Conjunction

Word-level conjunction

Constituents that are labelled only at the word level (notably, verbs and particles) conjoin at the word level.
(IP-INF (TO to)
        (VB (VB read) (CONJ and) (VB write))
        (NP-OB1 (NS letters)))

(NODE (VB (VB here) (CONJ and) (VB vnderstonde))
      (ID CMAELR3,26.4))

(NODE (VBD (VBD furnysshed) (CONJ and) (VBD garnysshed))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.34))

(NODE (VBP (VBP brenne) (CONJ and) (VBP sle))
      (ID CMMALORY,29.917))

(NODE (RP (RP in) (CONJ or) (RP out))
      (ID CMAELR4,2.24))

(NODE (RP (RP vp) (CONJ and) (RP don))
      (ID CMMIRK,5.105))

For simplicity, categories that project phrases also conjoin at the word level, provided that all conjuncts consist of a single word. Since the constituenthood of the conjunction structure is already indicated by a phrasal tag, no additional word-level tag surrounds the structure, unlike in the case of verbs and particles above.

(NODE (NP (N maydenhood) (CONJ or) (N chastite))
      (ID CMAELR3,26.8))

(NODE (NP (NS clubbis) (CONJ and) (NS stavys))
      (ID CMMALORY,14.412))

(NODE (NP-OB2 (NS lordes) (, ,) (NS knyghtes) (, ,) (NS ladyes)
              (, ,) (CONJ and) (ADJ+NS gentilmen))
      (ID CMMALORY,11.316))

(NODE (NP (NPR Ulphuns) (CONJ and) (NPR Brastias)) (ID CMMALORY,15.456))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ gostly) (CONJ and) (ADJ worldly))
      (ID CMREYNAR,6.5))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJ heuenly) (CONJ and) (ADJ erthly))
      (ID CMROYAL,257.312))

(NODE (QP (Q noon) (CONJ or) (Q litul))
      (ID CMAELR3,33.202))

(NODE (ADVP (CONJ and) (ADV righteuously) (CONJ and) (ADV worshipfully))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.180))

(NODE (ADVP-LOC (ADV behynd) (CONJ and) (ADV before))
      (ID CMMALORY,14.403))

Phrase-level conjunction

When any of the conjuncts consists of more than a single word, the second and following conjuncts are labelled as CONJPs, headed by the conjunction, and adjoined to the first conjunct at the phrasal level, as illustrated in the following schema:
(XP (XP (X first-conjunct))
    (CONJP (CONJ conjunction)
           (YP (Y second-conjunct)))
    (CONJP (CONJ conjunction)
           (ZP (Z third-conjunct) (Z more-of-third-conjunct))))

All phrasal categories are conjoined in the same way. Conjunction of clauses, which follows essentially the same pattern but presents special difficulties, is discussed separately below.

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP (D the) (N duke))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (NP (PRO$ his) (N wyf))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.11))

(NODE (PP (PP (P of)
              (NP (NPR Lowthean)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (PP (P of)
                     (NP (NPR Orkenay)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,5.114))

(NODE (PP (PP (P upon)
              (NP (N payne)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (N cursynge)))))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (PP (P for)
                     (NP (D this) (N cause)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.187))

(NODE (ADVP (ADVP (QR more) (ADV esily))
            (CONJP (CONJ &)
                   (ADVP (QR more) (ADV sykerly))))
      (ID CMMANDEV,35.866))

(NODE (ADVP (ADVP (ADV +gorne))
            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                   (ADVP (ADV full) (ADV sore))))
      (ID CMMIRK,45.1307))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ full)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (N thought))))
            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                   (ADJP (ADJ slepy))))
      (ID CMMALORY,33.1055))

CONJPs with empty heads

Instances of word-level conjunction generally contain at least one overt conjunction. In the small number of cases where this is not the case, CONJPs are added to make the structure clear and distinguish these cases from noun compounds.
(NODE (NP-SBJ (NS abbeyes)
              (, .)
              (CONJP (NS priories))
              (, .)
              (CONJP (NS bernes)))
      (ID CMAYENBI,30.488))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NS uileynies)
              (, /)
              (CONJP (NS ribaudyes))
              (, /)
              (CONJP (NS lecheries)))
      (ID CMAYENBI,31.512))

All clear cases of phrasal conjunction, including ones without an overt conjunction, contain CONJP. This is most common in cases with more than two conjuncts, where an overt conjunction appears only before the final conjunct. But there are also cases without any explicit conjunction at all (for example, the X NOT Y construction).

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP (N fayth))
              (, ,)
              (CONJP (NP (ADJ good) (N hope)))  ← no CONJ in 2nd and 3rd conjuncts
              (, ,)
              (CONJP (NP (N belyeve)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (NP (N baptyme))))
      (ID CMMALORY,666.4836))

(NODE (PP (PP (P In)
              (NP (N mete) (CONJ and) (N drynk)))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (PP (P in)			← no overt CONJ at all
                     (NP (N slep))))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (PP (P in)
                     (NP (N spekyngge)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,27.50))

(NODE (NP (NP (NPR syr) (NPR Bawdewyn)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (NPR Bretayn))))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (NP (NPR syre) (NPR Kaynes)))	← no overt CONJ at all
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (NP (NPR syre) (NPR Ulfyus)))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (NP (NPR syre) (NPR Barsias))))
      (ID CMMALORY,10.298))

