Grammatical and semantic functions


Introduction

Our annotation system does not encode various sort of arguments and adjuncts (modifiers) in terms of syntactic structure. We do, however, distinguish various types of dependents by means of dash tags which are appended to a node's syntactic category and provide information about the node's grammatical or semantic function.

Dash tags are generally restricted to ADJP, ADVP, and NP daughters of VP or IP (the clausal spine). Conversely, all ADJP and NP daughters of VP and IP bear a function tag. ADVP daughters of VP and IP are marked as directional (-DIR), locative (-LOC) or temporal (-TMP) and otherwise left bare. For the moment, PP daughters of VP and IP are not annotated for function.

Dash tags are possible on daughters of categories other than VP or IP. In particular, measure NPs are always marked as such (-MSR), and adnominal NP modifiers are marked as possessive (-POS) or adverbial (-ADV, -DIR, -LOC, -TMP) in order to avoid confusion about the dependency relations within NP. For more details, see individual dash tags.

In general, wh- phrases do not bear dash tags. Rather, it is the trace of a wh- antecedent that bears the appropriate dash tag. But wh- posssessives are marked as such (WNP-POS); see -POS for an example. Also, wh- phrases not associated with traces (which are possible in echo questions or multiple wh- questions) bear the same dash tags as their non-wh counterparts would in the same context.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO You))
	  (VP (VBD saw)
	      (NP-OB1 (PRO them))
	      (WADVP-LOC (ADV where)))
	  (PUNC ?)))

( (CP-QUE-MAT (WNP-1 (WPRO Who))
	      (IP-SUB (DOD did)
		      (NP-SBJ (PRO You))
		      (VP (VB see)
			  (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
			  (WADVP-LOC (ADV where))))
	      (PUNC ?)))

Arguments and predicates

SBJ (subject)

All clauses (IPs) are assumed to have subjects, but not all are overtly represented in the annotation. See
General structure of IP for which subjects are represented and which are not. See Empty subject for discussion of subjects that are present in the annotation, but phonologically empty.

In copular constructions, the first NP is taken as the subject and the second one as the predicate.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR John))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (NP-PRD (D the)
		      (N murderer)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the)
		  (N murderer))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (NP-PRD (NPR John)))
	  (PUNC .)))

Expletive IT is coindexed with a clausal associate if there is one. Otherwise, it is not specially distinguished from other instances of IT.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO It))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (NP-PRD (D a)
		      (N shame))
	      (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
				(VP (MD ca@)
				    (NEG @n't)
				    (VP (VB come))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO It))
	  (VP (MD would)
	      (VP (BE be)
		  (ADJP-PRD (ADJ unfortunate)))
	      (IP-INF-1 (FOR for)
			(NP-SBJ (PRO you))
			(TO to)
			(VP (VB lose)
			    (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO$ your))
				    (N job)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Expletive (presentational) THERE is annotated as the grammatical subject (NP-SBJ) and associated with a logical subject (NP-LGS). See NP-LGS for examples and discussion.

LGS (logical subject)

-LGS marks the associate of expletive THERE.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
	  (VP (HVP have)
	      (VP (BEN been)
		  (NP-LGS (NS rumors))
		  (PP (P since)
		      (NP (NPR Saturday)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

NP-LGS is attached as low as possible in the structure.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
	  (VP (HVP have)
	      (VP (BEN been)
		  (VP (NP-LGS (NS rumors))		← like this
		      (VAG flying)
		      (PP (P since)
			  (NP (NPR Saturday))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
	  (VP (HVP have)
	      (VP (BEN been)
		  (NP-LGS (NS rumors))			← not like this
		  (VP (VAG flying)
		      (PP (P since)
			  (NP (NPR Saturday))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

By default, phrases that might be taken as reduced relative clauses modifying a logical subject (IP-RRC) are not so annotated. In other words, the annotation maximizes the parallel between the existential THERE construction and its canonical counterpart.

ok Rumors have been flying since Saturday.
*  Rumors flying since Saturday have been.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
	  (VP (HVP have)
	      (VP (BEN been)
		  (NP-LGS (NS rumors)			← not like this
			  (IP-RRC (VP (VAG flying)
				      (PP (P since)
					  (NP (NPR Saturday))))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

In general, existential THERE must be paired with an associate, but not in tag questions.

