Individual words and phrases

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

A (back to top)

A

( (VP (A a=)					← etymologically a weak form of ON
      (VAG working)))

( (NP (D a)					← ordinary indefinite determiner
      (N problem)))

( (NP (NUMP (NUM-COMP (NUM a) (NUM hundred)))	← indefinite determiner as part of compound number
      (ADJP (ADJ different))
      (NS uses)))

( (IP-IMP (NP-VOC (NPR Lord))
	  (VP (HVI a)				← A = HAVE
	      (NP-OB1 (N mercy)))))


In cases where it is unclear whether the speaker intended A or the interjection UH, A is tagged as X.

A MANY A (see MANY A)

A WAY(S) (measure phrase)

Not to be confused with
AWAY.

When used as a measure modifier (cf. A (LITTLE) BIT), A WAY(S) is spelled as two words and conforms to the general principles governing measure phrases.

( (PP (NP-MSR (D a) (N way))
      (P before)
      (NP (N daybreak))))

A WHOLE NOTHER (see ANOTHER)

ABOUT

ABOUT is treated as a modifying adverb (ADV) when used in the sense of "approximately", notably in connection with
numbers. Otherwise, ABOUT is treated as a head - either P or (in contrast to AROUND) RP.
( (NP (NUMP (ADVP (ADV about))
	    (NUM ten))
      (NS children)))

( (NP (ADVP (ADV about))
      (N time)))

( (VP (VB talk)
      (PP (P about)
          (NP (D the) (N past)))))

( (VP (VB run)
      (RP about)))

AGO

For convenience, AGO is treated as a temporal adverb. (The historical origin of AGO phrases is absolute small clauses containing the predicate (A)GONE, but the IP-ABS analysis is no longer available in the synchronic grammar.)
( (ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (D a)
		    (ADJP (ADJ long))
		    (N time))
	    (ADV ago)))

ALL

The default tag for ALL is Q. As a
quotative marker, it is tagged INTJ.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (BED was)
              (ADVP (ADV just))
	      (INTJ all)
	      (PUNC ,)
	      (QTP (IP-IMP (VP (VBI Let@)
			       (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (PRO @'s))
				       (VP (VB go)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

ALL'S

The 'S is treated as the C head of an ordinary relative clause.
( (NP (QP (Q all@))
      (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
	      (C @'s)
	      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I@))
		      (VP (BEP @'m)
			  (VP (VAG saying)
			      (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))))

ALL THE FURTHER

( (ADVP (NP-MSR (QP (Q all)))
	(D the)
	(ADVR further)))

ALONG

ALONG (differently from ABOUT or AROUND) is always treated as a head - either P or ADV.
( (PP (P along)
      (NP (D the) (N river))))

( (VP (VB come)
      (ADVP (ADV along))))

( (VP (VB come)
      (ADVP (ADV along)
      	    (PP (P with)
	    	(NP (PRO me))))))

( (VP (VB come)
      (ADVP (ADV along))
      (PP (P for)
	  (NP (D the) (N ride)))))

AND

See also

AND can introduce absolute clauses.

As part of a compound numeral, AND is tagged NUM; see Numbers for discussion.

AND SO FORTH

( (CONJP (CONJ and)
         (FRAG (ADVP (ADV so))			← manner SO
	       (ADVP (ADV forth)))))

AND EVERYTHING

Unless clearly construed with a preceding noun phrase, expressions like AND EVERYTHING, AND STUFF, OR ANYTHING, OR STUFF, and so on are treated as second conjuncts of VP.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (VP (VBD expected)
	      (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO them))
		      (TO to)
		      (VP (VP (VB write)
			      (NP (NS papers)))
			  (CONJP (CONJ and)
				 (NP (N stuff))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

AND SO ON

( (CONJP (CONJ and)
         (FRAG (ADVP (ADV so))			← manner SO
	       (RP on))))

AND STUFF (see AND EVERYTHING)

ANOTHER

ANOTHER is treated as a single word and tagged as D. See
Known issues.

The variant NOTHER is treated as below:

( (NP (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ whole))
      (ADJP (ADJ nother))
      (N kettle)
      (PP (P of)
	  (NP (N fish)))))

AROUND

AROUND is treated as a modifying adverb (ADV) when used in the sense of "approximately". Otherwise, it is treated as a head - either P or (in contrast to
ABOUT) ADV.
( (NP (NUMP (ADVP (ADV around))
	    (NUM ten))
      (NS children)))

( (NP (ADVP (ADV around))
      (N time)))

( (VP (VB walk)
      (PP (P around)
          (NP (D the) (N building)))))

( (VP (VB run)
      (ADVP (ADV around))))

AS

See

AS WELL AS (to be added)

AWAY

Not to be confused with
A WAY (measure phrase).

