) (N hert)
                      (NP-PRN (Q every) (N dele)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,3.70))

Bare NP (NP)

The bare label NP is used for NPs without any of the above functions. These include:

Movement out of NP

PP modifiers of N are assumed to appear in pre-head position only as the result of scrambling, which is indicated by
an ICH trace. N differs in this respect from ADJ and P; see Movement out of ADJP and Movement out of PP.
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
        (MD shall)
        (VB blede)
        (PP-2 (P of)
              (NP (PRO$ hir) (N bloode)))
        (NP-OB1 (D a) (N sylver) (N dysshefull)
                (PP *ICH*-2))
        (ID CMMALORY,62.2061))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ ouerthwart) (N piece))
          (BED was)
          (PP-1 (P of)
                (NP (N lengthe)))
          (NP-OB1 (NP (NUM .iij.) (NS cybytes))
                  (CONJP (CONJ &)
                         (NP (D an) (NUM half)))
                  (PP *ICH*-1)))
          (ID CMMANDEV,8.130))

(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (ADJ+N halimon))
        (NEG+HVD nefde)
        (PP-1 (P of)
              (NP (D+OTHER$ +todres) (N fal)))
        (NP-OB1 (Q nan) (ADJ wunderlich) (N (N21 ouer) (N22 ho+ge))
                (PP *ICH*-1))
        (ID CMANCRIW,II.204.2922))

Prepositional phrase (PP)

See also Adverbial clauses, CP complements of P.

For want of reliable criteria, our annotation system makes no distinction between complement and adjunct PPs.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP (ADV so))
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (NS meanes)))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Uther))
          (VBD send)
          (PP (P for)
              (NP (D this) (N duk)))
          (IP-PPL (VAG chargyng)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
                  (IP-INF (TO to)
                          (VB brynge)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N wyf))
                          (PP (P with)
                              (NP (PRO hym)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.8))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (MD wold)
          (NEG not)
          (VB assente)
          (PP (P unto)
              (NP (D the) (N kynge)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.16))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (MD wille)
              (NEG not)
              (VB Come)
              (PP (P at)
                  (NP (PRO$ your) (NS somons))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.24))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Thenne))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (Q all) (N haste)))
          (VBD came)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR Uther))
          (PP (P with)
              (NP (D a) (ADJ grete) (N hoost))))
  (ID CMMALORY,3.37))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (PP (P within)
              (NP (ADJ forty) (NS dayes)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (MD wold)
          (VB fetche)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
          (PP (RP oute) (P of)
              (NP (D the) (ADJS byggest) (N castell)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C that)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (HVP hath)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.32))

Movement out of PP

By default,
complements of prepositions that immediately precede the head are treated as constituents of the PP, and movement out of PP is indicated only if the word order leaves no alternative.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-2 (PRO hemm))			← scrambled NP
              (ADVP (ADV (ADV21 +twerrt) (ADV22 ut)))
              (NP-SBJ-3 *exp*)
              (NEG nohht)
              (NEG+BEP niss)
              (PP (P off)
                  (NP *ICH*-2))			← trace
              (LB |)
              (LB |)
              (IP-INF-3 (TO To)
                        (VB betenn)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO$ here) (NS sinness))))
      (ID CMORM,I,193.1582))

( (IP-IMP (NP-1 (Q Alle) (D +tyse))		← scrambled NP
          (VBI be+tenk)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
          (PP (P of)
              (NP *ICH*-1))			← trace
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV inwardly))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (PRO$ +tyn) (CODE <P_55>) (N herte)))
          (, ,)
          (CP-ADV (C +tat)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NP (Q al) (PRO$ +tyn) (N affeccioun))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (NP (Q al) (PRO$ +ty) (N loue))))
                          (MD mowe)
                          (BE be)
                          (VAN turned)
                          (PP (P to)
                              (NP (PRO hym) (FP alone)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,55.883))

(NODE (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
              (C that)
              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                      (BEP am)
                      (VAN gurte)
                      (PP (P withall)
                          (NP *T*-1))))
      (ID CMMALORY,45.1496))

(NODE (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
              (C that)
              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                      (BED was)
                      (NP-MSR (Q muche))
                      (VAG beholdynge)
                      (PP (P to)
                          (NP *T*-1))))
      (ID CMMALORY,49.1619))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (WPP-1 (RP Oute) (P of)
                     (WNP (WD what) (N courte)))
              (IP-SUB (BEP be)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                      (VBN com)
                      (PP (P fro)
                          (PP *T*-1)))
              (, ?)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Balyn)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1695))

Although the trace of passivized constituents is not normally indicated, it is in the case of passivization from PP. See Traces of A-movement for examples.

