Degree and comparative constructions


Dimension adjectives

The following discussion focuses on adjectives, but extends in a straightforward way to gradable adverbs.

As is well known, certain adjectives are gradable; that is, the properties referred to by the adjectives can characterize entities exhibiting those properties to a greater or lesser extent or degree. In what follows, we refer to the gradable properties as dimensions and to the adjectives expressing them as dimension adjectives. Dimension adjectives can be modified, with the resulting expression corresponding to some point on a scale; the scale represents the dimension, and the modifier specifies the point.

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV barely / hardly / very / unusually / unexpectedly))
	(ADJ warm)))

Degree constructions

The degree to which an entity exhibits a dimension may be correlated with some other property. In particular, the corollary property might hold beyond (above or below) a certain threshold point for the dimension. This type of correlation is highlighted by a type of modifier often referred to as a degree head; we will refer to the phrase expressing the corollary property as the degree complement. Our annotation treats degree heads as heads of modifiers on a par with other modifiers of dimension adjectives. They are tagged as ordinary adverbs (ADV) if they end in -ly and as comparative adverbs (ADVR) otherwise; in both cases, they project ADVP. Even though the degree complement is a complement of the degree head, the annotation represents all three expressions as sisters, in accordance with the guidelines in Trace or no trace?

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV overly / sufficiently))	← degree modifier
	(ADJ warm)				← dimension adjective
	(PP (P for)				← degree complement
	    (NP (N comfort)))))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR so))
	(ADJ warm)
	(CP-DEG (C that / 0)
		(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
			(VP (BED was)
			    (ADJP-PRD (ADJ uncomfortable)))))))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR too))
	(ADJ hot)
	(PP (P for)
	    (NP (N comfort)))))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR too))
	(ADJ hot)
	(IP-INF (TO to)
		(VB (BE be)
		    (ADJP-PRD (ADJ comfortable))))))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR too))
	(ADJ hot)
	(IP-INF (FOR for)
		(NP-SBJ (PRO me))
		(TO to)
		(VB (BE be)
		    (ADJP-PRD (ADJ comfortable))))))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR too))
	(ADJ hot)
	(CP-EOP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
		(IP-INF (TO 0)
			(VP (VB drink)
			    (NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))

The degree complement may be absent in the syntax.

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV overly / sufficiently))	← degree modifier
	(ADJ warm)))				← dimension adjective

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It@))
	  (VP (BEP @'s)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADVP (ADVR so))	← degree modifier
			(ADJ warm)))		← dimension adjective
	  (PUNC .)))

When modified by SO, the dimension adjective can be absent in the syntax.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
	  (VP (GTD got)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADVP (ADVR so))
			(ADJ dusty / 0)
			(CP-DEG (C that / 0)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
					(VP (HVD had)
					    (IP-INF (TO 0)
						    (VP (VB leave))))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Modification of modifiers

As expected given the phrasal status of degree modifiers, they themselves may be modified. As usual (see Trace or no trace?), extraposition from positions not available in the surface syntax is not annotated.

( (ADJP (ADVP (QP (Q all))
	      (ADVR too))
	(ADJ hot)))

( (ADJP (ADVP (QP (ADVP (ADV very))
		  (Q much))
	      (ADVR too))
	(ADJ hot)))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVP (ADV barely))
	      (ADV sufficiently))
	(ADJ hot)))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV barely))
	(ADJ hot)
	(ADVP (ADVR enough))))

( (NP (ADJP (ADVP (ADV barely))
	    (ADJR enough))
      (N 0)
      (CP-EOP ...)))

Measure modification

So far, we have discussed qualitative degree modifiers. A subset of dimension adjectives, given in the table below, additionally allows quantitative, or measure, modification.