When used in a directional or locative sense, AWAY spelled as one word. Unlike A WAY, it functions as a head (rather than, say, as the measure specifier of a following preposition). This is also unlike BACK; the reason is that AWAY cannot modify bare particles in a particle-verb construction.

( (ADVP-DIR (ADV away)
	    (PP (P to)
		(NP (D the) (N city)))))

( (ADVP-LOC (ADV away)
	    (PP (P in)
		(NP (D a) (N manger)))))

( (VP (VB move)
      (ADVP-DIR (ADV away)
		(PP (P from)
		    (NP (N home))))))

( (VP (VB live)
      (ADVP-LOC (ADV away)
		(PP (P from)
		    (NP (N home))))))

B (back to top)

BACK

In connection with spatial or temporal adverbs, BACK is treated by default as a (pre)modifier rather than as a head. This is in contrast to
AWAY; the reason is that BACK, unlike AWAY, can modify particles in a particle-verb construction.
( (VP (VB get)				← cf. get up
      (PP (ADVP (ADV back))                   *get back (* on intended reading)
          (RP up))))

( (PP (ADVP (ADV back))
      (P to)
      (NP (D the)
	  (N future))))

( (PP (ADVP (ADV back))
      (P in )
      (NP (NP-POS (PRO$ myt))
	  (N growing)
	  (RP up))))
  
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))			← cf. *They left it of the house
	  (VP (VBD left)
	      (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
	      (ADVP-LOC (ADV back)
			(PP (P of)
			    (NP (D the)
				(N house)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))			← cf. *He pushed from the table.
	  (VP (VBD pushed)
	      (ADVP-DIR (ADV back)
			(PP (P from)
			    (NP (D the)
				(N table)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

BAD-OFF

Invariably treated as a single word, whether used attributively or predicatively.
( (ADJP (ADJ bad-off)))

( (ADJP (ADJR worse-off)))

( (ADJP (ADJS worst-off)))

BECAUSE

BECAUSE and its spelling variant CUZ are treated as a complementizer (C) rather than as a ccordinating conjunction (CONJ). In general, BECAUSE clauses are treated as verbal modifiers (daughters of VP); when that is not possible, they can function as independent tokens (daughters of a root FRAG).

BEST-OFF

BETTER

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO You@))
	  (VP (HVD @'d / had / 0)
	      (ADVP (ADVR better))
	      (IP-INF ...))))

BETTER-OFF

BUT

See also
BUT can be tagged as a coordinating conjunction (CONJ) or as a focus particle (FP).

C (back to top)

CLOSE

CLOSE is tagged as ADV when used in a locative sense and as ADJ otherwise. As a nominal modifier, CLOSE is always tagged ADJ.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the)
		  (NS friends))
	  (VP (BED lived)
	      (ADVP (ADV very) (ADV close)))))		← locative sense

( (ADVP (ADV close)
	(PP (P by / to)
	    (NP (N work)))))

( (ADVP (ADV close) (RP by)))

( (ADVP (ADV close)
	(ADVP (ADV together))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the)
		  (NS friends))
	  (VP (BED were)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADV very) (ADJ close)))))	← non-locative sense

( (NP (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ close))
      (N friend)))

COME

See also
GO.

TO infinitives following COME are treated as IP-INF-PRP when TO can be replaced by IN ORDER TO. Otherwise, when TO can be paraphrased by AND (pseudo-coordination), the TO infinitive is annotated as IP-INF without a further dash tag.

CUZ (see BECAUSE)

D (back to top)

DO

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO She))
	  (VP (VBD hired)
	      (NP-OB1 (D a) (N contractor)))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (PAREN (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR Mary))
			 (VP (DOD did))))
	  (PUNC .)))

DONE

( (IP-MAT (NP (PRO They))
	  (VP (ASP done)			← aspectual marker
	      (VBD told)
	      (NP-OB2 (PRO me)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD done)			← simple past
	      (NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP (PRO They))
	  (VP (HVP have)
	      (VP (VBN done)			← past participle
		  (NP-OB1 (PRO it))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP (PRO It))
	  (VP (BED was)
	      (VP (VAN done)			← passive participle
		  (ADVP (ADV right))))))

DOZEN (see Numbers)

E (back to top)

EACH OTHER

( (NP (PRO each) (PRO other)))

( (NP (NP-POS (PRO each) (PRO$ other's))
      (NS weaknesses)))

ENOUGH

F (back to top)

FEW

( (NP (QP (D a) (Q few))
      (NS examples)))

FOR

FOR is tagged either as a preposition (P) or as an infinitival complementizer (FOR).
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADJ great)
			(PP (P for)
			    (NP (D the) (NS parents)))
			(IP-INF (FOR for)
				(NP-SBJ (D the) (NS parents))
				(TO to)
				(VP (HV have)
				    (NP (N daycare))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

FROM

FROM is tagged either as a preposition (P) or as the head of a gerund clause (FROM). In the latter use, it corresponds to infinitival
TO.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBD heard)
	      (PP (P from)
		  (NP (NPR Joe))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
	  (VP (MD might)
	      (VP (VB prevent)
		  (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (D the) (N situation))
			  (FROM from)
			  (VP (VAG deteriorating)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

For phrases of the type TWENTY MILES FROM LOUSVILLE, see NP-MSR.