In general, sets of constituents (NPs, PPs, etc.) acting as a unit are treated either as appositive or conjoined, and this is indicated either by the presence of the extended tag -PRN (see Appositives and parentheticals), or by the presence of CONJP on the second (and following) constituents. The immediately following structure is therefore illegal:

(NODE (WNP-2 (WNP (WD what) (N mede))		← illegal structure, no -PRN or CONJP
             (, ,)
             (WNP (WD what) (N blysse))
             (, ,)
             (WNP (WD what) (N coroune))))

(NODE (WNP-2 (WNP (WD what) (N mede))		← corrected structure, with CONJPs
             (, ,)
             (CONJP (WNP (WD what) (N blysse)))
             (, ,)
             (CONJP (WNP (WD what) (N coroune))))
      (ID CMAELR3,26.14))

Conjunction of unlike categories

Conjuncts are generally of the same category, but not always. In the case of unlike categories, the category enclosing the entire conjunction structure is, by default, that of the first conjunct.
(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP (N religiuse))
              (CONJP (CONJ ant)
                     (PP (P of)
                         (NP (NP-POS (NPR Seint) (NPR$ Iames))
                             (N ordre)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,I.48.87))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP (PRO$ his) (N aihte))
              (, .)
              (CONJP (CONJ o+der)
                     (PP (P of)
                         (NP (PRO$ his) (N rihte)))))
      (ID CMTRINIT,13.138))

(NODE (PP (PP (P mid)
              (NP (N of+danche)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (PP (P mid)
                     (NP (N sarinesse))))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (ADVP (ADV unble+deliche))))
      (ID CMVICES1,3.18))

(NODE (PP (PP (P on)
              (NP (D +dare) (OTHER o+dre) (N woreld)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (ADVP (NEG naht) (ADV hier))))
      (ID CMVICES1,35.407))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJP (Q half) (ADJ ded))
            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                   (PP (Q half) (P+N alyue))))
      (ID CMAELR3,30.123))

When two words that conjoin at the word level have different labels, a CONJP is added. In most cases of single-word conjunction, the difference between conjoining like and unlike categories is an artefact of our system of labelling rather than reflecting true conjunction of unlike categories.

(NODE (VB (VB witen)
          (CONJP (CONJ o+der)
                 (HV habben)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,I.52.125))

(NODE (VBD (VBD misseide)
           (CONJP (CONJ o+der)
                  (DOD dude)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.101.1218))

(NODE (DON (DON done)
           (CONJP (CONJ and)
                  (VBN caused)))
      (ID CMMALORY,65.2185))

(NODE (VBP (VBP lyuen)
           (CONJP (CONJ &)
                  (BEP ben)))
      (ID CMMANDEV,30.737))

Cases involving the conjunction of unlike categories that result in morphological mismatches are treated differently; see backwards gapping.

Recursive conjunction structures

Conjunction structures can be recursive. We attempt to represent the (perceived) intent of the text, using various clues such as the distribution of conjunctions, punctuation, syntactic parallelism, and alliteration.
(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP (N gold) (CONJ and) (N seluer))
              (, ,)
              (CONJP (NP (NP (ADJ precious) (NS closes))
                         (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                (NP (ADJ vertuous) (N stones)))))
              (, ,)
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (NP (Q al) (D +te) (N pompe)
                         (PP (P off)
                             (NP (ADJ wordliche) (N blisse))))))
      (ID CMAELR3,28.68))

(NODE (NP (NP (NP-POS (ADJ blacke) (NS$ shepis))
              (NS skynnes))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (D a) (ADJ grete) (N payre)
                     (PP (P of)
                         (NP (NS bootis)))))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (NP (D a) (N boowe)
                     (CONJP (CONJ and)
                            (NP (NS arowis)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,30.940))

In the absence of evidence for grouping, the default would have been to give the first example above the following non-recursive structure:

(NODE (NP (NP (N gold))			← default bracketing
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (N seluer)))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (NP (ADJ precious) (NS closes)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (ADJ vertuous) (N stones)))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (Q al) (D +te) (N pompe)
                     (PP (P off)
                         (NP (ADJ wordliche) (N blisse)))))))

Shared modifiers

Shared pre-modifiers

See also
Clausal conjunction and shared modifiers.

When the first conjunct includes pre-head modifiers, it is possible in principle for conjunction to apply at the word level or at the phrase level. In order to indicate the (potential) attachment ambiguity, the second and following conjuncts are labelled (W)ADJX, (W)ADVX, or (W)NX.

(W)ADJX, (W)ADVX, and (W)NX are used even when the attachment ambiguity is resolved by the context.

Since the second conjunct in these cases is never taken to be a full phrase on its own, the first conjunct is never surrounded by phrasal brackets of its own.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorow)
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (NX (N comberaunce))))
      (ID CMMALORY,45.1496))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (Q all) (D the) (NS lordis)
              (, ,)
              (CONJP (NX (NS knyghtes)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (NX (ADJ+NS jantilmen)
                         (PP (P of)
                             (NP (NS armys))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,45.1488))

(NODE (ADJP (QR moor) (VAN cursed)
            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                   (ADJX (ADJ abhominable))))
      (ID CMAELR3,27.44))

(NODE (ADJP (ADJP (ADV mervaylously) (ADJ dyght))
            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                   (ADJX (ADJ ryche))))
      (ID CMMALORY,64.2151))

(NODE (ADVP (ADV full) (ADV gloriously)
            (CONJP (CONJ &)
                   (ADVX (ADV nobely))))
      (ID CMMANDEV,31.763))

(NODE (ADVP (ADV well) (ADVR hardyr)
            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                   (ADVX (ADVR sarre))))
      (ID CMMIRK,74.1986))

This convention applies only to ADJX, ADVX, NX, and their wh- counterparts. It does not extend to PP.

