### Degree and comparative constructions

As is well known, certain adjectives are gradable; that is, the properties referred to by the adjectives can characterize entities exhibiting those properties to a greater or lesser extent or degree. In what follows, we refer to the gradable properties as dimensions and to the adjectives expressing them as dimension adjectives. Dimension adjectives can be modified, with the resulting expression corresponding to some point on a scale; the scale represents the dimension, and the modifier specifies the point.

```( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV barely / hardly / very / unusually / unexpectedly))
```

#### Degree constructions

```( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV overly / sufficiently))	← degree modifier
(PP (P for)				← degree complement
(NP (N comfort)))))

(CP-DEG (C that / 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VP (BED was)

(PP (P for)
(NP (N comfort)))))

(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB (BE be)

(IP-INF (FOR for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO me))
(TO to)
(VB (BE be)

(CP-EOP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
(IP-INF (TO 0)
(VP (VB drink)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))
```

The degree complement may be absent in the syntax.

```( (ADJP (ADVP (ADV overly / sufficiently))	← degree modifier

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It@))
(VP (BEP @'s)
(PUNC .)))
```

When modified by SO, the dimension adjective can be absent in the syntax.

```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
(VP (GTD got)
(CP-DEG (C that / 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(IP-INF (TO 0)
(VP (VB leave))))))))
(PUNC .)))
```

#### Modification of modifiers

As expected given the phrasal status of degree modifiers, they themselves may be modified. As usual (see Trace or no trace?), extraposition from positions not available in the surface syntax is not annotated.

```( (ADJP (ADVP (QP (Q all))

(Q much))

(N 0)
(CP-EOP ...)))
```

#### Measure modification

So far, we have discussed qualitative degree modifiers. A subset of dimension adjectives, given in the table below, additionally allows quantitative, or measure, modification.

 Spatial: DEEP, DISTANT, FAR, HIGH, LONG, TALL, WIDE Temporal: EARLY, LATE, OLD Other: WORTH

This type of modification corresponds to the everyday procedure of measuring some length using a ruler. The extent to which an entity exhibits the dimension under discussion is defined in terms of an interval bounded by two endpoints associated with the entity. The interval is mapped onto an interval on the scale associated with the dimension (the ruler). The scale in question has properties that go beyond scales associated with qualitative modification. In particular, it has an origin or zero point, and it is divided into equal units. In other words, the scale is isomorphic to the natural numbers. The zero point on the scale is aligned with one of the endpoints on the entity, and the point on the scale corresponding to the other endpoint on the entity yields a numerical measure of the degree to which the entity exhibits the dimension. The following expressions spell out the various parameters just introduced, apart from the zero point on the scale, which is constant and hence never expressed.

```( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))	← second endpoint on scale
(NS feet))		← unit of measurement
(PP (P from)
(NP (D the)			← first endpoint on entity
(N edge)))
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the)			← second endpoint on entity

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))	← second endpoint on scale
(NS years))		← unit of measurement
(PP (P from)
(NP (N birth)))		← first endpoint on entity
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the)			← second endpoint on entity
(N moment)))))
```

The interval between the endpoints can be further described (say, in terms of its properties as a path).

```( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twenty))		← second endpoint on scale
(NS miles))			← unit of measurement
(PP (P from)
(NP (D the)				← first endpoint on entity
(N center)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N town)))))
(PP (P to)
(PP (P by)				← path descriptor

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))		← second endpoint on scale
(NS inches))			← unit of measurement
(ADJ 0)					← dimension = LONG
(PP (P in)				← further descriptor
(NP (N circumference)))))
```

In ordinary usage, various parameters, including the dimension itself, are often not overtly expressed. In order to clarify the structure, we often add silent heads of measure phrases and silent dimension adjectives. Implicit endpoints on the entity are not annotated, however.

```( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
(NS feet))
(ADJ 0)				← implicit dimension (WIDE)
(PP (P from)
(NP (D the)			← implicit second endpoint on entity
(N edge)))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
(NS feet))
(ADJ 0)				← implicit dimension (HIGH)
(PP (P to)			← implicit first endpoint on entity
(NP (D the)
(N top)))))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
(NS years))

( (ADJP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM three))
(NS months))
(ADJ 0)				← implicit dimension (OLD)

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO She))
(VBN turned)
(NS 0))			← implicit unit (YEARS)
(ADJ 0)))		← implicit dimension (OLD)
(PUNC .)))
```