FUCK and related expressions

See Profanity for integrating FUCK and related expressions into larger structures. The following discussion focuses on POS annotation.
( (NP (N fuck=all)))

Nonliteral uses of FUCKING are treated as honorary interjections.

( (NP (D a)
      (INTJ fucking)
      (N asshole)))

( (ADJP (INTJ fucking)
	(ADJ stupid)))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR so))
	(INTJ fucking)
	(ADJ stupid)))

FUN

Where FUN is ambiguous between ADJ and N, the default is N.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D That) (N party))
	  (VP (BED was)
	      (NP-PRD (N fun)))
	  (PUNC .)))

-FUL

-FUL is treated as part of the word in conventional measure nouns, but as as suffix in nonce measure nouns. See
Joining words for further discussion.
( (NP (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ scant))
      (N cupful)))

( (NP (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ level))
      (N tablespoonful / teaspoonful)))

( (NP (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ ten-quart))
      (N-COMP (N water) (N bag=ful))))

G (back to top)

GET

Eventive and stative GOT are annotated as follows. So-called bare GOT is treated as the silent counterpart of the appropriate form of HAVE.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (GTD got)				← eventive
	      (NP-OB1 (D a)
		      (N haircut)))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (CP-QUE-TAG (DOD did@)
		      (NEG @n't)
		      (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
		      (PUNC ?))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (HVP have / =uv / 0)
	      (VP (GTN got)			← stative
		  (NP-OB1 (D a)
			  (N problem))))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (CP-QUE-TAG (HVP ai@)
		      (NEG @n't)
		      (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
		      (PUNC ?))))

GET (A) HOLD OF

( (VP (GT get)
      (NP-OB1 (D a / 0)
	      (N hold))
      (PP (P of)
	  (NP ...))))

GET SO (THAT)

SO is treated as modifying an implicit adjective.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD got)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADVP (ADVR so))
			(ADJ 0)
			(CP-DEG (C 0)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
					(VP (VBD won)
					    (NP-TMP (QP (Q every))
						    (N time)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

TO

See also
come.

TO infinitives following GO are treated as IP-INF-PRP when TO can be replaced by IN ORDER TO. Otherwise, when TO can be paraphrased by AND (pseudo-coordination), the TO infinitive is annotated as IP-INF without a further dash tag.

GOD

See

GOODNESS

See

GUYS

See

H (back to top)

HALF

HALF is tagged either as N, NUM, or Q.

HALF is tagged as N(S) when the syntactic context would (easily) allow the plural form.

( (NP (D this)
      (N half)))

( (NP (D those)
      (NS halves)))

HALF is tagged NUM when used as part of a contiguous compound number. See below for the non-contiguous case.

( (NP (NUMP (NUM-COMP (NUM three) (NUM and) (NUM a) (NUM half)))	← = 3.5
      (NS inches)))

Otherwise, HALF is tagged as Q.

( (NP (QP (Q half))
      (D the)
      (N effort)))

( (NP (QP (ADVP (ADV almost))
	  (Q half))
      (D an)
      (N acre)))

( (NP (D a)
      (QP (Q half))
      (N gallon)))

( (NP (NP (D a)
	  (N dollar))
      (CONJP (CONJ and)
	     (NP (D a)
		 (QP (Q half))))))		← HALF modifies silent nominal head

( (NP (NP (NUMP (NUM three))			← non-contiguous numeral case
	  (NS inches))
      (CONJP (CONJ and)
	     (NP (D a)
		 (QP (Q half))))))		← HALF modifies silent nominal head

( (NP (D a)
      (QP (Q half))				← HALF modifies silent nominal head
      (PP (P of)				← overt partitive preposition
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N gallon)))))

( (NP (D a)
      (QP (Q half))				← HALF modifies silent nominal head
      (PP (P 0)					← silent partitive preposition
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N gallon)))))
		       

HELL (see Profanity

HELP

Infinitival complements of HELP are always annotated as IP-INF, with a TO head that is either overt or silent.