OB1 (direct object)

With rare exceptions, OB1 marks the NP complement of semantically monotransitive verbs. OB1 also marks the theme argument NP of semantically ditransitive verbs, regardless of whether the indirect object (OB2) is expressed. See the section on indirect objects for examples.

Verbs followed by an NP and an infinitive are either object control verbs or ECM licensers. See IP-ECM for a list of ECM licensers. Object control verbs have two complements, the NP and a clausal complement. ECM licensers have a single IP-ECM complement, whose subject is the postverbal NP.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
	  (VP (VBD persuaded)			← object control verb
	      (NP-OB1 (D the)			← postverbal NP = OB1
		      (NS girls))
	      (IP-INF (TO to)
		      (VP (VB order)
			  (NP (N pizza)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
	  (VP (VBD expected)			← ECM verb
	      (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (D the)		← postverbal NP = SBJ
			      (NS girls))
		      (TO to)
		      (VP (VB order)
			  (NP (N pizza)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Certain verbs license measure phrases (NP-MSR rather than direct objects. See NP-MSR for further discussion and examples.

OB2 (indirect object)

-OB2 marks the linearly first object in a double-object construction (the NP with a recipient or beneficiary role). A list of ditransitive verbs licensing OB2 follows. The list is exhaustive for APPCAppE.

ADVANCE, ALLOW, ANSWER, ASK,
BACK-PAY, BAKE, BET, BRING, BUILD, BUY,
CARRY, CATCH, CAUSE, CHARGE, COOK, CUT,
DIG, DO, DRAW,
EXTEND,
FEED, FILL UP, FIND, FIX, FORGIVE, FURNISH,
GAIN, (agentive) GET, GIVE, GRAB, GRANT, GUARANTEE,
HAND, HAVE, HOLLER, HOPE (nonce use for WISH), HUNT,
JOB,
KEEP, KILL,
LAY OUT, LEARN (in the sense of TEACH), LEAVE, LEND, LOAN,
MAKE, MIX,
OFFER, OPEN, ORDER, OWE,
PACK, PAY, PICK, PLAY, POP, PROMISE, PROVIDE, PUT, PUT UP,
RAKE OFF, REACH, READ, REFUSE,
SAVE, SELL, SEND, SERVE, SHIP, SHORTCHANGE, SHOW, SING, SWAP,
(agentive) TAKE, TEACH (see note below), TELL, THROW, TRADE, TRAIN (nonce use for TEACH),
WARM, WISH, WRITE,
YANK UP

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (VBD learned / taught)
	      (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
	      (NP-OB1 (N brick-laying)))
	  (PUNC .)))

The following verbs are not ditransitive; their NP complements are annotated as direct objects (OB1).

BELIEVE (someone or something), HELP

When the direct object (the linearly second NP expressing the theme argument) of a ditransitive verb is not present or is expressed by a clause, the remaining NP argument expressing the recipient or beneficiary argument continues to be annotated as an indirect object (OB2).

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD served)
	      (NP-OB2 (D the)				← OB1 for beneficiary
		      (ADJP (ADJ entire))
		      (N county)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD served)
	      (NP-OB1 (ADJP (ADJ delicious))		← OB1 for theme
		      (N meals)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (VBD learned / taught)
	      (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
	      (IP-INF (TO to)
		      (VP (VB lay)
			  (NP-OB1 (N brick)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBD hollered)
	      (NP-OB2 (NP-POS (PRO$ my))
		      (N dog))
	      (IP-INF (TO to)
		      (VP (VB let)
			  (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (PRO *arb*))
				  (VP (VB go))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

In connection with TEACH, noun phrases headed by AGE GROUP, CLASS, GRADE, SCHOOL, and the like count as theme arguments.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (VBD taught)
	      (NP-OB2 (D the)			← recipient argument
		      (NS students)
		      (PP (P in)
			  (NP (D the)
			      (N school)))))	← not head of OB2
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (VBD taught)			← theme argument
	      (NP-OB1 (N school / kindergarten / college )))
	  (PUNC .)))