Quantifier phrase (QP)

In general, QP does not occur at the clausal level. There are two exceptions.

Verb phrase (VP)

Although our annotation scheme does not generally include a VP node, there are three cases in which the boundaries of the VP are clear and omitting it creates more problems than it solves:

VP topicalization

( (IP-MAT (VP (VB hyde)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO hem)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (MD wolden))
  (ID CMAELR4,24.738))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Ach)
          (VP (VB totin)
              (RP vt)
              (PP (P (P21 wi+d) (P22 uten))
                  (NP (N uuel))))
          (NEG ne)
          (MD mei)
          (NP-SBJ (NP-COM (PRO$ ouwer))
                  (Q nou+der))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.43.381))

( (IP-MAT (VP (VP (VB sauuen)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO ow) (N seoluen)))
              (CONJ (CONJ &)
                    (VP (VB maten)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
                        (ADVP (ADVR betere)))))
          (NEG ne)
          (MD mu+ge)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
          (PP (P on)
              (NP (Q nane) (N wise))))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.78.915))

(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ bot)
                (VP (VB gange)
                    (PP (P fra)
                        (NP (N stede)))
                    (PP (P til)
                        (NP (N stede))))
                (MD wil)
                (NP-SBJ (PRO +tai)))
      (ID CMBENRUL,4.114))

VP extraction from subordinate clauses

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
              (VBD left)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hir))
                      (ADJP (ADJ a-loon)
                            (PP (P a-mong)
                                (NP (PRO hem)))))
              (, ,)
              (PP (VP-1 (VB cheys)
                        (NP-RFL (PRO hir)))
                  (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WADVP-2 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-2)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
                                  (MD cowde)
                                  (VP *ICH*-1)))))
      (ID CMKEMPE,27.600))

Parenthetical expansions of the type THAT IS

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (Q Nan) (N ancre))
          (NEG ne)
          (MD schal)
          (PP (P bi)
              (NP (PRO$ mi) (N read)))
          (VB makien)
          (NP-OB1 (N professiun))
          (, ,)
          (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (D +tet))
                      (BEP is)
                      (, ,)
                      (VP (VB bihaten)
                          (NP-OB1 (N heste))
                          (PP (ADV alswa)
                              (P ase)
                              (NP (N heste)))
                          (, ,)
                          (PP (P buten)
                              (NP (NUM +treo) (NS +tinges)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,I.44.51))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO +tai)
                      (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
              (MD sal)
              (DO do)
              (CP-REL-2 (WNP-3 0)
                        (C +tat)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                (BEP es)
                                (PP (P in)
                                    (NP (N cursing)))
                                (, ,)
                                (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (D +tat))
                                            (BEP es)
                                            (VP (DAN don)
                                                (PP (PP (RP owte) (P of)
                                                            (NP (D +te) (NPR kirke)))
                                                    (CONJP *ICH*-4))
                                                (PP (P for)
                                                    (NP (ADJ greue) (N faute)))
                                                (CONJP-4 (CONJ and)
                                                         (PP (RP owte) (P of)
                                                          (NP (D +te) (N fraitur)))))))))
      (ID CMBENRUL,31.1016))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (MD woll)
              (VB taken)
              (NP-OB1 (N ensampull)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Seynt) (NPR Paule))))
              (, ,)
              (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (D +tat))
                          (BEP ys)
                          (, ,)
                          (VP (VP (VP (VB leue)
                                      (NP-OB1 (N pryde)))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (VP (BE be)
                                             (ADJP (ADJ meke)))))
                              (, ,)
                              (CONJP (VP (VP (VB leue)
                                             (NP-OB1 (N synne)))
                                         (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                                (VP (BE be)
                                                    (ADJP (ADJ bysy)
                                                          (IP-INF (TO to)
                                                                  (VB amende))))))))))
      (ID CMMIRK,55.1553))