HOME

( (VP (VB leave)
      (NP-OB1 (N home))))

( (VP (VB stay)
      (PP (P at)
	  (NP (N home)))))

( (VP (VB stay)
      (ADVP-LOC (ADV home))))		← locative treated as ADV

( (VP (VB go)
      (ADVP-DIR (ADV home))))		← direction treated as ADV

HOW COME

HOW COME is treated as a
single lexical item.
( (CP-QUE-MAT (WADVP-1 (WADV How=come))
	      (IP-SUB (DOD did)
		      (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
		      (VP (ADVP *T*-1)
			  (VB do)
			  (NP-OB1 (PRO that))))
	      (PUNC ?)))

HOW MANY (see WQP)

HOW MUCH (see WQP)

When HOW MUCH is not the mass noun counterpart to HOW MANY, but rather means AMOUNT, it is joined and tagged as N.
( (NP (D the)
      (ADJP (ADJ regular))
      (N how=much)))

I (back to top)

IF

IF is tagged WQ when it can be replaced by WHETHER, in which case it heads an indirect question (CP-QUE-SUB). Otherwise it is tagged C and heads an adverbial subordinate clause (CP-ADV).

IT

Overt IT (or its pronunciation variant HIT) is tagged as
EX when construed with an NP associate (that is, when it corresponds to standard expletive THERE). Otherwise, it is tagged PRO, regardless of whether it is expletive or referential.
( (IP-MAT (INTJ Yikes)
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (EX It@))			← expletive with NP associate
	  (VP (BEP @'s)
	      (NP-LGS (D a) (N toad))
	      (PP (P in)
		  (NP (D the) (N bathtub))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO It))			← expletive with clausal associate
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (NP-PRD (D a) (N shame))
	      (CP-THT-1 (C that)
		        (IP-SUB ...)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO It))			← expletive with clausal associate
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADJR better))
	      (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
		        (VP ...)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (D That) (N pothole))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO it@))			← referential
	  (VP (BEP @s)
	      (NP-PRD (D a)
		      (N problem)))
	  (PUNC .)))

J (back to top)

JACKSHIT

( (NP (N jackshit)))

JUST

JUST is multiply ambiguous. The default for the adverbial senses is ADV projecting to ADVP.
( (NP (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ just))
      (N society)))

( (NP (NUMP (FP Just) (NUM two))	← ONLY
      (NS apples)))

( (VP (ADVP-TMP (ADV Just))		← recent past
      (VBD arrived)))

( (IP-IMP (ADVP (ADV Just))		← SIMPLY
          (DOI do)
	  (NP (PRO it))))

( (NP (ADVP (ADV Just))			← EXACTLY
      (D the)
      (ADJP (ADJ right))
      (N present)))

K (back to top)

KIND OF

When used as a noncompositional modifier, KIND OF is treated as a single word.
( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV kind=of))
	(ADJ pretty)))

KINDLY OF (see KIND OF)

L (back to top)

LIKE

( (IP-MAT (XX (QP (QR More))
	      (PP (P than)
		  (ADJP (ADJ like))))			← adjective (= LIKELY)
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO it@))
	  (VP (MD @'ll)
	      (VP (BE be)
		  (RP over)
		  (ADVP-TMP (ADV tomorrow))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (ADVP-TMP (ADV never))
	      (BED was)
	      (VP (VP (VAN fired)
		      (PP (P over)
			  (NP (PRO it))))
		  (CONJP (CONJ nor)
			 (NP (Q+N nothing)
			     (IP-RRC (ADJP-PRD (ADJ like)))))))		← adjective (= SIMILAR)
	  (PUNC .)))

( (ADJP (ADJ big)
        (PP (P like)					← comparative LIKE
	    (NP (D a)
	        (N truck)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
          (VP (VBP looks)
	      (CP-ADV (C like)				← complementizer LIKE
		      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
			      (VP (DOP do@)
				  (NEG @n't)
				  (VP (VB need)
				      (NP-OB1 (PRO that)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They@))
	  (VP (MD @'ll)
	      (VP (VBP make)
		  (RP out)
		  (ADVP (ADV fine))))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (PAREN (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
			 (VP (VBP looks)
			     (CP-ADV (C like)))))	← complementizer LIKE + sluicing
	  (PUNC .)))