The following verbs and constructions license OB2 even though the verb does not appear on the list above:

COM (complement)

-COM marks the bare complements of certain nouns (GRADE, SIZE, TYPE).
( (CP-QUE-MAT (ADVP (ADV Now))
	      (PUNC ,)
	      (WNP-1 (WD what)
		     (N grade)
		     (NP-COM (N coal)))
	      (IP-SUB (MD would)
		      (NP-SBJ (D this))
		      (VP (BE be)
			  (NP-PRD *T*-1)))
	      (PUNC ?)))

-COM is also used to annotated the DONE MY HOMEWORK construction.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I@))
	  (VP (BEP @'m)
	      (ADJP (QP (Q all))
		    (ADJ done)
		    (NP-COM (NP-POS (PRO$ my))
			    (N homework))))
	  (PUNC .)))

PRD (predicate)

-PRD marks ADJP and NP predicates of linking verbs (see the illustrative list below) or of
small clauses.

APPEAR, BE, BECOME, CHANCE, CONTINUE, FALL, FEEL, GET, GROW, KEEP, LOOK, PLEAD (in legal sense), PROVE, REMAIN, SAVOR, SEEM, SHOW, SMELL, SOUND, STAY, TASTE, TURN (OUT), WAX

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD turned)
	      (RP out)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADJ fine)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD became)
	      (NP-PRD (NS scouts)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO That))
	  (VP (VBP makes)
	      (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
		      (ADJP-PRD (ADJ happy))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBP call)
	      (IP-ECM (NP-SBJ (PRO him))
		      (NP-PRD (NPR Bill))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Copular constructions with CP-THT predicates are annotated by enclosing the subordinate clause in NP-PRD brackets. This is true even when the copula is silent, as it often is. The head of CP-THT can be overt or silent. It is the possibility of the head being overt that decides us against an alternative analysis, in which the subject of the construction is treated as a clause-adjoined NP (NP-CAR) (see below).

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the)
		  (N reason))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (NP-PRD (CP-THT (C that / 0)
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
				      (VP (MD could@)
					  (NEG @n't)
					  (VP (VB see)
					      (NP-OB1 (PRO it))))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D the)			← like this
		  (N reason))
	  (VP (BED_BEP 0)
	      (NP-PRD (CP-THT (C that / 0)
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
				      (VP (MD could@)
					  (NEG @n't)
					  (VP (VB see)
					      (NP-OB1 (PRO it))))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-CAR (D the)			← not like this
		  (N reason))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
	  (VP (MD could@)
	      (NEG @n't)
	      (VP (VB see)
		  (NP-OB1 (PRO it))))
	  (PUNC .)))

SPR (secondary predicate)

Predicates other than the ones defined in
PRD are secondary predicates and are marked with -SPR. As the name suggests, secondary predicates are optional.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD hammered)
	      (NP-OB1 (D the)
		      (N metal))
	      (ADJP-SPR (ADJ flat)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD christened / named)
	      (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
	      (NP-SPR (NPR Bill)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-INF (TO to)
	  (VP (VB mount / stand)
	      (NP-SPR (N guard)))))

POS (possessive)

-POS marks possessive NPs; it attaches to NP or WNP. In general, a possessive noun or pronoun functions as the head of NP-POS.
( (NP (NP-POS (PRO$ your))
      (N house)))  

( (NP (NP-POS (NPR$ John's))
      (N house)))  

( (NP (NP-POS (N-COMP (NPR John) (NPR Whitman's)))
      (N house)))

( (NP (NP-POS (NP-POS (NPR$ John's))		← each conjunct has its own possessive morpheme
	      (CONJP (CONJ and)
		     (NP-POS (NPR$ Mary's))))
      (N house)))  

( (WNP (WNP-POS (WPRO$ whose))
       (N house)))

However, when the possessive morpheme 'S (or plain apostrophe in the case of a plural noun) takes scope over a constituent larger than a simple NP, it is split off and tagged as POS, which functions as the head of NP-POS. NP-POS immediately dominates the head (POS) and the remainder of the expression (NP).