Words as clausal constituents

Adverbs

It is apparently possible for adverbs to scramble out of other phrases and become daughters of IP. Some instances look like permutations of the adverb and a preposition in the original, but we have not attmepted to emend the text.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
	  (NP-ADT (D that)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (BEP is)
				  (ADJP (ADJ worthy)
					(PP (P of)
					    (NP (N memorie)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (QP (ADV *ICH*-3)
		      (Q all))
		  (D thies)
		  (NS giuers))
	  (BED were)
	  (ADV-3 almost)
	  (NP-OB1 (NPRS Northenmen)
	  (. .))
  (ID ASCH,54R.141))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
		  (CODE )
		  (N+N Husbandman)
		  (CODE <$$font>)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO$ whose) (N occupation))
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (BEP is)
				  (NP-OB1 (D the)
					  (ADJ generall)
					  (NS affaires)
					  (PP (P of)
					      (NP (D the) (ADJ common) (N wealth)))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (PP (P as)
	      (FRAG (FRAG (NP (Q some))
			  (PP (P to)
			      (NP (D the) (NS Markets))))
		    (, ,)
		    (CONJP (FRAG (NP (Q some))
				 (PP (P to)
				     (NP (D the) (N Citie)))))
		    (, ,)
		    (CONJP (CONJ and)
			   (FRAG (NP (Q some))
				 (PP (P to)
				     (NP (D the)
					 (NS seates)
					 (PP (P of)
					     (NP (N Iustice)))))))))
	  (, ;)
	  (MD must)
	  (ADVP (ADV necessarilie))
	  (BE be)
	  (VAN imploied)
	  (ADV-2 almost)
	  (PP (P in)
	      (NP (ADJP (ADV *ICH*-2)
			(ADJ continuall))
		  (N trauell)))
	  (. :)) (ID MARKHAM,1,71.6))

Adverbial particles

Adverbial particles do not generally project phrasal structure. Direction or locative particles modified by a measure phrase are an exception.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (ADV+P therwith))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD yelde)
          (RP up)
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N ghost))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,7.181))

( (IP-MAT (PP (ADV+P Therwithalle))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Ector))
          (VBD assayed)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB pulle)
                  (RP oute)
                  (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd))))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.257))

Whenever possible, a particle immediately preceding a PP is treated as a specifier of the PP rather than as a clausal constituent.

Floated quantifiers

See also clause-level QP.

Where a phrase is ambiguous between an ordinary subject and a floated quantifier, it is treated as an ordinary subject.

Floated quantifiers are labelled Q without a phrase label. The connection to the phrase that they quantify, which is usually the subject, is not made explicit in our annotation.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tay))
              (BED wern)
              (Q all)
              (ADJP (ADJ fayne)
                    (IP-INF (TO to)
                            (VB fach)
                            (NP-OB1 (NPR Andraw))
                            (PP (RP out) (P of)
                                (NP (N pryson))))))
      (ID CMMIRK,7.178))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Adam) (CONJ and) (NPR Eue))
              (BED wern)
              (Q bo+te)
              (ADJP (ADJ holy))
              (PP (P or)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tay))
                                  (VBD deydyn)))))
      (ID CMMIRK,68.1871))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thei))
              (VBP arisen)
              (Q alle)
              (PP (P by)
                  (NP (N southe)))
              (NP-DIR (D the) (N est) (N lyne)))
      (ID CMASTRO,667.C2.149))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (ADV+P +terof))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tai))
          (VBD maden)
          (Q al)
          (NP-OB1 (ADJ gret) (N ioye))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMBRUT3,122.3705))

If there is no other possible interpretation, quantifiers in non-floated positions are also labelled Q at the clausal level.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (BED wern)
          (ADJP (ADJ barayne))
          (Q bo+te)
          (. .))
  (ID CMMIRK,15.433))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tay))
              (BED werne)
              (VAN rayset)
              (Q all))
      (ID CMMIRK,8.199))

Focus particles

Focus particles attach low by default.

Negation

Negation never projects a phrase.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (MD wille)
              (NEG not)
              (VB Come)
              (PP (P at)
                  (NP (PRO$ your) (NS somons))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.24))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP (ADV so))
          (NP-SBJ (ADJ fowl) (N desir))
          (NEG ne)
          (VBP reste+t)
          (NEG not)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (PRO hem)))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P +tey)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N feblenesse)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (N age))))
                              (VBP denye)
                              (NP-OB1 (N power)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (N dede))))
                              (, ,)
                              (PP-PRN (P as)
                                      (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                                              (C 0)
                                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO +tey))
                                                      (VBP seyn)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,30.121))

(NODE (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q al) (D +tis))
                      (NEG no)
                      (VBD suffiscede)
                      (NEG not)))
      (ID CMAELR3,30.104))

Verbs and modals

Verbs and related categories are labelled only at the word level. See Verb phrase for exceptions.

FOR TO infinitives

FOR and TO each have their own special word tags, but as with other verbal material, no further structure is indicated. See also
Elided FOR and TO in conjoined infinitives.
(NODE (IP-INF-PRP (FOR for) (TO to)
                  (HV have)
                  (VBN distressid)
                  (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (D the) (N$ kynges))
                          (N hooste)))
      (. ,))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.89))

(NODE (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
              (VB nourisshe)
              (NP-OB1 (D the) (N child))
              (PP (ADV lyke)
                  (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
                                  (VBD desyred)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.147))

When cliticized, the combination is labelled FOR+TO.

