Disfluencies

The following labels and dash tags are used to annotate disfluencies (Hindle 1983). For the moment, disfluencies are indicated only in the PPCMBE.

Hindle, Don. 1983. Deterministic parsing of syntactic non-fluencies. In Proceedings of the 21th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 123–128.

BREAK

BREAK indicates that a phrase or sentence breaks off or is otherwise left unfinished.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (MD $could)
          (NEG $n't)
          (VB believe)
          (CP-THAT (C 0)
	           (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                           (VBD saw)
                           (NP-OB1 (D a) (BREAK 0))))
           (. ...)))

-ELAB

The dash tag -ELAB indicates that a parenthetical constituent (one already bearing a -PRN dash tag) elaborates on its host. Elaborations involving an exact copy of a constituent are annotated as
repetitions (REP).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
  	  (BEP is)
	  (NP-OB1 (D a) (N trifle)
	  	  (NP-PRN-ELAB (D a) (ADJ mere) (N trifle)))
	  (. .)))

FS

FS indicates a false start. It is the default annotation for disfluencies.
( (IP-MAT (FS (PRO They) (PRO they) (PRO they))              ← like this
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (ADVP (ADV really))
          (VBD meant)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (PUNC ?)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (REP (PRO they) (PRO they) (PRO they))             ← not like this
          (ADVP (ADV really))
          (VBD meant)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (PUNC ?)))

Within a false start, internal structure is indicated as far as is feasible, but breaks are not specially indicated.

( (IP-MAT (FS (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                      (DOD $did)
		      (NEG $n't)
		      (VB know)))
          (, -)
          (FS (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
	                              (C 0)
			              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
			                      (VBP mean)
				              (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-1)
				  	              (TO to)
					              (VB say)))))
                      (BEP is)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (BEP am)
          (ADJP (ADV very) (ADJ sorry)
	        (IP-INF (TO to)
                        (VB hear)
                        (PP (P of)
			    (NP (PRO$ your) (N loss)))))
          (. .)))

REP

REP (in contrast to the dash tag -ELAB) is a full-fledged tag indicating the exact repetition of a constituent, chiefly for rhetorical reasons.

In case of ambiguity between REP and FS, FS is the default, as illustrated earlier.

Near repetitions are annotated as elaborations (ELAB).

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
  	  (BEP is)
	  (NP-OB1 (D a) (N trifle)
	  	  (REP (NP (D a) (N trifle))))
	  (. .)))

-TAG

The dash tag -TAG on a question indicates that it is a tag question. In contrast to what is ordinarily the case, existential THERE in tag questions is not coindexed with an associate.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (EX There))
  	  (HVP have)
          (BEN been)
          (NP=1 (NS riots))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (NPR Calabria))
          (CP-QUE-TAG (IP-SUB (HVP $have)
                              (NEG $n't)
                              (NP-SBJ (EX there))))
	  (? .)))