|apostrophe (')||precedes syllables with primary stress|
|equals sign (=)||indicates morpheme boundary|
|exclamation point (!)||indicates negation|
|italic font||indicates silent grapheme|
|macron (̄)||indicates vowel length|
|period (.)||indicates syllable boundary|
|(1)||Germanic stress rule: |
Germanic words consist of a stem, preceded and followed by optional unstressable affixes. Word stress falls on the stem-initial syllable.
Stem-initial = word-initial (no prefixes) 'hea.ven
Stem-initial != word-initial
(stem preceded by prefixes)
Exceptions (very rare) e.'le.ven
|(2)||French stress rule: |
In French, word stress falls on the final stressable syllable of the word. (Syllables containing schwa - enclosed in parentheses in the examples below - are unstressable.)
|(3)||a.||Closed vs. open syllable: |
If a syllable ends in at least one consonant, it counts as closed.
Otherwise, a syllable counts as open. There are some complications to this straightforward system: First, in words with s + stop, the syllable boundary was between the s and the stop (for instance, au.gus.tus rather than au.gu.stus). Second, syllable boundaries involving stops and liquids were ambiguous (at least in Latin verse) and could count as open or closed.
|b.||Heavy vs. light syllable: |
A closed syllable or one containing a long vowel or diphthong counts as heavy.
Otherwise, a syllable counts as light.
Another way of making this distinction is in terms of moras (one mora = light; more than one = heavy).
|c.||Latin stress rule: |
Word stress falls on the penultimate syllable if it is heavy; otherwise, on the antepenultimate syllable.
Heavy penultimate (long vowel or diphthong) di.'vī.nus 'divine'
li.ber.'tā.tis 'liberty, gen. sg.'
Heavy penultimate (short vowel with following consonant(s)) au.'gus.tus 'august'
li.'ber.tas 'liberty, nom. sg.'
Light penultimate 'ca.pi.tis 'head, gen. sg.'
|(4)||Romance stress rule: |
Word stress falls on the ultimate syllable if it is heavy; otherwise, on the penultimate syllable.
Noun Verb 'ad.mit ad-'mit 'con.voy con-'vey (near-minimal) 'in.cense in.'cense 'per.mit per-'mit