Linguistics 300, F08, Assignment 10

In this assignment, you will add further historical data to the spreadsheets that you handed in for Assignment 9. If I've already sent you back the reviewed version of your Assignment 9, please use that as the basis for Assignment 10. If not, you can start by using your raw assignment, but please replace the raw spreadsheet by the reviewed version as soon as you can.

Copy Assignment 9 to a new spreadsheet called ling300-a10-YOURNAME.xls. Select the entire spreadsheet, and sort by loanword, yielding a list in alphabetical order. Now add a second worksheet. For the first three columns of Worksheet 2, copy the following columns from Worksheet 1:

Then add four further columns to the second worksheet, as follows:

Author This will be either "Chaucer" or "Shakespeare".
Citation This column will contain lines from the concordances containing the loanwords. If possible, cut and paste from the concordance and include a source for the citation. If there is more than one citation per loanword, make a separate row for each citation. The first two columns (your name and author) will be identical for each citation. The number of syllables will usually be identical, but might not be, as mentioned above.

For Chaucer, the concordance to use is http://www.umm.maine.edu/faculty/necastro/chaucer/concordance/. For simplicity, use only the Canterbury Tales (it is probably easiest to download the entire Canterbury Tales, large though it may be). Please note that the Parson's Tale and the Tale of Melibee are prose.

For Shakespeare, the concordance to use is http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/. We are interested only in citations in iambic pentameter. If in doubt as to whether a citation is verse or prose, include the citation and add a comment.

Please include all words, even ones with "n/a" in the stress column. Since the OED isn't infallible, it may be possible for to glean a stress pattern from the concordances if the word is attested in them. We've already had one case.

It is fine to use spelling variants of the loanwords (but it's not a high priority to find them).

Stress Scan each citation and record the stress on the loanword that is consistent with your scanning of the verse. As in Assignment 9, count from right to left. The position of the stress may be different from the Modern British English stress (indeed, if that weren't possible, this assignment would be a waste of time). It is possible for different citations to exhibit different stress and even to have a different nunber of syllables. For example, a disyllabic word like "gavel" might appear in 8 citations, and might be stressed on the ultimate syllable (1) 3 times and on the penultimate syllable (2) the remaining 5 times.

Record the stress as "?" if you can't tell whether the citation is verse or prose. This is possible for either Chaucer or Shakespeare. Please also add a comment "verse?" in this case.

Include the citation, but record the stress as "n/a" if any of the following apply:

  • the word scans as a monosyllable (this could conceivably happens if an ordinarily disyllabic word contains an elided schwa)
  • the word occurs in the first foot of a verse in Shakespeare (Shakespeare allowed either iambic or trochaic feet in first position, making it impossible for us to glean stress information from such examples).

Sometimes, it is clear that stress can't fall on a particular syllable, but it isn't clear which syllable the word is stressed on. For instance, in iambic pentameter, it might be clear that a trisyllabic word can't be stressed on the penultimate syllable (2) because that syllable scans weak. But both adjacent syllables scan strong, so it isn't clear whether the stress falls on the ultimate syllable (1) or the antepenultimate (3). In such cases, it is important to record only the information that you have evidence for, and no more. In a case like this, record "1 or 3".

It is sometimes possible to tell that a "1 or 3" word is accented on 1 by noting that it rhymes a word in an adjacent line. You can split the concordance to let you see the words in context. If you have this sort of information, then by all means note the stress as an unambiguous 1 (or possibly as an unambiguous 3). Please add the comment "rhyme" in the "Comments" column.

Comments This column is for comments associated with questions concerning this assignment; it's distinct from the Comments column from Assignment 9.

Please add the comment "rhyme" if the loanword is in rhyme position.