(NODE (PP (PP (FP bote)
              (P in)
              (NP (ONE oon)))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (PP (P at)
                     (NP (ONE oon))))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (PP (P wit)
                     (NP (ONE oon)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,35.268))

Shared post-modifiers

See also
Clausal conjunction and shared modifiers.

In keeping with our general principles, shared post-modifiers are attached as high as possible.

(NODE (NP (NP (Q alle) (D +te) (N delis))
          (, ,)
          (CONJP (NP (Q al) (D +te) (N rychesse)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NP (Q al) (D +to) (N wurschipe)))
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (D +tis) (N wordle))))
      (ID CMAELR3,55.933))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP (PRO$ his) (NS wi+geles))
              (CONJP (CONJ &)
                     (NP (PRO$ his) (NS wrenches)))
              (, .)
              (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                      (C +tt)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO us))
                              (PP (P wi+d)
                                  (NP *T*-1))
                              (VBP asaille+d))))
      (, .)
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.220.3201))

(NODE (PP (PP (P a+gein)
              (NP (D +te) (N swing)))
          (, .)
          (CONJP (CONJ &)
                 (PP (P a+geines)
                     (NP (D +te) (N (N21 an) (N22 nu)))))
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C +tt)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
                          (ADVP-LOC (ADV her))
                          (PP (P for)
                              (NP (PRO$ his) (N luue)))
                          (ADVP (ADV edmodliche))
                          (VBD +tolede))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.75.870))

(NODE (PP (PP (P for)
              (NP (PRO$ his)))
          (, .)
          (CONJP (CONJ &)
                 (PP (P for)
                     (NP (NP-POS (D +te) (N$ worldes))
                         (N luue))))
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C +te)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (BEP beo+d)
                          (Q ba)
                          (ADJP (ADJ swikele)))))
      (ID CMHALI,149.299))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (ADJ+NS noblemen)
              (CONJP (CONJ &)
                     (NX (NS wimmen)))
              (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                      (C +te)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                              (VBP make+d)
                              (NP-OB1 (ADJ large) (N relef)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.129.1700))

(NODE (NP (Q all) (D the) (NS lordes)
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (NX (NS comyns)))
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (BED were)
                          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,11.303))

Conjuction and negation

In both of the following constructions, NOT is bracketed as low as possible, reflecting the fact that it forms a constituent with the phrase that it negates. In other words, NOT is never treated as a correlative conjunction or as part of one.

(XP (XP (X first-conjunct))
    (CONJP (YP (NEG not) (Y second-conjunct))))		← X NOT Y

(XP (XP (X first-conjunct))
    (CONJP (CONJ conjunction)
           (YP (NEG not) (Y second-conjunct))))		← X AND/BUT NOT Y

X NOT Y, X AND NOT Y, X BUT NOT Y

(NODE (ADVP-LOC (ADVP-LOC (ADV wit-ynne))
                (, ,)
                (CONJP (CONJ and)
                       (ADVP-LOC (NEG not) (ADV wit-oute))))
      (ID CMAELR3,34.232))

(NODE (NP-ADV (NP (D the) (N man))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (NP (NEG nat) (D the) (N horse))))
      (ID CMMALORY,188.2731))

(NODE (PP (PP (P to)
              (NP (PRO me)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (PP (NEG nat)
                     (P to)
                     (NP (PRO hym)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,209.3479))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NP (D +te) (ADJ utward) (N ancre))
              (CONJP (NP (NEG naut)
                         (NPR ester)
                         (NP-PRN (D +te) (VAN hudde)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.132.1751))

(NODE (PP (PP (P in)
              (NP (N hope)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR$ godes) (N helpe)))))
          (, .)
          (CONJP (CONJ &)
                 (PP (P in)
                     (NP (N trust)
                         (PP (PP (P of)
                                 (NP (PRO$ his) (N grace)))
                             (, .)
                             (CONJP (PP (NEG naut)
                                        (P on)
                                        (NP (PRO$ hire) (N streg+de)))))))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.150.2048))

NOT (ONLY) X BUT (ALSO) Y

ALSO, unlike NOT (ONLY), attaches as a sister to the conjunction.

(XP (XP (NEG not) (FP only) (X first-conjunct))
    (CONJP (CONJ conjunction) (ALSO also)
           (YP (Y second-conjunct))))
(NODE (PP (PP (NEG naut)
              (P mid)
              (NP (ADJ scharpe) (NS sneates)))
          (CONJP (CONJ ach)
                 (PP (P mid)
                     (NP (ADJ harde) (NS fustes)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.66.707))

(NODE (PP (PP (NEG nawt) (FP ane)		← note low attachment of NOT ONLY
              (P of)
              (NP (ADJ heh)
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (NPR heouene)))))
          (, ;)
          (CODE <P_79>)
          (CONJP (CONJ Ah)
                 (PP (P of)
                     (NP (ADJ lah)
                         (PP (P on)
                             (NP (NPR eor+de))))))
      (ID CMMARGA,79.382))

(NODE (PP (PP (NEG na+gt) (FP onlepiliche)	← note low attachment of NOT ONLY
              (PP (P ine)
                  (NP (N mete)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (PP (P ine)
                         (NP (N drinke)))))
          (, :)
          (CONJP (CONJ ac)
                 (PP (P in)
                     (NP (Q alle) (NS uirtues)))))
      (ID CMAYENBI,250.2279))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NP (NEG not) (FP oneli) 		← note low attachment of NOT ONLY
	          (NPR Bede))
	      (, ,)
	      (CONJP (CONJ but) (ALSO also)	← note attachment of ALSO
		     (NP (NPR king) (NPR Alured))))
      (ID CMPURVEY,I,59.2346))

Extraposed CONJPs

Not infrequently, the second (or following) conjunct of a conjoined phrase is extraposed. In such cases, the extraposed conjunct is coindexed with an *ICH* trace.