(NODE (IP-INF (FOR+TO forto)
              (VB defoyle)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ heore) (ADJ maydenlych) (N body))
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (Q eny) (N maner)
                      (NP-COM (N wyse)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,27.47))

(NODE (IP-INF-PRP (FOR+TO forte)
                  (HV habben)
                  (NP-OB1 (N+N golthord))
                  (VBN ifunden))
      (ID CMMARGA,83.446))

OUGHT TO

The OUGHT TO construction is treated as if OUGHT TO were a simple modal and is invariably annotated without IP-INF.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ But)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD ought)
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV ever))
              (TO to)
              (BE be)
              (ADJP (ADJ hevy))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Merlion)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,35.1117))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ *exp*)
          (PP (P if)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tay))
                              (BEP be)
                              (ADJP (ADJ dede)))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO thaym))
          (MD awe)				← impersonal OUGHT
          (TO to)
          (VB helpe)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ +taire) (NS sawles))
          (PP (P with)
              (NP (NP (N almous) (NS dedes))
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (NS prayers)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMROLLTR,11.297))

Participles

At the clausal level, participles occur as complements of passive auxiliaries and copular verbs, in reduced relative clauses, in small clauses, and in absolute clauses.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD may)
              (NEG nat)
              (BE be)
              (VAN delyverde)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (D thys) (N swerde)))
              (PP (P but)
                  (PP (P by)
                      (NP (D a) (N knyght))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,45.1497))

(NODE (NP (NP (PRO$ her) (NS shyldis))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (PRO$ her) (NS swerdis)))
          (RRC (ADJP (ADJ redy))
               (VAN drawyn)))
      (ID CMMALORY,203.3273))

(NODE (NP (D the) (N castell)
          (RRC (VAN called)
               (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
                       (NP-OB1 (NPR Camelot)))
               (PP (P in)
                   (NP (D tho) (NS dayes)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,45.1488))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (CONJ but)
              (PP (P with)
                  (NP (N falshede)))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD wolde)
              (HV have)
              (HVN had)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
                      (VAN slayne)
                      (PP (P with)
                          (NP (N treson))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,206.3395))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N fende))
              (VBD felte)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hym))
                      (ADVP (ADVR so))
                      (VAN charged)))
      (ID CMMALORY,664.4751))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (VBD flowe)
          (PP (P unto)
              (NP (D the) (N elme)))
          (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
                      (VB take)
                      (NP-OB1 (PRO$ hir) (N perche)))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS lunes))
                  (VAN overcast)
                  (PP (P aboute)
                      (NP (D a) (N bowghe))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,205.3342))

Perfect participles occur mainly with HAVE, but also occasionally with BE (HE IS COME).

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV So))
          (PP (P as)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                              (VBD rode)
                              (PP (P to)
                                  (NP (D the) (NS justes) (WARD ward))))))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay))
          (HVD had)
          (VBN lost)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N suerd))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,8.214))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR syre) (NPR Ector))
              (BED was)
              (VBN come))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.147))

Present participles occur after BE, in reduced relative clauses, in small clauses, in participial clauses, and in absolute clauses.

(NODE (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
              (NP-SBJ (D thys) (N knyght))
              (BED was)
              (VAG makynge)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hym))
                      (ADJP (ADJ redy)
                            (IP-INF (TO to)
                                    (VB departe)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,48.1589))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D a) (N yoman) (N porter)
              (RRC (VAG kepyng)
                   (NP-OB1 (Q many) (NS keyes))))
      (ID CMMALORY,193.2864))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (PRO$ his) (N strengthe)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NX (N hardinesse)))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP know)
              (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO hym))
                      (NEG nat)
                      (VAG lyvynge))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ hys) (N macche))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1681))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
          (VBD departed)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Percivale))
          (PP (P frome)
              (NP (PRO$ hys) (N awnte)))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (Q aythir))
                  (VAG makyng)
                  (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorow)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,659.4602))

Extended tags

Left-dislocation (-LFD)

Left-dislocated constituents are associated with a resumptive element in the body of the clause, which is marked by the dash tag -RSP. The left-dislocated and the resumptive constituents are not coindexed since with very rare exceptions, there is only one -LFD/-RSP pair per clause.

The -LFD dash tag is restricted to fronted constituents with a resumptive associate. Fronted constituents without a resumptive associate whose grammatical function is unclear are labelled NP-ADT.