( (CP-ADV (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
	  (C-ADV Like)					← complementizer LIKE in wh- clause
	  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
		  (VP (VBD said)
		      (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))

( (CP-ADV (WNP-1 (ADVP (ADV Just))
		 (WPRO 0))
	  (C-ADV Like)					← complementizer LIKE in wh- clause
	  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
		  (VP (VBD said)
		      (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))

( (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 (ADVP (ADV Exactly))
		   (WPRO 0))
	  (C-ADV Like)					← complementizer LIKE in wh- clause
	  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
		  (VP (ADVP *T*-1)
		      (VBD described)
		      (NP-OB1 (PRO it))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (VP (BED were)
              (PUNC ,)
	      (INTJ like)				← filler LIKE
              (PUNC ,)
              (ADJP-PRD (ADVP (ADV really))
                        (ADJ annoyed)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (VP (BED were)
              (ADVP (ADV just))
              (PUNC ,)
	      (INTJ like)				← quotative LIKE
              (PUNC ,)
              (QTP (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Maybe))
			   (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
			   (VP (DOP do@)
			       (NEG @n't)
			       (VP (VB need)
				   (NP-OB1 (PRO that)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

LIKE TO

In general, when LIKE TO means NEARLY or ALMOST, it is treated as having been reanalyzed as an adverb. The spelling is normalized to LIKE=TA.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (ADVP (ADV like=ta))
	      (VBD died)
	      (PP (P in)
		  (NP (D that) (N accident))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
	  (VP (HVD had)
	      (VP (ADVP (ADV like=ta))
		  (HV have)
		  (VP (VBN froze)
		      (PP (P in)
			  (NP (D the) (N wintertime))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Very rarely, treating LIKE TO as an adverb is not possible given the syntactic context. In such cases, LIKE is tagged as X, it takes an IP-INF complement, and the entire construction is enclosed in XX brackets.

( (FRAG (INTJ Yeah)
	(PUNC ,)
	(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	(XX (X like)
	    (IP-INF (TO ta)
		    (VP (HV =uv)
			(VP (VBN died)
			    (CP-ADV (C-ADV when)
				    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
					    (VP (VBD moved)
						(ADVP-DIR (RP over) (ADV here)))))))))
	(PUNC .)))

LONG

( (NP-MSR (QP (Q all))
          (N day)
	  (ADVP (ADV long))))

LOOK

Parenthetical LOOK is treated as an imperative (rather than as a parenthetical declarative with a silent subject).
( (IP-MAT (PAREN (IP-IMP (VP (VBI Look))))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO it@))
	  (VP (BEP @'s)
	      (NEG not)
	      (RP over))
	  (PUNC .)))

LORD

( (INTJ Lord))				← bare

( (INTJP (NP (PRO$ My)
   (NPR Lord))))			← modified

( (IP-IMP (NP-VOC (NPR Lord))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (VP (HVI have)		← HAVE may be realized as A
	      (NP-OB1 (N mercy)))))

M (back to top)

MAKE SURE THAT ...

( (IP-IMP (VP (VBI Make)
	      (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO *exp*))
		      (ADJP-PRD (ADJ sure)
				(CP-THT-1 (C that)
					  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
 						  (VP (VBP come)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

MANY A

( (NP (QP (D a) (Q many))
      (PP (P of)			← overt partitive preposition
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N day)))))

( (NP (QP (D a) (Q many))
      (PP (P 0)				← silent partitive preposition
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N one)))))

( (NP (QP (Q many))
      (PP (P 0)				← silent partitive preposition
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N day)))))

MARRIED

MARRIED is tagged as either a passive participle or an adjective, depending on whether it has an eventive or stative sense, respectively.

Eventive MARRIED is almost always licensed by GET or accompanied by reference to a point in time, a place, or an agent officiating the ceremony.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (GTD got)
	      (VP (VAN married)
		  (ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM thirty))
				    (NS years))
			    (ADV ago))
		  (PP (P in)
		      (NP (NPR Dante)))
		  (PP (P by)
		      (NP (D a)
			  (N-COMP (N justice)
		    	          (PP (P of)
				      (NP (D the)
				          (N peace))))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

When BE MARRIED can be paraphrased as GET MARRIED or by intransitive active MARRY, the sense is eventive.

Stative MARRIED is often licensed by a measure phrase.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (VP (BED were)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADJ married))
	      (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM thirty))
		      (NS years)))))

In doubtful cases, the default is ADJ.

MINES

In tokens uttered by Appalachian speakers, the default tag for MINES is N (singular).

MOST

As the superlative of MANY, MOST is tagged as QS. As the apheretic form of ALMOST, it is tagged as ADV.

N (back to top)

NOTHER (see ANOTHER)

O (back to top)

O'CLOCK

( (NP (NUMP (NUM five))
      (N o'clock)))			← treated as a noun

OFF (OF)

Intransitive OFF is tagged as RP. See Internal structure of phrases for the conventions governing whether RP projects PP.

When preceding a PP headed by OF, OFF is tagged as a preposition (P) with a PP complement. Bare transitive OFF has the same meaning as OFF OF and is annotated the same way, except that the head of the PP complement is silent.