( (NP (NP-POS (NP (NP (NPR John)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (NPR Mary@))))
              (POS @'s))			← shared possessive morpheme
      (N house)))

( (NP (NP-POS (NP (NP (NPR John))
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
			 (NP (D the)
			     (NS boys@))))
              (POS @'))				← shared possessive morpheme
      (N trip)))

( (NP (NP-POS (NP (D the)
		  (N woman)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
				  (VP (VBD saw)
				      (NP-OB1 (PRO you))
				      (PP (P with@)
					  (NP-1 *T*))))))
	      (POS @'s))
      (N friend)))

Formally possessive NPs with the function of measure phrases are treated like NP-POS with regard to splitting off a POS head as just discussed, but are labelled and otherwise treated as NP-MSR. See NP-MSR for examples.

Adverbial functions

ADV (adverbial)

-ADV marks the use of NPs as manner adverbs or in related adverbial functions.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
	  (DOP does@)
	  (NEG @n't)
	  (VP (VB work)
	      (NP-ADV (D that)
		      (N way)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (NP-ADV (NP (N body))
	  (CONJP (CONJ and)
		 (NP (N soul)))))

( (NP-ADV (NP (QP (Q each)))
	  (PP (P in)
	      (NP (NP-POS (PRO$ their))
		  (ADJP (ADJ own))
		  (N way)))))

( (NP-ADV (NP (N face))
	  (PP (P to
	      (NP (N face))))))

( (NP-ADV (NP (N row))
	  (PP (P by)
	      (NP (N row)))))

DIR (directional)

-DIR marks the directional use of phrases. It is most common on ADVP, but also possible on NP (and in principle on PP).
( (VP (VB send)
      (NP-OB1 (D the)
	      (N package))
      (ADVP-DIR (ADV back))))

( (VP (VB walk)
      (NP-DIR (N home))))

LOC (locative)

-LOC marks the locative use of phrases. It is most common on ADVP, but also possible on ADJP and NP (and in principle on PP). For more discussion of the ADJP-LOC cases, see
Scalar constructions.
( (VP (VB live)
      (ADJP-LOC (ADJ far)
		(PP (P from)
		    (NP (N home))))))

( (VP (VB work)
      (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM ninety))
			(NS miles))
		(ADJ 0)				← head = DISTANT
		(PP (P from)
		    (NP (N home))))))

( (VP (VB eat)
      (NP-OB1 (N lunch))
      (ADVP-LOC (ADV here))))

( (VP (BE be)
      (NP-LOC (NUMP (NUM two))
	      (NS places))
      (PP (P at)
	  (NP (NUMP (NUM once))))))

MSR (measure)

-MSR marks NP measure phrases (regardless of the syntactic category of the node immediately dominating them). The measure function of other phrases is not explicitly marked. See
Degree and comparative constructions for further discussion and examples.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO It))
	  (VP (VBP takes)
	      (NP-MSR (D a)
		      (ADJP (ADJ long))
		      (N time))
	      (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
			(VP (VB knit)
			    (NP-OB1 (D a)
				    (N sweater)
				    (PP (P like)
					(NP (D that)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
		  (N party))
	  (VP (VBD lasted)
	      (NP-MSR (D a)
		      (ADJP (ADJ long))
		      (N time)))
	  (PUNC .)))

As noted above, formally possessive NPs that function as measure phrases are treated like NP-POS as far as splitting off POS heads is concerned. Beyond that, they are treated as NP-MSR.