Left-dislocated NPs

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-LFD (NPR Bleobris)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C that)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BED was)
                                  (NP-OB1 (N+N godson))

                                  (PP (P unto)
                                      (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Bors))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO he))
          (VBD bare)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (ADJ chyeff) (N standard))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,25.771))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (D +te) (N tilunge)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (N richtwisnesse))))
          (, ;)
          (NP-SBJ-RSP (D +tt))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (N silence))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.63.663))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-LFD (D the) (ADJ comoun) (N peple)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tat)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (MD wolde)
                                  (VB putte)
                                  (NP-OB1 (NP (PRO$ here) (NS bodyes))
                                          (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                                 (NP (PRO$ here) (N catell))))
                                  (IP-INF-PRP (FOR for) (TO to)
                                              (VB conquere)
                                              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ oure) (N heritage))))))
          (NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO +tei))
          (MD may)
          (NEG not)
          (DO don)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (PP (P withouten)
              (NP (D the) (NS lordes)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMANDEV,3.30))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-LFD (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO who))
                              (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (VBP holdeth)
                                      (PP (P ageynst)
                                          (NP (PRO it))))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
              (MD wille)
              (VB slee)
              (NP-OB1-RSP (PRO hym))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,11.306))

Non-nominal left-dislocated phrases

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-LOC-LFD (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (WADV where))
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                        (NP-SBJ (Q moche) (N turmentynge))
                                        (BEP is)
                                        (PP (P by)
                                            (NP (N affliccyon)))
                                        (PP (P in)
                                            (NP (N flesshe))))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP-LOC-RSP (ADV there))
	  (NP-SBJ=3 *exp*)
	  (BEP is)
	  (, /)
	  (NP-3 (QP (Q litel)
		    (CONJP *ICH*-2))
		(ADJ flesshly) (N delectacyon)
		(CONJP-2 (CONJ or)
			 (Q noon)))
	  (. .)) (ID CMAELR4,11.291))
  (ID CMAELR4,11.291))

( (IP-MAT (LB |)
          (PP-LFD (ADV Rihht)
                  (P o)
                  (NP (D +tatt) (N da+g+g)
                      (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                              (C +tatt)
                              (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (NPR Crist))
                                      (BED wass)
                                      (PP (P off)
                                          (LB |)
                                          (LB |)
                                          (NP (NP-MSR (NUM Fowwerrti+g) (NS da+ghess))
                                              (N elde)))))))
          (, ,)
          (LB |)
          (LB |)
          (PP-RSP (ADV Rihht)
                  (P o)
                  (NP (D +tatt) (N da+g+g)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +te+g+g))
          (VBD brohhtenn)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO himm))
          (LB |)
          (LB |)
          (PP (P Wi+t+t)
              (NP (N lac)))
          (PP (P till)
              (NP (NPR$ Godess) (N allterr)))
          (. ;)
          (LB |))
  (ID CMORM,I,267.2181))

( (IP-MAT (CP-THT-LFD (C +tat)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                              (PP (P wid)
                                  (NP (PRO +taim)))
                              (MD may)
                              (VB ga)))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR god))
          (VBP gif)
          (NP-OB1-RSP (PRO it))
          (NP-OB2 (PRO us))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBENRUL,5.119))

In general, only phrases, and not words, are marked as resumptive, and so the -RSP label may be attached to the phrase that contains the resumptive element, rather than to the resumptive element itself. An exception is found in connection with verb fronting in free relatives.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-LFD (PRO he)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (HVP hath)
                                      (VBN slayne)
                                      (NP-OB1 (PRO hym)))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP know)
              (NEG nat)
              (NP-OB1-RSP (PRO$ his) (N name))		← resumptive element HIS
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,202.3238))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tt)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (NP-OB1 (SUCH swich) (N ful+de))
                                  (VBP spit)
                                  (RP ut)
                                  (PP (P in)
                                      (NP (NP-POS (Q ani) (N$ ancre))
                                          (NS earen))))))
          (, .)
          (NP-SBJ (MAN me))
          (MD schulde)
          (VB dutten)
          (NP-OB1-RSP (PRO$ his) (N mu+d))		← resumptive element HIS
          (, .)
          (PP (PP (NEG naut)
                  (P mid)
                  (NP (ADJ scharpe) (NS sneates)))
              (CONJP (CONJ ach)
                     (PP (P mid)
                         (NP (ADJ harde) (NS fustes)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.66.707))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-LFD (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tt)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (DOD dude)
                                  (NP-OB2 (NPR iob)))))
          (, .)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV eauer))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD nom)
          (NP-OB1 (N leaue))
          (PP-RSP (ADV+P +terof))			← resumptive element THERE
          (PP (P ed)
              (NP (PRO$ ure) (NPR lauerd)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.170.2357))

Appositive or parenthetical (-PRN)

See also
Appositives and parentheticals as constituents of NP.