Cases in which an extraposed CONJP is construed with the subject are treated by default as gapping.

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D a)
              (ADJP (ADJP (ADV passynge) (ADJ fayre))
                    (CONJP *ICH*-1))
              (N felyship)
              (CONJP-1 (CONJ and)
                       (ADJP (ADV well) (VAN besene))))
      (ID CMMALORY,19.581))

(NODE (NP (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ yonge))
                (CONJP *ICH*-1))
          (N folke)
          (CONJP-1 (CONJ and)
                   (ADJP (ADJ mighty)
                         (PP (P of)
                             (NP (N complexion))))))
      (ID CMAELR4,8.205))

Extraposition of a second (or following) conjunct from a phrase consisting of conjoined single words is treated in the same way. Although for simplicity's sake, these cases normally do not contain a CONJP, when extraposition is involved, a CONJP is introduced (motivated by the fact of extraposition itself). Apart from the CONJP, no additional phrasal nodes are introduced. As with the phrasal case just discussed, the extraposed CONJP is coindexed with an *ICH* trace.

( (IP-MAT (ADJP (ADJ idel)		← no additional ADJP
                (CONJP *ICH*-1))
          (BEP is)
          (CONJP-1 (CONJ &)
                   (ADJ unnud))		← no ADJP
          (NP-SBJ (Q $al)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                          (C $+tt)
                          (CODE {TEXT:al+tt})
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N god))
                                  (NEG ne)
                                  (VBP kime+d)
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP *T*-2)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.66.701))

(NODE (NP (PRO$ hir)
          (ADJP (ADJ good)
                (CONJP *ICH*-2))
          (N conuersacyon)
          (, ,)
          (CONJP-2 (CONJ and)
                   (ADJ honest)))
      (ID CMAELR4,3.72))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (NUMP (NUM Seoue)
                    (CONJP *ICH*-1))
              (NS Salmes)
              (CONJP-1 (CONJ ant)
                       (NUM Fiftene)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,I.60.194))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO$ Hare) (NS ouerherren))
          (VBP (VBP witi+d)
               (CONJP *ICH*-1))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO ham))
          (CONJP-1 (CONJ ant)
                   (VBP wrea+de+d))
          (. .))
  (ID CMHALI,150.316))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
          (MD chulle)
          (VB (VB lowse)
              (CONJP *ICH*-1))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO +te))
          (CONJP-1 (CONJ &)
                   (VB leten))
          (PP (P hwen)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
                              (VBP +tunche+d))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMJULIA,109.223))

Correlative conjunction

Word-level correlative conjunction

Single-word cases are bracketed flat, as in the general case.
(NODE (NP (CONJ bo+te) (N body) (CONJ and) (N soule))
      (ID CMAELR3,31.135))

(NODE (ADVP (CONJ and) (ADV righteuously) (CONJ and) (ADV worshipfully))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.180))

(NODE (QP (CONJ ne) (QR mare) (CONJ ne) (QR lesse))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.229.3320))

(NODE (VB (CONJ nou+der) (VB uersailen) (CONJ ne) (VB singgen))
      (ID CMANCRIW,I.74.299))

Phrase-level correlative conjunction

In phrase-level corelative conjunction, the first conjunction is treated as a sister of the first conjunct:
(NODE (NP-SBJ (CONJ neyther)
              (NP (PRO he))
              (CONJP (CONJ nor)
                     (NP (PRO$ his) (N wyf))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.28))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (CONJ nother)
              (NP (N good))
              (CONJP (CONJ nother)
                     (NP (ADJ grete) (N ille))))
      (ID CMMALORY,663.4732))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (CONJ neyther)
              (NP (D the) (N kynge))
              (CONJP (CONJ nor)
                     (NP (Q none)
                         (PP (P of)
                             (NP (PRO$ his) (N counceill))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.19))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (CONJ boa)
              (NP (NPR$ esteres) (N nome))
              (CONJP (CONJ &)
                     (NP (PRO$ hire) (N hech+gunge))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.133.1774))

(NODE (PP (CONJ both)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (N strength)))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (PP (P of)
                     (NP (N hardines)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,659.4589))

(NODE (NP (ADJP (ADJ flesliche)
                (CONJP *ICH*-1))
          (N fondunge)
          (CONJP-1 (CONJ ant)
                   (ADJ gastliche)
                   (CONJ ba+de)))	← note attachment of BOTH
      (ID CMANCRIW,I.50.122))