Spatial: DEEP, DISTANT, FAR, HIGH, LONG, TALL, WIDE
Temporal: EARLY, LATE, OLD
Other: WORTH

This type of modification corresponds to the everyday procedure of measuring some length using a ruler. The extent to which an entity exhibits the dimension under discussion is defined in terms of an interval bounded by two endpoints associated with the entity. The interval is mapped onto an interval on the scale associated with the dimension (the ruler). The scale in question has properties that go beyond scales associated with qualitative modification. In particular, it has an origin or zero point, and it is divided into equal units. In other words, the scale is isomorphic to the natural numbers. The zero point on the scale is aligned with one of the endpoints on the entity, and the point on the scale corresponding to the other endpoint on the entity yields a numerical measure of the degree to which the entity exhibits the dimension. The following expressions spell out the various parameters just introduced, apart from the zero point on the scale, which is constant and hence never expressed.

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))	← second endpoint on scale
		(NS feet))		← unit of measurement
	(ADJ wide)			← dimension adjective
	(PP (P from)
	    (NP (D the)			← first endpoint on entity
		(ADJP (ADJ left))
		(N edge)))
	(PP (P to)
	    (NP (D the)			← second endpoint on entity
		(ADJP (ADJ right))))))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))	← second endpoint on scale
		(NS years))		← unit of measurement
	(ADJ old)			← dimension adjective
	(PP (P from)
	    (NP (N birth)))		← first endpoint on entity
	(PP (P to)
	    (NP (D the)			← second endpoint on entity
		(ADJP (ADJ present))
		(N moment)))))

The interval between the endpoints can be further described (say, in terms of its properties as a path).

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twenty))		← second endpoint on scale
		(NS miles))			← unit of measurement
	(ADJ distant)				← dimension adjective
	(PP (P from)
	    (NP (D the)				← first endpoint on entity
		(N center)
		(PP (P of)
		    (NP (N town)))))
	(PP (P to)
	    (ADVP (ADV here)))			← second endpoint on entity
	(PP (P by)				← path descriptor
	    (NP (ADJP (ADJ winding))
		(NS roads)))))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))		← second endpoint on scale
		(NS inches))			← unit of measurement
	(ADJ 0)					← dimension = LONG
	(ADVP (ADV around))			← path descriptor
	(PP (P in)				← further descriptor
	    (NP (N circumference)))))

In ordinary usage, various parameters, including the dimension itself, are often not overtly expressed. In order to clarify the structure, we often add silent heads of measure phrases and silent dimension adjectives. Implicit endpoints on the entity are not annotated, however.

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
		(NS feet))
	(ADJ 0)				← implicit dimension (WIDE)
	(PP (P from)
	    (NP (D the)			← implicit second endpoint on entity
		(ADJP (ADJ left))
		(N edge)))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
		(NS feet))
	(ADJ 0)				← implicit dimension (HIGH)
	(PP (P to)			← implicit first endpoint on entity
	    (NP (D the)
		(N top)))))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
		(NS years))
	(ADJ old)			← implicit endpoints

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
		(NS months))
	(ADJ 0)				← implicit dimension (OLD)

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO She))
	  (VP (ADVP-TMP (ADV just))
	      (VBN turned)
	      (ADJP-PRD (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
				(NS 0))			← implicit unit (YEARS)
				(ADJ 0)))		← implicit dimension (OLD)
	  (PUNC .)))

Dimension nouns

Dimensions can also be expressed by nominal heads. In such cases, the entire construction is annotated as a noun phrase, with a dash tag appropriate to the syntactic context. The syntactic head of the entire NP construction is not usually the dimension noun.

( (NP (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))
      (NS years)		← head of NP =/= dimension head
      (PP (P of)
	  (NP (N age)))))	← dimension (OLD) expressed, but not as ADJ

( (PP (P from)
      (NP (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))
	  (NS years)
	  (PP (P of)
	      (NP (N age))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (NP-PRD (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))
		      (NS inches)		← head of NP =/= dimension head
		      (PP (P in)
			  (NP (N length)))))	← dimension (LONG) expressed, but not as ADJ
	  (PUNC .)))

The integration of scalar constructions into larger constituents follows general principles.