#### Dimension nouns

Dimensions can also be expressed by nominal heads. In such cases, the entire construction is annotated as a noun phrase, with a dash tag appropriate to the syntactic context. The syntactic head of the entire NP construction is not usually the dimension noun.

```( (NP (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))
(PP (P of)
(NP (N age)))))	← dimension (OLD) expressed, but not as ADJ

( (PP (P from)
(NP (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))
(NS years)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N age))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
(VP (BEP is)
(NP-PRD (NUMP (NUM thirty-six))
(PP (P in)
(NP (N length)))))	← dimension (LONG) expressed, but not as ADJ
(PUNC .)))
```

The integration of scalar constructions into larger constituents follows general principles.

```( (NP (D a)
(N child)
(NS years))

( (NP (D a)
(N child)
(PP (P of)					← postnominal PP
(NS years))

( (NP (D a)
(N child)
(PP (P of)
(NS 0))

( (NP (D a)
(N child)
(IP-RRC (NP-PRD (NUMP (NUM eight))		← postnominal NP
(NS years) 			← head of dimension construction = NS
(PP (P of)
(NP (N age)))))))
```

#### Special words

ENOUGH. Adverbial ENOUGH is synonymous with SUFFICIENTLY, but follows the dimension adjective. Even though the degree complement is next to the degree head in this case, the annotation is the same as for the ordinary cases illustrated above, except for the word order.

```( (ADJP (ADJ warm)		← dimension adjective > degree modifier
(PP (P for)
(NP (N comfort)))))

(IP-INF (TO to)
(VP (VB burn)
(NP-OB1 (PRO you))))))

(CP-EOP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VP (VB drink)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))
```

Adjectival ENOUGH is a synthetic form corresponding to SUFFICIENTLY MANY/MUCH. It is tagged as ADJR. The annotation is analogous to the adverbial examples in the sense that the degree modifier, its modifiee, and the degree complement are all annotated as sisters. Note that unlike its adverbial counterpart, adjectival ENOUGH can precede its modifiee. The modified noun may be absent; in such cases, a silent noun is alwaya assumed and sometimes explicitly added to clarify the structure.

```( (NP (ADJP (ADJR enough))		← ENOUGH > noun
(NS clothes)
(PP (P for)
(NP (D a)
(N week)))))

( (NP (NS clothes)			← noun > ENOUGH
(PP (P for)
(NP (D a)
(N week)))))

(N 0)				← silent nominal head
(CP-EOP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
(IP-INF (TO 0)
(VP (VB eat)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))
```

ENOUGH can take finite or nonfinite degree complements. The infinitival counterparts of CP-DEG are annotated as simple IP-INF, without a -DEG dash tag.

```( (ADJP (ADJ loud)
(CP-DEG (C that / 0)			← finite complement of degree head
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(VP (VBD damaged)
(NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO\$ his))
(N hearing)))))))

(IP-INF (TO to)				← nonfinite complement of degree head
(VP (VB damage)
(NP-OB1 (NP-POS (PRO\$ his))
(N hearing))))))
```

SUCH. Adverbial SUCH is treated on a par with SO as far as possible. Unlike SO, SUCH can be separated from the dimension adjective it modifies. In this case, the ADVP headed by SUCH is not annotated as moving from within the ADJP phrase headed by the dimension adjective, since that position is never available in the surface syntax. As usual, the degree complement attaches as close to the licensing head as the overt syntax allows.

```( (NP (ADJP (ADVP (ADVR such))
(NS problems)
(CP-DEG ...)))

(D a)
(N surprise)
(CP-DEG ...)))
```

```( (NP (ADJP (ADJR such))
(N joy)
(CP-DEG ...)))

(D a)
(N surprise)
(CP-DEG ...)))))
```