Floated conjunctions

Floated conjunctions are attached as high as possible, usually at the IP level, but lower if necessary. Where possible, they are coindexed with
an *ICH* trace in the position where they are interpreted.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ hys) (N body))
              (BED was)
              (ADJP (ADJ full)
                    (PP (P of)
                        (NP (ADJ grete) (NS woundys))))
              (, ,)
              (CONJ-1 both)
              (PP (P on)
                  (NP (CONJ *ICH*-1)
                      (NP (D the) (NS shuldirs))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (NX (NS armys)))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NX (N vysayge))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,660.4624))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
              (BE ben)
              (CONJ-2 bothe)
              (PP (P as)
                  (NP (CONJ *ICH*-2) (N Emperour) (CONJ &) (N Pope)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (D the) (NPRS Arabyenez))))))
      (ID CMMANDEV,27.647))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ-4 O+ter)
                  (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
                  (BEP art)
                  (NP-OB1 (CONJ *ICH*-4)
                          (NP (NPR God))
                          (CONJP (CONJ o+ter)
                                 (NP (NPR$ Goddys) (N dyscypull)))))
      (ID CMMIRK,19.552))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N kyng))
              (MD schulde)
              (CONJ-1 no+ter)
              (VB bere)
              (NP-OB1 (CONJ *ICH*-1) (N swerd) (CONJ ne) (N knyf)))
      (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,445.3266))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO ou))
              (CONJ-1 nou+der)
              (MD cunne)
              (VB (CONJ *ICH*-1) (CONJ ne) (VB lastin) (CONJ ne) (VB preisin)))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.54.511))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (Q all) (NS turnementes)
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (NX (NS justys)))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NX (NS dedys)
                             (PP (P of)
                                 (NP (NS armys)))))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJ-1 both)		← CONJ floated as high as possible
                  (PP (P for)
                      (NP (CONJ *-1) (N lyff) (CONJ and) (N deth)))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD passed)
          (NP-OB1 (Q all) (OTHER other) (NS knyghtes))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,180.2406))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (ADJ mercyful) (NPR Criste))
          (VBD grauntede)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (NP-OB1 (N hele)
                  (CONJ-1 bo+te)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (CONJ *ICH*-1) (N body) (CONJ and) (N sowle))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,43.509))

Clausal conjunction

Conjunction of matrix IPs

See also
Conjoined direct speech.

Main clauses are separated even when conjoined (except in pseudo-imperatives). The clause-initial CONJ in the second and subsequent clauses is treated as a constituent of the clause, and an empty subject (NP-SBJ *con*) is included in the second and subsequent clauses.


( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than)) (NP-SBJ (NPR Arthure)) (VBD toke) (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde)) (PP (P by) (NP (D the) (N sheethe) (CONJP (CONJ and) (NX (N gurdil)))))) (ID CMMALORY,46.1508)) ( (IP-MAT (CONJ and) (NP-SBJ *con*) (VBD pulled) (PP (P at) (NP (PRO hit))) (ADVP (ADV egirly)) (. ,)) (ID CMMALORY,46.1509))
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D Thys) (N damesell)) (ADVP-TMP (ADV than)) (VBD behelde) (NP-OB1 (D thys) (ADJ poure) (N knyght))) (ID CMMALORY,46.1538)) ( (IP-MAT (CONJ and) (NP-SBJ *con*) (VBD saw) (CP-THT (C 0) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he)) (BED was) (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ lyckly) (N man)))) (. ;)) (ID CMMALORY,46.1539))

Pseudo-imperatives

In the so-called pseudo-imperative, an imperative and a following matrix declarative correspond pragmatically to the protasis and apodosis of a conditional construction. In order to represent the tight link between the two clauses, we annotate pseudo-imperatives as single tokens, contrary to our usual practice of treating conjoined matrix clauses as separate tokens. The constituent clauses are annotated according to form, not function, and the root node is IP-IMP in accordance with the default concerning
conjunction of unlike categories. In doubtful cases, the default is annotation as a single token, since separate tokens are not retrievable.
(IP-IMP (IP-IMP (VBI Cross)
                (NP-ACC (D the) (N line)))
        (CONJP (CONJ and)
               (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                       (VBP shoot)))
        (. .))

(IP-IMP (IP-IMP (VBI Stay)
                (PP (P behind)
                    (NP (D the) (N line))))
        (CONJP (CONJ or)
               (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                       (VBP shoot)))
        (. .))

Conjunction of embedded IPs

The absence of a VP level in our annotation system forces us to treat both VP and IP conjunction in the same way---namely, as IP conjunction. An
empty subject (NP-SBJ *con*) is included in any non-first clausal conjunct when its subject is elided.
(NODE (CP-THT (C that)
              (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NUM two) (NS ladyes))
                              (VBD mette)
                              (PP (P with)
                                  (NP (PRO hym))))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D that) (ONE one))
                                     (VBD sate)
                                     (PP (P uppon)
                                         (NP (D a) (N lyon)))))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D that) (OTHER other))
                                     (VBD sate)
                                     (PP (P uppon)
                                         (NP (D a) (N serpente)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,665.4791))

(NODE (CP-ADV (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (BED was)
                              (NP-OB1 (N kynge)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (Q all) (NPR Englond)))))
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                     (ADVP (ADV so))
                                     (VBD regned)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.6))

(NODE (CP-REL (WPP-1 (WADV+P wherof))
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS barons))
                              (BED were)
                              (ADVP (ADV sore))
                              (VAN agreved))
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                                     (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                     (VBD put)
                                     (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
                                     (RP of)
                                     (PP (P in)
                                         (NP (N delay)))
                                     (PP (P till)
                                         (NP (D the) (ADJ hyghe) (N feste)
                                             (PP (P of)
                                                 (NP (NPR Eester)))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,10.293))

For cases where more than the subject is elided from the second conjunct, see Gapping.