( (PP (P off)
      (PP (P of / 0)			← overt or silent OF
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N cliff)))))

( (VP (GT get)
      (PP (P off)
	  (PP (P of / 0)
	      (NP (NP-POS (PRO$ his))
		  (ADJP (ADJ high))
		  (N horse))))))

OLD

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM eighteen))		← see Scalar constructions for further discussion
		(NS years))
	(ADJ old)))

OLD UN (see ONE)

ONCE

See also
TWICE.

The basic annotation for ONCE corresponds to the sense (EXACTLY) ONE. In this sense, ONCE is tagged as a numeral modifying a silent TIME head, just like TWICE. The integration of the phrasal projection NUMP follows general principles.

( (NP-TMP (NUMP (NUM once))			← head of NUMP; modifies silent TIME head
	  (NP-MSR (D a)
		  (N day))))

( (NP-TMP (NUMP (FP just) (NUM once))))

( (PP (Q all)
      (P at)
      (NP (NUMP (NUM once)))))      

When ONCE has a nonspecific sense, it is tagged as ADV. The distinction between ADV and NUM is motivated by semantic rather than strictly morphosyntactic considerations.

( (ADVP-TMP (ADV once)				← head of ADVP-TMP
	    (PP (P upon)
		(NP (D a)
		    (N time)))))

( (ADVP-TMP (QP (Q every))
	    (ADV once)				← ONCE treated as having nonspecific sense
	    (PP (P in)
		(NP (D a)
		    (N while)))))

( (ADVP (ADVP (ADV once))			← modifier of ADVP headed by AGAIN
        (ADV again)))

The ambiguity of ONCE MORE is treated as follows:

( (NP-TMP (NUMP (NUM once))			← paraphrasable by EXACTLY ONE MORE TIME
	  (QP (QR more))))			← MORE treated by default as pre-modifier of silent TIME head

( (ADVP-TMP (ADV once)				← paraphrasable as AGAIN
	    (QP (QR more))))

Finally, ONCE can function as the head of an adverbial clause (CP-ADV).

( (CP-ADV (C once)				← head of CP-ADV
	  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
		  (VP (VBP arrive)))))

ONE

The full form ONE and its clitic variant
UN are discussed in turn.

The full form ONE is tagged as either a numeral (NUM) or a noun (N), as discussed below. In doubtful cases, the default is N.

ONE is tagged NUM when used as a numeral or when it contrasts with ANOTHER.

( (NP (NUMP (NUMP (NUM one))
	    (CONJP (CONJ or)
		   (NUMP (NUM two))))
      (NS possibilities)))

( (NP (NP (NUMP (NUM one))
	  (N thing))
      (CONJP (CONJ or)
	     (NP (D another)))))

( (NP (QP (Q every))					← cf. to EACH ONE
      (NUMP (NUM one))
      (PP (P of)
	  (NP (PRO them)))))

ONE is tagged N(S) when used as a pro-form.

( (NP (NP (D a)
	  (ADJP (ADJ blue))
	  (N skirt))
      (CONJP (CONJ and)
	     (NP (D a)
		 (ADJP (ADJ red))
		 (N one)))))

( (NP (ADJP (ADJ red))
      (NS ones)))

( (NP (QP (Q each))				← cf. to EVERY ONE
      (N one)
      (PP (P of)
	  (NP (PRO them)))))

The reduced form of ONE, UN, is treated as a clitic. In the following cases, UN is joined with the preceding orthographic word to form a single lexical item.

( (NP (D an) (N old=un)))

( (NP (NUMP (NUM three))
      (NS young=uns)))

( (NP (PRO them=uns)))

( (NP (PRO we=uns)))

( (NP (PRO you=uns)))

Otherwise, UN is treated as a clitic, but not joined with the preceding word.

( (NP (D that)
      (N =un)))

( (NP (D those)
      (ADJP (ADJ big))
      (NS =uns)))

ONE ANOTHER

( (NP (PRO one) (PRO another)))

( (NP (NP-POS (PRO one) (PRO$ another's))
      (NS weaknesses)))

OR

See also

OR ANYTHING (see AND EVERYTHING)

OR STUFF (see AND EVERYTHING)

OTHER

See also
ANOTHER.
( (NP (ADJP (ADJ other))
      (NS possibilities)))

( (NP (NS others)))

OTHER THAN

( (XX (X other)
      (PP (P than)
	  (NP (D that)))))

OUT (OF)

Intransitive OUT is tagged as RP. See Internal structure of phrases for the conventions governing whether RP projects PP.

( (VP (VB run)
      (RP out)))

( (VP (VB run)
      (PP (RP out)
	  (PP (P in / 0)
	      (NP (N front)))))))

Transitive OUT takes an NP or (more commonly) a PP complement, depending on its sense. When it has a purely directional or path sense, without any sense of exit, it takes an NP complement.