( (NP (NP-MSR (D a)
	      (ADJP (ADJ full))
	      (N$ day's))
      (N effort)))

( (NP (NP-MSR (NP (D a)
		  (N week))
	      (CONJP (CONJ and)
		     (NP (D a)
			 (N day@)))
	      (POS @'s))
      (N effort)))

TMP (temporal)

-TMP marks the temporal use of phrases, notably ones denoting points in time and frequency. It is most common on ADVP, but also possible on NP (and in principle on PP).
( (ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (D a)
		    (ADJP (ADJ long))
		    (N time))
	    (ADV ago)))

( (ADVP-TMP (NP-MSR (D a)
		    (N bit))
	    (ADVR later)))

( (ADVP-TMP (ADV always / sometimes / never)))

( (NP-TMP (D that)
	  (ADJP (ADJ same))
	  (N week)))

( (NP-TMP (D the)
	  (ADJP (ADJ other))
	  (N day)))

( (NP-TMP (QP (Q every))
	  (NPR Tuesday)))

( (NP-TMP (NUMP (NUM once))
	  (NP-MSR (D a)
		  (N year))))

TODAY, TOMORROW, and YESTERDAY are tagged as nouns (because they have morphological possessives, unlike true adverbs) and project NP-TMP.

( (NP-TMP (N yesterday / today / tomorrow)))

NP-TMP is possible as a daughter of NP to avoid recursive NPs.

( (PP (P at)
      (NP (NUMP (NUM three))
	  (N o'clock)
	  (NP-TMP (D that)
		  (ADJP (ADJ same))
		  (N afternoon)))))

Other

ADT (adjunct)

See also -
RFL (reflexive).

In addition to marking adjunct clauses (CP-ADT), -ADT can also mark the adjunct status of NP, including "hanging" topics (ones that are not associated with a resumptive expression) and traces of antecedents in relative clauses that bear no obvious grammatical relation to the body of the relative clause.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
	  (NP-ADT (ADJP (ADJ other))
		  (NS things)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
			  (C-REL that)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
				  (VP (HVD had)
				      (IP-INF (TO to)
					      (VP (HV have)
						  (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
	  (VP (BED was)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADVP (ADV pretty))
			(ADJ rough)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
	  (NP-ADT (QP (Q some))
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (PRO them))))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO she@))
	  (VP (MD @'d)
	      (VP (VP (GT get)
		      (NP-PD (PRO her))
		      (NP-OB1 (D a)
			      (N quart)
			      (PP (P of)
				  (NP (ADJP (ADJ good))
				      (N liquor)))))
		  (PUNC ,)
		  (CONJP (CONJ and)
			 (VP (VB put)
			     (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
			     (PP (P in)
				 (NP (D a)
				     (ADJP (ADJ half-gallon))
				     (N can)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

CAR (clause-adjoined)

In addition to marking clause-adjoined relative clauses (
CP-CAR), -CAR also marks other clause-adjoined phrases. As with clause-adjoined relatives, we use the term "clause-adjoined" loosely; the constituent being modified is often VP rather than IP.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
	  (ADJP-CAR (ADVP (ADV just))
		    (ADJ lucky))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
	  (VP (BED was)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADJ gone)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
	  (ADJP-CAR (ADJ due)
		    (PP (P to)
			(NP (NP-POS (PRO$ his))
			    (N job))))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (INTJ why)
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
	  (VP (VBD deferred)
	      (NP-OB1 (PRO him)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (QTP (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO we@))
	       (VP (BEP @'re)
		   (VP (VAG gon@)
		       (IP-INF (TO @na)
			       (VP (VB put)
				   (NP-OB1 (D a) (N roof))
				   (PP (P on)
				       (NP (D this) (N church)))
				   (PUNC ,)
				   (NP-CAR (D the)
					   (ADJP (ADJ first))
					   (N thing)))))))
       (PUNC .)))