Right-node raising

Right-node raising is treated differently depending on whether the right-node raised constituent is smaller than NP or not. In the first case, the right-node raising constituent will be immediately dominated by NP; in the second case, by some type of IP (in the general case). In the examples below, the right-node raised constituents is underlined.
an enlarging and a restraining power		← right-node raised constituent = N
She asked for, but she did not get, a raise.	← right-node raised constituent = NP
The noun phrase-internal type is treated like ordinary conjunction, except that the head of the first conjunct is not expressed.
(NP (NP (D an) (VAG enlarging)
    (CONJP (CONJ and)
           (NP (D a) (VAG restraining) (N power))))
In the clausal type, the incomplete IP is marked as a parenthetical (IP-MAT-PRN, IP-SUB-PRN, etc.). In addition, the incomplete clausal material immediately preceding the right-node raised constituent is coindexed (with a index preceded by an equal sign) to the clause from which its missing parts can be reconstructed. Within such incomplete clauses, no reconstruction at all is done. That is, no empty categories are included, and no information beyond part-of-speech and minimal phrasal labelling (including the annotation of grammatical functions) is provided. PPs in such clauses need not include a prepositional object.
( (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO She))			← complete clause (includes right-node raised constituent)
            (VBD asked)
            (PP (P for)
                (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJ but) 	← index with equal sign indicates an incomplete clause
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
                              (DOD did)
                              (NEG not)
                              (VB get))
                (NP (D a) (N raise)))))

( (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO She))
            (VBD got)
            (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (PP (P though)
                              (CP-ADV (C 0)
			              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
                                              (DOD did)
                                              (NEG not)
                                              (VB know)
					      (CP-QUE (WNP-2 (WPRO what))
                                                      (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
							      (TO to)
                                                              (DO do)
                                                              (PP (P with))))))))	← PP without object
            (NP-OB1 (D a) (N raise))))

(NODE (IP-SUB-1 (PP (P by)
                    (NP (N grace)))
                (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                (VBP sese)
                (, ,)
                (IP-SUB-PRN=1 (CONJ or)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (VBP heres))
                (, ,)
                (IP-SUB-PRN=1 (CONJ or)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (VBP felys))
                (NP-OB1 (FP anely) (NPR Godd))
                (PP (P in)
                    (NP (Q all) (NS creaturs))))
      (ID CMROLLTR,16.384))

( (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ And)
            (PP (P+D for-+ti))
            (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
            (MD may)
            (ADVP-TMP (ADV neuer))
            (VB fele)
            (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJ ne)
                          (VB come)
                          (PP (P to)))		← PP without reconstructed object
            (NP-OB1 (D +te) (NS joyes)
                    (PP (P of)
                        (NP (NPR Heuene))))
            (, ,))

( (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ (Q No) (N tonge))
            (MD maye)
            (VB telle)
            (, ,)
            (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJ ne)
                          (CODE <em>)
                          (NP-SBJ (N herte))
                          (ADVP (ADV fully))
                          (CODE </em>)
                          (VB thynke))
            (, ,)
            (NP-OB1 (D the) (NS paynes)
                    (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                            (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO$ oure) (NPR savyoure))
                                    (VBD sufferde)
                                    (PP (P for)
                                        (NP (PRO vs))))))
  (ID CMJULNOR,56.173))

(NODE (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                (VB se)
                (IP-INF-PRN=1 (CONJ and)
                              (TO to)
                              (VB beholde))
                (NP-OB1 (D the) (N multitude)
                        (PP (P of)
                            (NP (N peple)
                                (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                                        (C that)
                                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                                                (VBD fledde)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,25.791))

( (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ but)
            (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
            (VBD ravisched)
            (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJ and)
                          (VBD tok)
                          (ADVP-DIR (ADV awey)))
            (NP-OB1 (D a) (N mynchoun)
                    (PP (P of)
                        (NP (D +te) (N abbay)
                            (PP (P of)
                                (NP (NPR Wynborne))))))
            (. ,)))


( (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ Vor)
            (NP-SBJ (N herte)
                    (QP (Q non)))
            (NEG ne)
            (MD may)
            (VB +tenche)
            (, /)
            (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJ ne)
                          (NP-SBJ (N$ mannes) (N tonge))
                          (VB telle))
            (, :)
            (CP-QUE (WNP-2 (WD huet) (N +ting))
                    (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                            (BEP is)
                            (NP-SBJ (D +tet) (N pais)
                                    (CP-REL (WNP-3 0)
                                            (C +tet)
                                            (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-3)
                                                    (NP-SBJ (NPR god))
                                                    (HVP he+t)
                                                    (VBN behote)
                                                    (NP-OB2 (PRO$ his) (NS urendes)))))))
            (. .))
  (ID CMAYENBI,261.2474))

Gapping

The treatment of gapping resembles that of right-node raising. The gapped clause is coindexed with the complete clause from which it can be reconstructed. If the gapped clause is sentence-final, it does not receive a -PRN dash tag.

In cases that are ambiguous between gapping and ordinary conjunction, the default is usually ordinary conjunction. A common case is the NOT (ONLY) X BUT Y construction. In general, gapped clauses should dominate more than one constituent (not counting any conjunctions).

However, in cases in which an extraposed CONJP is construed with the subject, the default is gapping. This is because it is possible for the extraposed CONJP to be construed with a silent subject or a subject yielding a mismatch in subject-verb agreement, in which cases an ordinary conjunction analysis is difficult or impossible to implement.