The extended label -PRN can be attached to any constituent label and indicates either an appositive or a parenthetical. If the appositive/parenthetical constituent immediately follows its co-constituent, it is included in the co-constituent's brackets. If separated from its co-constituent, it is coindexed with a trace within the co-constituent. The two most common types are separated NP appositives (often probably right-dislocation structures) and clauses (usually THAT clauses) appositive to demonstratives (usually THIS or THAT).

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D +tat))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ +tyn) (ADJ owne) (NPR Lord)
                  (, ,)
                  (NP-PRN (ADJ almyti) (NPR God)))
          (. .))(ID CMAELR3,26.18))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they)
                  (NP-PRN *ICH*-1))
          (VBD alighte)
          (NP-PRN-1 (Q al) (NUM thre)))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.237))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (ADV+P therwithall))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they)
                  (NP-PRN *ICH*-1))
          (VBD knelyd)
          (PP (P at)
              (ADVP (ADV ones)))
          (NP-PRN-1 (ADJP (CONJ both) (ADJ ryche) (CONJ and) (ADJ poure))))
  (ID CMMALORY,11.307))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P $aftir)
              (NP (D the) (N haste)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D the) (NS lettirs)))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (VBD gaff)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hem))
          (NP-OB1 (D thys) (N answere)
                  (CP-THT-PRN (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                      (MD wolde)
                                      (VB fulfille)
                                      (NP-OB1 (D $the) (N desire)
                                              (PP (P of)
                                                  (NP (NP-POS (NPR kyng) (NPR$ Arthurs))
                                                      (N wrytynge)))))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,16.491))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D that))
          (BED was)
          (NP-OB1 (D thys)
                  (CP-THT-PRN *ICH*-1))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (ADV shortly))
          (, ,)
          (CP-THT-PRN-1 (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (CONJ neyther)
                                        (NP (PRO he))
                                        (CONJP (CONJ nor)
                                               (NP (PRO$ his) (N wyf))))
                                (MD wold)
                                (NEG not)
                                (VB come)
                                (PP (P at)
                                    (NP (PRO hym)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.28))

Parenthetical IPs

Besides
gapping and right-node raising, which are discussed separately, there are several types of parenthetical IPs:

Structures that are ambiguous between an analysis involving extraction out of a subordinate clause (even out of an adjunct) and one involving a parenthetical are treated by default as instances of extraction. This is similar in spirit to our treatment of tokens that are ambiguous between extraction and pied piping, where extraction is the default as well.

( (IP-MAT (PP-1 (P Of)				← this structure
                (NP (D this)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VBP believe)
          (CP-THT (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
		          (HVP have)
		          (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N clue)
		                  (PP *ICH*-1)))
  (. .))

( (IP-MAT (PP-1 (P Of)				← not this structure
                (NP (D this)))
          (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	    	      (VBP believe)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (HVP have)
          (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N clue)
                  (PP *ICH*-1)))
  (. .))

Asides

Asides surrounded on both sides by parts of another clause are labelled IP-MAT-PRN.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ bote)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO here)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tat)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BED was)
                                  (VAN accused))))
          (, ,)
          (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (D +tat))
                      (BED was)
                      (NP-OB1 (NPR Marie) (NPR Magdeleyne)))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD (VBD asoylede) (CONJ and) (VBD excusyde))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,44.557))

Bare reason adjuncts

Bare reason adjuncts are labelled IP-MAT-PRN.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (N river))
          (VBD froze)
          (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                      (BED was)
                      (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ cold))))
          (. .))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NP (D +te) (N mone))
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NP (D +te) (N sunne))))
              (VBP wundrie+d)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (N faire)))
              (, .)
              (IP-MAT-PRN (ADJP (ADVR swo) (ADJ fair))
                          (BEP is)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO$ ure) (NPR louerd)
                                  (NP-PRN (NPR ihesu) (NPR crist)))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,19.237))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (NEG ne)
              (MD mei)
              (NP-ADV (Q nanes) (N weis))
              (VB Makien)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                      (ADJP (ADJ (ADJ21 lu+dere) (ADJ22 i+tonked))))
              (IP-MAT-PRN (ADJP (ADJP (ADVR se) (ADJ luueful))
                                (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                       (ADJP (ADVR se) (ADJ rewful))))
                          (BEP is)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO$ hire) (N heorte))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.165.2278))

Parentheticals with elision

Parentheticals can exhibit elision, notably when they elaborate on the immediately dominating clause.
( (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (NUM Two)
		    (NS men))
	    (VBP pass)
	    (RP by)
	    (, -)
	    (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (D a) (N priest))
				      (ADVP-TMP (ADV first)))
			  (CONJP (CONJ and)
				 (IP-MAT-PRN (ADVP-TMP (ADV then))
					     (NP-SBJ (D a) (NPR Levite)))))
	    (. .)) (ID TALBOT-1901,192.391))