( (NP (D a)
      (N child)
      (IP-RRC (ADJP-PRD (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM eight))	← postnominal ADJP
				(NS years))
			(ADJ old)))))			← head of dimension construction = ADJ

( (NP (D a)
      (N child)
      (PP (P of)					← postnominal PP
	  (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM eight))
	                (NS years))
                (ADJ old)))))				← head of dimension construction = ADJ

( (NP (D a)
      (N child)
      (PP (P of)
          (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM eight))
			(NS 0))
		(ADJ 0)))))

( (NP (D a)
      (N child)
      (IP-RRC (NP-PRD (NUMP (NUM eight))		← postnominal NP
      	      	      (NS years) 			← head of dimension construction = NS
		      (PP (P of)
		      	  (NP (N age)))))))

Special words

ENOUGH. Adverbial ENOUGH is synonymous with SUFFICIENTLY, but follows the dimension adjective. Even though the degree complement is next to the degree head in this case, the annotation is the same as for the ordinary cases illustrated above, except for the word order.

( (ADJP (ADJ warm)		← dimension adjective > degree modifier
	(ADVP (ADVR enough))	
	(PP (P for)
	    (NP (N comfort)))))

( (ADJP (ADJ hot)	
	(ADVP (ADVR enough))
	(IP-INF (TO to)
		(VP (VB burn)
		    (NP-OB1 (PRO you))))))

( (ADJP (ADJ cool)
	(ADVP (ADVR enough))
	(CP-EOP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
		(IP-INF (TO to)
			(VP (VB drink)
			    (NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))

Adjectival ENOUGH is a synthetic form corresponding to SUFFICIENTLY MANY/MUCH. It is tagged as ADJR. The annotation is analogous to the adverbial examples in the sense that the degree modifier, its modifiee, and the degree complement are all annotated as sisters. Note that unlike its adverbial counterpart, adjectival ENOUGH can precede its modifiee. The modified noun may be absent; in such cases, a silent noun is alwaya assumed and sometimes explicitly added to clarify the structure.

( (NP (ADJP (ADJR enough))		← ENOUGH > noun
      (NS clothes)
      (PP (P for)
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N week)))))

( (NP (NS clothes)			← noun > ENOUGH
      (ADJP (ADJR enough))
      (PP (P for)
	  (NP (D a)
	      (N week)))))

( (NP (ADJP (ADJR enough))
      (N 0)				← silent nominal head
      (CP-EOP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
	      (IP-INF (TO 0)
		      (VP (VB eat)
			  (NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))

ENOUGH can take finite or nonfinite degree complements. The infinitival counterparts of CP-DEG are annotated as simple IP-INF, without a -DEG dash tag.

( (ADJP (ADJ loud)
	(ADVP (ADVR enough))
	(CP-DEG (C that / 0)			← finite complement of degree head
		(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
			(VP (VBD damaged)
			    (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO$ his))
				    (N hearing)))))))

( (ADJP (ADJ loud)
	(ADVP (ADVR enough))
	(IP-INF (TO to)				← nonfinite complement of degree head
		(VP (VB damage)
		    (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO$ his))
			    (N hearing))))))

SUCH. Adverbial SUCH is treated on a par with SO as far as possible. Unlike SO, SUCH can be separated from the dimension adjective it modifies. In this case, the ADVP headed by SUCH is not annotated as moving from within the ADJP phrase headed by the dimension adjective, since that position is never available in the surface syntax. As usual, the degree complement attaches as close to the licensing head as the overt syntax allows.

( (NP (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR such))
	    (ADJ difficult))
      (NS problems)
      (CP-DEG ...)))

( (NP (ADVP (ADVR such))
      (D a)
      (ADJP (ADJ big))
      (N surprise)
      (CP-DEG ...)))

Adjectival SUCH is treated as a synthetic form of adverbial SUCH and an unspecified adjectival head. It is tagged as a comparative adjective (ADJR) and projects an ADJP.