Unlike in the case of postnominal ENOUGH, dependents of postnominal SUCH are annotated for simplicity as daughters of the ADJP headed by SUCH.

```( (NP (ADJP (ADJ other))
(NS considerations)
(PP (P as)
(NP ...)))))

(NS considerations)
(PP (P as)
(NP ...))))))
```

WORTH. As a dimension head, WORTH is always tagged as ADJ and then treated like other dimension adjectives. As is more generally the case, the measure phrase may be morphologically marked as possessive.

```( (ADJP (ADJ worth)
(NP-MSR (PRO it))))

(NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twenty))
(NS dollars))))

(NP-MSR (D a)
(N dollar))))

(N\$ dollar's))
```

When WORTH is modified by clauses functioning as measure expressions, the NP-MSR around the clause is omitted for simplicity.

```( (ADJP (ADJ worth)
(IP-PPL (VP (DAG doing)

(CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)
(IP-PPL (VP (VAG waiting)
(PP (P for)
(NP *T*-1)))))))
```

The following examples illustrate the integration of adjective phrases headed by WORTH into larger structures. Where necessary, the ADJP is treated as modifying a silent nominal head.

```( (NP (N merchandise)
(NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM twenty))
(NS dollars))))))

(N\$ dollar's))
(PP (P of)
(NP (N merchandise))))))
```

#### Comparative constructions

Comparative constructions are similar to degree constructions. Instead of a pure degree head associated with a degree complement, they contain a comparative degree head associated with a standard of comparison. Comparative clauses (CP-CMP) are
wh- CPs. The wh- antecedent is silent; its syntactic category is generally the wh- phrase counterpart to the syntactic category of the dimension of comparison (but see below for comparative subdeletion).
```( (ADJP (QP (QR more))				← degree head
(ADJ dangerous))			← dimension of comparison
(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D a)
(N rattlesnake))
(VP (BEP is)

(Q many))				← dimension of comparison
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))			← complement of degree head
(C as)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
(VP (VBD baked)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))
```

In synthetic comparatives, the degree head and the dimension of comparison are expressed in a single word.

```( (ADJP (ADJR taller)				← degree head + dimension of comparison
(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
(VP (BEP are)

(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(VP (MD could)
(VB run)))))))

( (NP (QP (QR more))				← degree head + dimension of comparison
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))			← complement of degree head
(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
(VP (VBD baked)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1))))))
```

Analogously to degree constructions, the complement of the comparative degree head can be silent in the syntax.

```( (NP (QP (QR more))				← degree head
(NS cookies)				← dimension of comparison

```

As expected, the degree head can be modified.

```( (ADJP (QP (NP-MSR (QP (Q much)))
(QR more))

( (ADJP (QP (NP-MSR (QP (Q many))
(NS times))
(QR more))

```

Comparative structures may themselves function as modifiers.

```( (ADJP-LOC (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADJR further)))
(PP (P from)
(NP (D the)
(N house))))))

(PP (P from)
(NP (D the)
(N house))))))

(NS miles))
(PP (P from)
(NP (D the)
(N house))))))

( (NP (ADJP (QP (NP-MSR (NUMP (NUM five))
(NS times))
(QR more))
(NS problems)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(VBN encountered)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))))
```

#### Comparative subdeletion

In cases of comparative subdeletion, an entity is compared with respect to two dimensions. The silent antecedent in CP-CMP is WQP. The trace appears where it belongs on semantic grounds.
```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
(N table))
(VP (BEP is)
(ADJP-PRD (QP (QR more))				← analytic comparative
(CP-CMP (WQP-1 0)
(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(VP (BEP is)
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The)
(N table))
(VP (BEP is)
(CP-CMP (WQP-1 0)
(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(VP (BEP is)
(PUNC .)))
```

#### Elision

Conjunction and gapping.