( (CP-ADV (C If)
	  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
		  (VP (VBP drive)
		      (PP (P out)
			  (NP (D that) (N road)))
		      (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADJR further)))))))

When preceding a PP headed by OF, OUT is tagged as a preposition (P) with a PP complement. When bare OUT has the same meaning as OUT OF, it is annotated the same way, except that the head of the PP complement is silent.

( (VP (VB look)
      (PP (P out)
	  (PP (P of / 0)			← overt or silent OF
	      (NP (D the) (N window))))))

( (VP (VB run)
      (PP (P out)
	  (PP (P of / 0)
	      (NP (D the) (N building))))))

( (VP (VB run)
      (PP (P out)
	  (PP (P of)
	      (NP (N school))))))

( (VP (VB run)
      (PP (P out)
	  (PP (P of)
	      (NP (N coffee))))))

( (PP (P into)
      (PAREN (CONJP (CONJ and)
		    (PP-GAPPING (P out)			← right node raising
				(PP (P of)))))
      (NP (D the) (N building))))

OVER

For OVER followed by a number (including OVER A followed by a noun), see
Numbers.

Transitive OVER is tagged as a preposition (P). Intransitive OVER is generally tagged as a particle (RP). However, OVER in the sense of AGAIN is tagged ADV, as it does not have the syntactic distribution of a particle with this sense.

( (PP (P over)
      (NP (D the)
          (N bridge))))

( (VP (VB come)
      (RP on)
      (RP over)))

( (VP (VB bring)
      (NP-OB1 (D the) (NS kids))
      (RP over)))

( (VP (VB bring)
      (RP over)
      (NP-OB1 (D the) (NS kids))))

( (VP (DO do)
      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N work))
      (ADVP (ADV over))))		← ADV not RP; cf. *do over the work

( (ADVP (ADVP (ADV over))
	(CONJP (CONJ and)
	       (ADVP (ADV over)))
        (ADVP (ADV again))))		← postmodifier of conjoined phrase

OVER WITH

Treated as a pseudo-passive.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (D That@))
	  (VP (BEP @'s)
	      (RP over)
	      (PP (P with)
		  (NP *-1)))
	  (PUNC .)))

P (back to top)

Q (back to top)

R (back to top)

RATHER

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I@))
	  (VP (MD @'d / would)
	      (ADVP (ADVR rather))
	      (CP-THT ...))))

ROUND

( (NP-MSR (QP (Q all))
	  (N year)
	  (ADVP (ADV round))))

S (back to top)

SCORE (see Numbers)

SEE

Parenthetical SEE is treated as a declarative with silent YOU as the subject (rather than as a parenthetical imperative).
( (IP-MAT (PAREN (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO *pro*))
			 (VP (VBP see))))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO it@))
	  (VP (BEP @'s)
	      (NEG not)
	      (RP over))
	  (PUNC .)))

SO

For SO as a degree head, see
Degree and comparative constructions.

Dangling SO is treated as part of the preceding sentence token. It is treated as the head of an adverbial clause modifying the highest verb in the clause, and it precedes BREAK.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (VBD looks)
	      (NP-PRD (D the) (N part))
	      (PUNC ,)
	      (CP-ADV (C so)
		      (CODE <BREAK>)))))

SO THAT

( (CP-ADV (ADVP (ADV so))
	  (C that)
	  (IP-SUB ...)))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR so))
	(ADJ 0)				← see Degree and oomparative heads for further discussion
	(CP-DEG (C that)
		(IP-SUB ...))))

SORT OF

When used as a noncompositional modifier, SORT OF is treated as a single word.
( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV sort=of))
	(ADJ pretty)))

( (VP (ADVP (ADV sort=of))
      (VB finish)
      (NP-OB1 (D the)
	      (N job))))

SUCH

SUPER, SUPER-DUPER

SUPER occurs most frequently as the ADV modifier in a
compound adjective (ADJ-COMP). It also occurs as an ordinary adjective or an ordinary adverb. The annotations below extend to the intensive form SUPER-DUPER.
( (ADJP (ADV very)
        (ADJ-COMP (ADV super) (ADJ cool))))

( (NP (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ super))
      (N idea)))

( (PP (ADVP (ADV super))
      (P against)
      (NP (D that)
	  (N idea))))

T (back to top)

TAKE CARE OF

( (VP (VB take)
      (NP-OB1 (N care))
      (PP (P of)
	  (NP ...))))

TAKE (A) HOLD OF (see GET (A) HOLD OF)

THEM UNS (see ONE)

THEY

Depending on whether it is the ordinary personal pronoun or a pronunciation variant of expletive THERE, THEY is tagged PRO or EX.