( (PP (P when)
      (CP-ADV (C 0)
              (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (D the) (N horse))
	      	        (VBP travels)
	                (NP-MSR (Q much))
	                (, ,)
	   	        (IP-SUB-PRN=1 (ADVP (ADV especially))
			              (PP (P on)
				          (NP (ADJ stony) (N ground)))))))
   (ID TINDALL-1814,19.79))

SAID X

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
              (MD wolt)
              (VB ensure)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO she)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (CP-THT (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                              (MD wolt)
                              (VB fulfylle)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N wylle))
                              (PP (P whan)
                                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                                  (VBP somon)
                                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO the))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,663.4733))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO Ich))
              (HVP habbe)
              (VBN funden)
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD quod)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he)))
              (NP-OB1 (N mon)
                      (PP (P efter)
                          (NP (PRO$ min) (N heorte))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.46.432))

THAT IS and the like

Glosses or expansions on words or phrases introduced by THAT IS, THAT IS TO SAY/UNDERSTAND, TO WIT, and the like are labelled as parenthetical clauses (IP-MAT-PRN or, in the case of TO WIT, IP-INF-PRN). The gloss itself is treated as a complement of the lowest verb. The category of the gloss is usually NP or PP, but may be VP (see VP in parentheticals) or IP-MAT.

(NP (D +te) (N concience)
    (, ,)
    (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (D +te))
                (BEP is)
                (, ,)
                (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N inwit)
                        (PP (PP (P of)
                                (NP (PRO$ +ti) (N +toht)))
                            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                   (PP (P of)
                                       (NP (PRO$ +tin) (N heorte))))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (Q+N No-man))
          (MD may)
          (VB $amende)
          (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tat)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (NPR God))
                                  (HVP ha+t)
                                  (VBN despised))))
          (, -)
          (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (D +tat))
                      (BEP is)
                      (IP-INF (TO to)
                              (VB seye)
                              (, ,)
                              (PP (P wit-owte)
                                  (NP (NP (ADJ gret) (N repentaunce)
                                          (PP (P of)
                                              (NP (N man))))
                                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                             (NP (ADJ special) (N grace)
                                                 (PP (P of)
                                                     (NP (NPR God)))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,52.843))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N Dietting)
          	  (PP (P of)
		      (CODE )
		      (NP (N+NS grey-hounds))))
	  (CODE <$$font>)
	  (ADVP (ADV then))
	  (VBP consisteth)
	  (PP (P in)
	      (NP (NUM fowre)
		  (ADJ especiall)
		  (NS things)
		  (, ,)
		  (IP-INF-PRN (TO to)
			      (VB wit)
			      (, ,)
			      (NP-ACC (N foode)
			              (, ,)
                                      (N exercise)
                                      (, ,)
                                      (N ayring)
                                      (, ,)
                                      (CONJ and)
                                      (N kennelling)))))
	  (. ,)))

Resumptive elements (-RSP)

Resumptive elements form a pair with
left-dislocated constituents.

Direct speech (-SPE)

Full sentences of direct speech (matrix clauses, imperatives and direct questions) are given the extended label -SPE. The first main clause following a verb of saying is included in its matrix clause. Any following main clauses are separated (and also labelled -SPE). See also
Conjoined direct speech, Quotation phrase (QTP).

The -SPE follows all other tags except for grammatical function tags like -SBJ or -OB1. This is to facilitate searches for clausal subjects and objects along with ordinary subjects.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV than))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (VBD seyde)
          (PP (P unto)
              (NP (D that) (N knyght)))
          (, ,)
          (' ')
          (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-VOC (N Sir))
                      (, ,)
                      (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
                      (VBP nedith)
                      (NEG nat)
                      (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
                      (IP-INF-SPE-1 (TO to)
                                    (VB put)
                                    (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
                                    (PP (P to)
                                        (NP (QP (Q no) (QR more))
                                            (N payne)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,47.1541))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
              (VBP semyth)
              (NEG nat)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
              (IP-INF-SPE-1 (TO to)
                            (VB spede)
                            (ADVP-LOC (ADV $there)
                                      (CP-REL-SPE (WADVP-2 0)
                                                  (C $as)
                                                  (CODE {TEXT:thereas})
                                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP-LOC *T*-2)
                                                              (NP-SBJ (Q all) (D thes) (OTHER othir) (NS knyghtes))
                                                              (HVP have)
                                                              (VBN fayled)))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,47.1542))
Any sentence containing a parenthetical HE SAID, etc. is labelled -SPE at the highest level.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (ADVP (ADV Well))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD shall)
              (VB ordayne)
              (IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
                          (VB wythstonde)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ hys) (N malice)))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,45.1487))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO Hit))
              (BEP is)
              (NP-OB1 (N trouthe))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,180.2423))