( (NP (ADJP (ADJR such))
      (N joy)
      (CP-DEG ...)))

( (NP (ADJP (ADJR such))		cf. SO BIG A SURPRISE
      (D a)
      (N surprise)
      (CP-DEG ...)))))

Unlike in the case of postnominal ENOUGH, dependents of postnominal SUCH are annotated for simplicity as daughters of the ADJP headed by SUCH.

( (NP (ADJP (ADJ other))
      (NS considerations)
      (ADJP (ADJR such)			← like this	
	    (PP (P as)
		(NP ...)))))

( (NP (ADJP (ADJ other))
      (NS considerations)
      (ELAB (NP (ADJP (ADJR such))	← not like this	
		(PP (P as)
		    (NP ...))))))

WORTH. As a dimension head, WORTH is always tagged as ADJ and then treated like other dimension adjectives. As is more generally the case, the measure phrase may be morphologically marked as possessive.

( (ADJP (ADJ worth)
        (NP-MSR (PRO it))))

( (ADJP (ADJ worth)
        (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twenty))
		(NS dollars))))

( (ADJP (ADJ worth)
        (NP-MSR (D a)
		(N dollar))))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (D a)
		(N$ dollar's))
	(ADJ worth)))

When WORTH is modified by clauses functioning as measure expressions, the NP-MSR around the clause is omitted for simplicity.

( (ADJP (ADJ worth)
        (IP-PPL (VP (DAG doing)
		    (ADVP (ADV well))))))

( (ADJP (ADJ worth)
        (CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)
		(IP-PPL (VP (VAG waiting)
			    (PP (P for)
				(NP *T*-1)))))))

The following examples illustrate the integration of adjective phrases headed by WORTH into larger structures. Where necessary, the ADJP is treated as modifying a silent nominal head.

( (NP (N merchandise)
      (IP-RRC (ADJP-PRD (ADJ worth)			← postnominal ADJP
			(NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twenty))
				(NS dollars))))))

( (VP (VB buy)
      (NP-OB1 (ADJP (NP-MSR (D a)			← NP headed by silent head
			    (N$ dollar's))
		    (ADJ worth))
	      (PP (P of)
		  (NP (N merchandise))))))

Comparative constructions

Comparative constructions are similar to degree constructions. Instead of a pure degree head associated with a degree complement, they contain a comparative degree head associated with a standard of comparison. Comparative clauses (CP-CMP) are
wh- CPs. The wh- antecedent is silent; its syntactic category is generally the wh- phrase counterpart to the syntactic category of the dimension of comparison (but see below for comparative subdeletion).
( (ADJP (QP (QR more))				← degree head
	(ADJ dangerous))			← dimension of comparison
  (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 (WPRO 0))			← complement of degree head
	  (C than)
	  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D a)
			  (N rattlesnake))
		  (VP (BEP is)
		      (ADJP-PRD *T*-1))))))

( (NP (QP (ADVP (ADVR as))			← degree head
	  (Q many))				← dimension of comparison
      (NS cookies)
      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))			← complement of degree head
	      (C as)
	      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
		      (VP (VBD baked)
			  (NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))

In synthetic comparatives, the degree head and the dimension of comparison are expressed in a single word.

( (ADJP (ADJR taller)				← degree head + dimension of comparison
	(CP-CMP (WADJP-1 (WPRO 0))		← complement of degree head
		(C than)
		(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
			(VP (BEP are)
			    (ADJP-PRD *T*-1))))))

( (ADVP (ADVR faster)				← degree head + dimension of comparison
	(CP-CMP (WADVP-1 (WADV 0))		← complement of degree head
		(C than)
		(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
			(VP (MD could)
			    (VP (ADVP *T*-1)
				(VB run)))))))

( (NP (QP (QR more))				← degree head + dimension of comparison
      (NS cookies)
      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))			← complement of degree head
	      (C than)
	      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
		      (VP (VBD baked)
			  (NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))

Analogously to degree constructions, the complement of the comparative degree head can be silent in the syntax.