(NODE (CP-ADV (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Uther)) ← complete clause with index
                                (MD wille)
                                (ADVP (ADV wel))
                                (VB rewarde)
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO me)))
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (IP-SUB=1 (BE be)			← gapped clause
                                       (VAN sworne)
                                       (PP (P unto)
                                           (NP (PRO me)))
                                       (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
                                                   (VB fulfille)
                                                   (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N desyre)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,3.56))

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ And)
                    (ADVP (ADV so))
                    (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot))
                    (VBD rode)
                    (PP (P on)
                        (NP (D the) (ONE one) (N syde))))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (IP-MAT=1 (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
                           (PP (P on)
                               (NP (D the) (OTHER other) (N syde)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,207.3427))

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
                    (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Percivale))
                    (VBD smote)
                    (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJ firste))
                    (PP (P to)
                        (NP (D the) (N erth))))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (IP-MAT=1 (NP-OB1 (PRO$ hys) (N horse))
                           (PP (P uppon)
                               (NP (PRO hym)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,661.4662))

Default with conjunction on subject

(NODE (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (PP *T*-2)
                        (NP-SBJ (D the) (N quene)                     ← like this
                                (, ,)
                                (NP-PRN (ADJ fayre) (NPR Igrayne)))
                        (, ,)
                        (VBD made)
                        (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorowe)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (IP-SUB=2 (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (D the) (NS barons)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.182))

(NODE (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
              (NP-SBJ (NP (D the) (N quene)                           ← not like this
                          (, ,)
                          (NP-PRN (ADJ fayre) (NPR Igrayne)))
              (CONJP *ICH*-3))
              (, ,)
              (VBD made)
              (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorowe))
              (CONJP-3 (CONJ and)
                       (NP (Q alle) (D the) (NS barons))))
      (ID CMMALORY,7.182))

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT=1 (CONJ And)                                        ← like this
                    (PP (ADV+P therwithalle))
                    (NP-SBJ (NPR syre) (NPR Ector))

                    (VBD knelyd)
                    (PP (RP doune)
                        (P to)
                        (NP (D the) (N erthe))))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                (IP-SUB=1 (NP-SBJ (NPR syre) (NPR Kay))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.265))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)                                                  ← not like this
          (PP (ADV+P therwithalle))
          (NP-SBJ (NP (NPR syre) (NPR Ector))
                  (CONJP *ICH*-1))
          (VBD knelyd)
          (PP (RP doune)
              (P to)
              (NP (D the) (N erthe)))
          (CONJP-1 (CONJ and)
                   (NP (NPR syre) (NPR Kay)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.265))

If the gapped clause is clause-internal, it is labelled as a parenthetical, with the exact label (IP-MAT-PRN, IP-SUB-PRN, etc.) depending on how its dominating clause is labelled, just as in the case of right-node raising. Gapping of this type is often used even without strict equivalence between the complete and the gapped clause. If the relationship is extremely loose, however, the second clause may be dominated by FRAG.

( (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ And)
            (NP-SBJ (NS men))
            (VBP comen)
            (PP (P fro)
                (ADJP (ADJ fer)))
            (PP (P by)
                (NP (N watre)))
            (PP (P in)
                (NP (NS schippes)))
            (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJ &)
                          (PP (P be)
                              (NP (N londe)))
                          (PP (P with)
                              (NP (NS cartes))))
            (IP-INF-PRP (FOR for) (TO to)
                        (VB fetten)
                        (PP (P of)
                            (NP (D +tat) (N grauell)))))
  (ID CMMANDEV,19.464))

(NODE (IP-SUB-2 (NP-SBJ (PRO hi))
                (NEG ne)
                (MD conne)
                (, /)
                (IP-SUB-PRN=2 (CONJ ne)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO hi))
                              (NEG ne)
                              (MD mo+ge))
                (, /)
                (VB healde)
                (NP-OB1 (N mesure)))
      (ID CMAYENBI,53.950))

( (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ and)
            (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
            (BED was)
            (NP-SBJ (NPR Gryfflette))
            (VAN put)
            (PP (P to)
                (NP (D the) (N erth)))
            (NP-ADV (N horse) (CONJ and) (N man))
            (, ,)
            (IP-MAT-PRN=1 (CONJ and)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Lucas)
                                  (NP-PRN (D the) (N Butler)))
                          (NP-ADV (N horse) (CONJ and) (N man)))
            (, ,)
            (PP (P $by)
                (NP (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Brandegoris))
                    (CONJP (CONJ and)
                           (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Idres)))
                    (CONJP (CONJ and)
                           (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Angwyshaunce)))))
            (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,21.651))

Backwards gapping

In backwards gapping, the constituent that counts as gapped is the first conjunct (rather than the second conjunct, as with ordinary gapping). The conjunction is included under CONJP in either type. Backwards gapping is used to annotate WHETHER OR NO(T) clauses as well as the conjunction of unlike categories that result in morphological mismatches.