Unknown (X)

The label X is used to mark of parts of the sentence which are ungrammatical, or of which the structure is unknown. Inside a constituent labelled X, words are usually labelled and partial structure may be given to the extent that it is clear. The parts, however, do not form a coherent whole.
(NODE (X (ADJ utwart)
         (PP (P wi+d)
             (NP (PRO$ hire) (N heorte)))
         (, .)
         (PP (P as)
             (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                     (C 0)
                     (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-RSP-1 (PRO hit))
                             (VBP (VBP21 bi) (VBP22 time+d))
                             (ADVP-TMP (ADV eauer))
                             (NP-MSR (QS mest)))))
         (, .)
         (C +tt)
         (VBP gan)
         (NP (D +te) (NS wittes))
         (RP ut))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.133.1764))

( (X (QP (ADVR zuo) (Q moche))
     (, /)
     (C +tet)
     (PP (P to)
         (NP (D +te) (N herte)
             (, /)
             (PP (P of)
                 (NP (D +te) (ADJ enuious)))))
     (, /)
     (NP (NS +to+gtes) (ADJ uenimouses)
         (, /)
         (PP (P of)
             (NP (ADJ uals) (N dom))))
     (, /)
     (CP-DEG (C +tet)
             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN me))
                     (NEG ne)
                     (NP-OB1 (PRO hise))
                     (MD may)
                     (VB telle)))
     (. .))
  (ID CMAYENBI,27.421))

X is also used when the category of a constituent is unknown in general or is difficult to determine in a specific context.

( (IP-MAT (INTJP (NPR Gogs) (N malison))
	  (HVP chaue)
	  (NP-SBJ (NPR Cocke) (CONJ and) (PRO I))
	  (, ,)
	  (VBN byd)
	  (NP-MSR (NUM twenty) (NS times))
	  (X light)
	  (PP (P on)
	      (NP (PRO it)))
	  (. .))
  (ID STEVENSO-E1-H,9.47))

( (IP-MAT (META (NP (CODE ) (NPR Tyb) (CODE <$$font>)))
	  (IP-MAT-1 (NP-ACC (D That))
		    (NP-SBJ (PRO $ch))
		    (MD $al)
		    (CODE {TEXT:chal})
		    (VB *)
		    (NP-VOC (NPR gammer))
		    (X (X swythe) (CONJ and) (X tyte)))
	  (, ,)
	  (CONJP (CONJ and)
		 (IP-MAT=1 (ADVP-TMP (ADV sone))
			   (BE be)
			   (ADVP-LOC (ADV here))
			   (ADVP (ADV agayne))))
	  (. .))
  (ID STEVENSO-E1-H,10.72))

( (IP-MAT (META (NP (CODE ) (NPR Ga~mer) (CODE <$$font>)))
	  (INTJ Alas)
	  (NP-VOC (N sir))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO $he))
	  (MD $'ll)
	  (CODE {TEXT:heel})
	  (BE be)
	  (ADVP-LOC (ADV here))
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV anon))
	  (, ,)
	  (FRAG (X ha)
		(BE be)
		(VAN handled)
		(ADVP (ADVR to) (ADV bad)))
	  (. .))
  (ID STEVENSO-E1-H,57.293))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (QP (ADVR so) (Q meny))
                  (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
          (BED were)
          (VAN slayne)
          (, ,)
          (PP (X what)
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (ONE o) (N side)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (PP (P in)
                         (NP (D +tat) (OTHER o+tere)))))
          (, ,)
          (CP-DEG-1 (C +tat)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                            (BED was)
                            (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N pite)
                                    (CP-TMC (WNP-2 0)
                                            (IP-INF (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                                            (TO to)
                                                            (VB wete))
                                                    (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                                           (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                                                   (TO to)
                                                                   (VB seen))))))))
          (. .)) (ID CMBRUT3,87.2622))

Finally, X can be used at the word level to indicate that the word should be omitted because it does not fit the syntax of the clause.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (X +tet)              ← mistranslation by Dan Michel
          (, /)
          (PP (P yef)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                              (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
                              (NEG ne)
                              (BEP is)
                              (NEG na+gt)
                              (ADJP (ADJ wor+t)))))
          (, :)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
          (VBP zay+t)
          (, .)
          (' ')
          (IP-IMP-SPE (VBI (VBI eth) (, /) (CONJ an) (VBI drink))
                      (PP (P ase)
                          (NP (D +te) (ADJ ilke))))
          (. /)) (ID CMAYENBI,54.977))