( (NP (QP (QR more))				← degree head
      (NS cookies)				← dimension of comparison

( (ADJP (QP (QR more))
	(ADJ important)))

( (ADVP (ADVR faster)))

As expected, the degree head can be modified.

( (ADJP (QP (NP-MSR (QP (Q much)))
	    (QR more))
	(ADJ dangerous)))

( (ADJP (QP (NP-MSR (QP (Q many))
		    (NS times))
	    (QR more))
	(ADJ dangerous)))

( (ADJP (ADVP (ADVP (ADV equally))
	      (ADVR as))
	(ADJ important)))

Comparative structures may themselves function as modifiers.

( (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADJR further)))
	    (ADJ 0)
	    (ADVP (ADV away)
		  (PP (P from)
		      (NP (D the)
			  (N house))))))

( (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (ADJP (FP even)
			  (ADJR further)))
	    (ADJ 0)
	    (ADVP (ADV away)
		  (PP (P from)
		      (NP (D the)
			  (N house))))))

( (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM five))
				  (NS miles))
			  (ADJR further)))
	    (ADJ 0)
	    (ADVP (ADV away)
		  (PP (P from)
		      (NP (D the)
			  (N house))))))

( (NP (ADJP (QP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM five))
			(NS times))
		(QR more))
	    (ADJ serious))
      (NS problems)
      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
	      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
		      (VP (HVD had)
			  (VP (ADVP-TMP (ADV ever))
			      (VBN encountered)
			      (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))))

Comparative subdeletion

In cases of comparative subdeletion, an entity is compared with respect to two dimensions. The silent antecedent in CP-CMP is WQP. The trace appears where it belongs on semantic grounds.
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
		  (N table))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (ADJP-PRD (QP (QR more))				← analytic comparative
			(ADJ durable)
			(CP-CMP (WQP-1 0)
				(C than)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
					(VP (BEP is)
					    (ADJP-PRD (QP *T*-1)
						      (ADJ beautiful)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))	

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
		  (N table))
	  (VP (BEP is)
	      (ADJP-PRD (ADJR longer)				← synthetic comparative
			(CP-CMP (WQP-1 0)
				(C than)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
					(VP (BEP is)
					    (ADJP-PRD (QP *T*-1)
						      (ADJ wide)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))	

Elision

See also the section on elision in
Conjunction and gapping.

When IP-SUBs in comparative clauses exhibit elision, as they often do, the CP-CMP is annotated as taking an IP-SUB-GAPPING complement (or possibly a FRAG in difficult cases).

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBD read)
	      (NP-OB1 (D the)
		      (N book))
	      (ADVP (ADVP (ADVR as))
		    (ADV quickly)
		    (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
			    (C as)
			    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))			← full IP-SUB
				    (VP (ADVP *T*-1)
					(VBD read)
					(NP-OB1 (D the)
						(N magazine)))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VP (VBD read)
	      (NP-OB1 (D the)
		      (N book))
	      (ADVP (ADVP (ADVR as))
		    (ADV quickly)
		    (CP-CMP (WADVP-x 0)
			    (C as)
			    (IP-SUB-GAPPING (NP-SBJ (PRO you))		← IP-SUB with elision
					    (NP-OB1 (D the)
						    (N magazine))))))
	  (PUNC .)))
				
( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD brought)
	      (NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
		      (NS cookies)
		      (CP-CMP *ICH*-1))
	      (NP-TMP (N today))
	      (CP-CMP-1 (WNP-2 (WPRO 0))
			(C than)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))			← full IP-SUB
				(VP (VBD brought)
				    (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
				    (NP-TMP (N yesterday))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBD brought)
	      (NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
		      (NS cookies)
		      (CP-CMP *ICH*-1))
	      (NP-TMP (N today))
	      (CP-CMP-1 (WNP-x (WPRO 0))
			(C than)
			(IP-SUB-GAPPING (NP-SBJ (PRO you))		← IP-SUB with elision
					(NP-TMP (N yesterday)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Very often, elision targets all but a single noun phrase, and the question arises whether the construction is in fact a clausal comparative or instead a phrasal comparative (a PP with an ordinary NP complement). Some cases are unambiguously phrasal comparatives, as is evident by the case-marking on the noun phrase. In ambiguous cases, the default annotation in English is PP.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBP read)
	      (NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
		      (NS books)
		      (CP-CMP (WNP-x 0)			← CP-CMP because of nominative case-marking
			      (C than)
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBP read)
	      (NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
		      (NS books)
		      (PP (P than)			← PP because of oblique case-marking
			  (NP (PRO me)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBP read)
	      (NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
		      (NS books)
		      (PP (P than)			← PP by default
			  (NP (PRO you)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
	  (VP (VBP read)
	      (NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
		      (NS books)
		      (PP (P than)			← PP by default
			  (NP (NS magazines)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Correlative comparatives

Full correlative comparatives

Semantically, full correlative comparatives are reminiscent of left-dislocation structures, as illustrated by the following example (which is more natural in other languages than it is English).
( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WQP (WQP (WADVP (WADV How)))		← not like this
					   (Q much))
				      (QR more)))
			  (C that / 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
				  (VP (VBP know)
				      (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))
	  (NP-2 (QP (QP (NP-MSR-RSP (D that))
			(Q much))
		    (QR less)))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
	  (VP (VBP need)
	      (NP-OB1 *T*-2))
	  (PUNC .)))

However, the above annotation does not extend to ordinary correlative comparatives in English, in which the HOW MUCH and THAT MUCH phrases are expressed by THE, which cannot function as a phrase in the modern language. As a result, clause-initial noun phrases in correlative constructions are simply annotated as NP-ADT. The relation between the NP-ADT and its clause-internal counterpart is left implicit. The semantically required NP-MSR around THE is also omitted.

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADT (QP (D the)				← like this
		      (QR more))
		  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
			  (C that / 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
				  (VP (VBP know)
				      (NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))
	  (NP-2 (D the)
		(QP (QR less)))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
	  (VP (VBP need)
	      (NP-OB1 *T*-2))
	  (PUNC .)))

When the first part of the correlative is not a noun phrase, it is given a category-appropriate dash tag if necessary.

( (IP-MAT-INV (ADJP-SPR (D the)
			(ADJR taller)
			(CP-CMP (WADJP-1 (WPRO 0))
				(C that / 0)
				(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
					(VBP ends)
					(RP up)
					(ADJP-PRD *T*-1))))

	      (ADJP-PRD (D the)
			(ADJR better))
	      (BEP are)
	      (NP-SBJ (NP-POS (PRO$ his))
		      (NS chances)
		      (PP (P of)
			  (NP (D a)
			      (N-COMP (N basketball) (N scholarship)))))
	      (PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (QP (D the)
		    (QR more))
		(ADV quickly)
		(CP-CMP (WADVP (WADV 0))
			(C that / 0)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
				(VP (ADVP *T*)
				    (VBP leave)))))
	  (ADVR-2 (QP (D the)
		      (QR more))
		  (ADV quickly))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO we@)
		  (VP (MD @'ll)
		      (VP (ADVP *T*-2)
			  (VB arrive)
			  (ADVP-LOC (ADV there)))))
	  (PUNC .)))

Elided correlative comparatives

Elided correlative comparatives are treated as FRAG.
  ( (FRAG (ADVP (D the)
                (ADVR sooner))
	(ADJP (D the)
	      (ADJR better))
	PUNC .)))

  ( (FRAG (NP (QP (D the)
                  (QR more))
	(ADJP (D the)
	      (ADJR merrier))
	PUNC .)))

( (FRAG (ADVP (D the)
	      (ADVR sooner)
	      (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 (WADV 0))
		      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
			      (VP (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
				  (VBP come)))))
	(ADJP (D the)
	      (ADJR better))
	(PUNC .)))