When IP-SUBs in comparative clauses exhibit elision, as they often do, the CP-CMP is annotated as taking an IP-SUB-GAPPING complement (or possibly a FRAG in difficult cases).

```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(NP-OB1 (D the)
(N book))
(C as)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))			← full IP-SUB
(NP-OB1 (D the)
(N magazine)))))))
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(NP-OB1 (D the)
(N book))
(C as)
(IP-SUB-GAPPING (NP-SBJ (PRO you))		← IP-SUB with elision
(NP-OB1 (D the)
(N magazine))))))
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
(VP (VBD brought)
(NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
(CP-CMP *ICH*-1))
(NP-TMP (N today))
(CP-CMP-1 (WNP-2 (WPRO 0))
(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))			← full IP-SUB
(VP (VBD brought)
(NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(NP-TMP (N yesterday))))))
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
(VP (VBD brought)
(NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
(CP-CMP *ICH*-1))
(NP-TMP (N today))
(CP-CMP-1 (WNP-x (WPRO 0))
(C than)
(IP-SUB-GAPPING (NP-SBJ (PRO you))		← IP-SUB with elision
(NP-TMP (N yesterday)))))
(PUNC .)))

```

Very often, elision targets all but a single noun phrase, and the question arises whether the construction is in fact a clausal comparative or instead a phrasal comparative (a PP with an ordinary NP complement). Some cases are unambiguously phrasal comparatives, as is evident by the case-marking on the noun phrase. In ambiguous cases, the default annotation in English is PP.

```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
(NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
(NS books)
(CP-CMP (WNP-x 0)			← CP-CMP because of nominative case-marking
(C than)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))))))
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
(NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
(NS books)
(PP (P than)			← PP because of oblique case-marking
(NP (PRO me)))))
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
(NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
(NS books)
(PP (P than)			← PP by default
(NP (PRO you)))))
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
(NP-OB1 (QP (QR more))
(NS books)
(PP (P than)			← PP by default
(NP (NS magazines)))))
(PUNC .)))
```

#### Full correlative comparatives

Semantically, full correlative comparatives are reminiscent of left-dislocation structures, as illustrated by the following example (which is more natural in other languages than it is English).
```( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WQP (WQP (WADVP (WADV How)))		← not like this
(Q much))
(QR more)))
(C that / 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
(VP (VBP know)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))
(NP-2 (QP (QP (NP-MSR-RSP (D that))
(Q much))
(QR less)))
(NP-SBJ (PRO you))
(VP (VBP need)
(NP-OB1 *T*-2))
(PUNC .)))

```

However, the above annotation does not extend to ordinary correlative comparatives in English, in which the HOW MUCH and THAT MUCH phrases are expressed by THE, which cannot function as a phrase in the modern language. As a result, clause-initial noun phrases in correlative constructions are simply annotated as NP-ADT. The relation between the NP-ADT and its clause-internal counterpart is left implicit. The semantically required NP-MSR around THE is also omitted.

```( (IP-MAT (NP-ADT (QP (D the)				← like this
(QR more))
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
(C that / 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
(VP (VBP know)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1)))))
(NP-2 (D the)
(QP (QR less)))
(NP-SBJ (PRO you))
(VP (VBP need)
(NP-OB1 *T*-2))
(PUNC .)))
```

When the first part of the correlative is not a noun phrase, it is given a category-appropriate dash tag if necessary.

```( (IP-MAT-INV (ADJP-SPR (D the)
(C that / 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP ends)
(RP up)

(BEP are)
(NP-SBJ (NP-POS (PRO\$ his))
(NS chances)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D a)
(PUNC .)))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (QP (D the)
(QR more))
(C that / 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(VBP leave)))))
(QR more))
(NP-SBJ (PRO we@)
(VP (MD @'ll)
(VB arrive)
(PUNC .)))
```

#### Elided correlative comparatives

Elided correlative comparatives are treated as FRAG.
```  ( (FRAG (ADVP (D the)
PUNC .)))

( (FRAG (NP (QP (D the)
(QR more))