TO

TO is tagged as:
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBD sent)
	      (NP-OB1 (N word))
	      (PP (P to)
		  (NP (NPR Joe))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
		  (N fence))
	  (VP (VBD went)
	      (PP (P to)			← P, not RP, even with ADVP complement
		  (ADVP (ADV there))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
		  (N fence))
	  (VP (VBD went)
	      (PP (P to)			← P, not RP, even with PP complement
		  (PP (P beyond)
		      (NP (D the)
			  (N shed)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))


( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
	  (VP (VBP expect)
	      (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (D the) (N situation))
		      (TO to)
		      (VP (VB deteriorate))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (RP (RP to) (CONJ and) (RP fro)))

( (VP (VB lean)
      (NP-OB1 (D the)
	      (N door))
      (RP to)))

TODAY (see NP-TMP)

TOMORROW (see NP-TMP)

TWICE

TWICE is treated as the numeral TWO with an understood head TIMES.
( (NP-TMP (NUMP (NUM twice)
		(NP-MSR (D a)
			(N month)))))

( (NP-TMP (NP (NP (NUMP (NUM twice)))
	      (CONJP (CONJ or)
		     (NP (NUMP (NUM three))
			 (NS times))))))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twice)))
	(ADVR as)
	(ADJ big)))

( (NP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twice)))
      (D the)
      (N size)))

U (back to top)

UN (see ONE)

USED TO

The default annotation for USED TO treats it as involving an IP-INF complement. In contexts where that is not possible, USED TO is treated as having been reanalyzed as an adverb.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD used)
	      (IP-INF (TO to)
	              (VP (VB live)
		          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Used=to))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD lived)
	      (ADVP-LOC (ADV there)))
	  (PUNC .)))

V (back to top)

W (back to top)

WAY

When used as a measure phrase, see
A WAY.

WE UNS (see ONE)

WELL-OFF

Invariably treated as a single hyphenated word, whether used attributively or predicatively.
( (ADJP (ADJ well-off)))

( (ADJP (ADJR better-off)))

( (ADJP (ADJS best-off)))

WHAT A + noun (see WNP

WHAT THE BLEEP (see Profanity

WHICH

When WHICH modifies a noun, it is tagged WD.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBP forget)
	      (CP-QUE-SUB (WNP (WD which) (N one))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Otherwise, WHICH is generally treated as a WPRO projecting a WNP.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBP forget)
	      (CP-QUE-SUB (WNP (WPRO which))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (NP (D the)
      (N one)
      (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
	      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
		      (VP (VBP like)
			  (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
			  (ADVP (ADVS best))))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD promised)
	      (IP-INF (TO to)
		      (VP (VB buy)
			  (NP-OB2 (PRO her))
			  (NP-OB1 (D a)
				  (N present))
			  (CP-CAR (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
				  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
					  (VP (DOD did)
					      (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

WHICH is sometimes plausibly analyzed as heading a clause-adjoined relative (CP-CAR), but the antecedent-trace relation within the CP-CAR is not clear. In such cases, WHICH is dominated by CP-CAR, but is labelled as X.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD said)
	      (CP-THT (C-THT 0)
		      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
			      (VP (BED were)
				  (VP (VAG going)
				      (IP-INF (TO to)
					      (VP (VB buy)
						  (NP-OB2 (PRO her))
						  (NP-OB1 (D a)
							  (N present))))
				      (CP-CAR (X which)
					      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
						      (VP (BED were)))))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Finally, presumably as an extension of the immediately preceding case, WHICH can bleach to the point of functioning as a simple discourse connective, more or less on a par with AND or BUT. In such cases, WHICH is labelled as X and dominated by IP-MAT.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
	  (VP (BED were)
	      (VP (VAG trying)
		  (IP-INF (TO to)
			  (VP (GT get)
			      (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (PRO her))
				      (TO to)
				      (VP (VB eat)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (X Which)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
	  (VP (MD could@)
	      (NEG @n't)
	      (VP (VB swallow)
		  (NP-OB1 (Q+N anything))))
	  (PUNC .)))

-WISE (to be added)

WORSE-OFF

WORST-OFF

WORTH

WORTH is treated either as a noun or as an adjective. The adjectival use is discussed in the
section on WORTH in Scalar constructions.
( (NP (PRO$ their)
      (N-COMP (N net) (N worth))))

X (back to top)

Y (back to top)

YESTERDAY (see NP-TMP)

YOU

( (NP (PRO y'all)))

( (NP (PRO you=all)))

( (NP (PRO$ your=all's)))

( (NP (PRO you=guys)))

YOU ALL (see YOU)

YOU GUYS (see YOU)

YOU UNS (see ONE)

YOUR ALL (see YOU)

YOUNG UN (see ONE)

Z (back to top)