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT=1 (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                    (HVP have))
          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                 (IP-MAT-1 (NP-SBJ *con*)
		           (MD will)
		           (VB withstand)
		           (NP-OB1 (PRO him))))))

(NODE (PP (P+N because)
          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB=1 (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                    (HVP haue)
		    		    (NEG not))
   		          (CONJP (CONJ nor)
			         (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                           (MD can)
				           (NEG not)
				           (VB thinke)
				           (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ=2 (PRO it))
					           (ADJP (ADJ reasonable))
 					           (IP-INF-2 (TO to)
						    	     (VB yeld)
							     (PP (P to)
							         (NP (ADJ sondry) (PRO$ his) (NS requestes))))))))))
      (IP tparkhu,Q_PAR_C_1573?_T_JPARKHURST:222.1226))

Conjoined direct speech

After a verb of saying, whether in a matrix or subordinate clause, all full conjoined clauses containing direct speech after the first one are treated as separate tokens.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (VBD seyde)
          (, ,)
          (' ')
          (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-VOC (NPR sir) (NPR Percivale))
                      (, ,)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                      (VBP playne)
                      (PP (P unto)
                          (NP (PRO you)))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
                                          (C that)
                                          (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                                      (HVP have)
                                                      (DON done)
                                                      (PP (P unto)
                                                          (NP (PRO me))))))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,665.4798))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (HVP have)
              (NEG nat)
              (VBN offended)
              (PP (P unto)
                  (NP (PRO you)))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,665.4799))

Conjunction of CPs

Conjunction of embedded clauses is treated as CP conjunction (rather than as IP conjunction) only if the second conjunct has overt CP material, such as a wh- phrase or complementizer.
(NODE (CP-ADV (CP-ADV (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                              (VBP know)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (NP-POS (D that) (N$ knyghtes))
                                      (N felyship)))))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (CP-ADV (C that)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                     (MD may)
                                     (VB fyght)
                                     (PP (P with)
                                         (NP (PRO hym)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,658.4549))

(NODE (CP-THT (CP-THT (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (MD will)
                              (VB put)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (ADJ owne) (N child))
                              (PP (P to)
                                  (NP (N nourisshynge)))
                              (PP (P to)
                                  (NP (D+OTHER another) (N woman)))))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (CP-THT (C that)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N wyf))
                                     (VBP nourisshe)
                                     (NP-OB1 (PRO$ yours))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,6.144))

(NODE (CP-QUE (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WD what) (N peple))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                              (HVP have)
                              (VBN loste)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (CP-QUE (WNP-2 (WD what) (ADJ good) (NS men))
                             (C 0)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                     (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                     (VBP lese)
                                     (PP (P+N because)	← for attachment, see Clausal conjunction and shared modifiers
                                         (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                                 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                                         (VBP wayte)
                                                         (ADVP-TMP (ADV allweyes))
                                                         (PP (P on)
                                                             (NP (D thes) (N+NS footemen))))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,27.855))

Clausal conjunction and shared modifiers

Because of the way that we split matrix clauses, shared elements interpreted as belonging to both clauses must be annotated as belonging to one clause or the other, or one of the clauses must be treated as parenthetical. For adjuncts, we take the former approach (see examples below); for complements, the latter (see
Conjunction of embedded IPs).

As a result of our convention, pre-sentential adjuncts (most commonly, clause-initial WHEN and IF clauses) appear as constituents of the first conjunct only, while post-sentential adjuncts appear as constituents of the second conjunct only.


( (IP-MAT (PP (P Whanne) ← potential shared adjunct (CP-ADV (C 0) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N duke)) (HVD hadde) (NP-OB1 (D thys) (N warnynge))))) (ADVP-TMP (ADV anone)) (NP-SBJ (PRO he)) (VBD wente)) (ID CMMALORY,2.33)) ( (IP-MAT (CONJ and) (NP-SBJ *con*) (VBD (VBD furnysshed) (CONJ and) (VBD garnysshed)) (NP-OB1 (NUM two) (ADJ stronge) (NS castels) (PP (P of) (NP (PRO$ his))) (, ,) (CP-REL (WPP-1 (P of) (WNP (D the) (WPRO whiche))) (C 0) (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (D the) (ONE one)) (VBD hyght) (NP-OB1 (NPR Tyntagil))) (CONJP (CONJ and) (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1) (NP-SBJ (D the) (OTHER other) (N castel)) (VBD hyght) (NP-OB1 (NPR Terrabyl))))))) (. .)) (ID CMMALORY,2.34))
( (IP-MAT (CONJ And) (PP (ADV+P therwithall)) (NP-SBJ (PRO they) (NP-PRN *ICH*-1)) (VBD knelyd) (PP (P at) (ADVP (ADV ones))) (NP-PRN-1 (ADJP (CONJ both) (ADJ ryche) (CONJ and) (ADJ poure)))) (ID CMMALORY,11.307)) ( (IP-MAT (CONJ and) (NP-SBJ *con*) (VBD cryed) (NP-OB2 (NPR Arthur)) (NP-OB1 (N mercy)) (PP (P+N bycause) ← potential shared adjunct (CP-ADV (C 0) (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they)) (HVD had) (VBN delayed) (NP-OB1 (PRO hym)) (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ longe)))))) (. .)) (ID CMMALORY,11.308))

Shared adjuncts in embedded conjoined clauses are treated analogously.

(NODE (CP-ADV (C +tat)
              (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (PP (P whil)	← potential shared modifier
                                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                                  (BED was)
                                                  (PP (P in)
                                                      (NP (ADJ dedly) (NS synnes))))))
                              (, ,)
                              (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N eor+te))
                              (VBD openede)
                              (NEG not))
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                     (VBD swolewode)
                                     (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
                                     (RP in)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,53.860))

(NODE (CP-ADV (C 0)
              (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tow))
                              (VBP stabil)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ +ti) (N lufe)))
                      (, ,)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                     (BEP be)
                                     (VAG byrnande)
                                     (PP (P whils)    <--- potential shared modifier
                                         (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                                 (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
                                                         (VBP lyfes)
                                                         (ADVP-LOC (ADV here)))))))))
      (ID CMROLLEP,62.31))