There are certain constructions that appear to contain a clause-intitial NP-CAR, but that are instead annotated as copular constructions with CP-THT predicates enclosed in NP-PRD brackets. See NP-PRD for discussion and examples.

LFD (left-dislocated phrase)

-LFD marks left-dislocated phrases and clauses, which by definition precede the subject of a clause and are associated with an resumptive expression later in the structure, marked as such with the dash tag -RSP.
( (IP-MAT (CP-ADV-LFD (C If)
		      (IP-SUB ...))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (ADVP-RSP (ADV then))
	  ...
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (CP-ADV-LFD (C After / When)
		      (IP-SUB ...))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (ADVP-TMP-RSP (ADV then))
	  ...
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (NP-POS (PRO$ My))
		  (N mother))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO she))
	  ...
	  (PUNC .)))

PD (personal dative)

Personal datives are oblique pronouns that are coreferential with a subject yet take the form of ordinary rather than reflexive pronouns. They resemble indirect objects (OB2), but their semantic dependency on the verb is more tenuous.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (GTD got)
	      (NP-PD (PRO me))			← personal dative
	      (NP-OB1 (D a)
		      (NPR Coke)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (GTD got)
	      (NP-OB2 (PRO myself / him))	← ordinary indirect object
	      (NP-OB1 (D a)
		      (NPR Coke)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I@))
	  (VP (MD @'d)
	      (VP (VB like)
		  (NP-PD (PRO me))
		  (NP-OB1 (QP (Q some))
			  (QP (QR more))
			  (NS widgets))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBP need)
	      (NP-PD (PRO me))
	      (NP-OB1 (D a)
		      (N job)))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (DOD did@)
	      (NEG @n't)
	      (VP (VB know)
		  (CP-QUE-SUB (WADVP-1 (WADV when))
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I@))
				      (VP (MD @'d)
					  (VP (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
					      (GET get)			← nonagentive GET (= RECEIVE)
					      (NP-PD (PRO me))
					      (NP-OB1 (QP (Q some))
						      (NS shoes))))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

RFL (reflexive)

-RFL is used for reflexive pronouns without a clear argument function. Emphatic reflexives receive an additional -
ADT dash tag.
( (IP-IMP (VP (VBI Behave)
	      (NP-RFL (PRO yourselves)))	← inherent reflexive
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
	  (VP (VBD perjured)
	      (NP-RFL (PRO himself)))		← inherent reflexive
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (DOD did)
	      (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
	      (NP-RFL-ADT (PRO myself)))	← emphatic reflexive	
	  (PUNC .)))

RSP (resumptive phrase)

-RSP marks resumptive expressions associated with a left-dislocated (-LFD) phrase; see -
LFD for examples.

-RSP also marks resumptive pronouns in relative clauses. See Resumptive pronouns for examples.

VOC (vocative)

-VOC marks vocative uses of names. Vocative is interpreted relatively strictly. In other words, invocations of God in true prayers are treated as NP-VOC, but other uses are treated as honorary interjections.
( (IP-IMP (NP-VOC (NPR God))
	  (PUNC ,)
	  (VP (VBI grant)
	      (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
	      (NP-OB1 (D the)
		      (N serenity)
		      (IP-INF ...)))))

( (FRAG (INTJ God / Lord)
	(PUNC ,)
	(WNP (WNP (WPRO what))
	     (D a)
	     (N mess))
	(PUNC !)))

XXX (unknown)

-XXX is used to mark phrases that require a dash tag, but whose function is unclear or unknown.

Bare VP/IP-level phrases

QP (stranded quantifier)

Stranded (also known as floating) quantifiers are annotated as bare VP-level QPs. This is the only VP/IP-level context where QPs occur without an immediately dominating NP.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (HVP have)
	      (VP (QP (Q all))
		  (VP (VBN left))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (HVP have)
	      (VP (QP (Q all)
		      (PP (P of)
			  (NP (PRO them))))
		  (VP (VBN left))))
	  (PUNC .)))