Types of subordinate clauses

All subordinate clauses that are headed by a complementizer are labelled CP. In addition, there are four types of subordinate clauses whose primary label is IP (infinitives, small clauses, adjunct participials, and absolutes). All subordinate clauses, both CP and IP, have a dash tag indicating their type. Finally, there are reduced relative clauses, which are labelled RRC.

Adverbial clauses (CP-ADV)

Adverbial clauses are either introduced by a subordinating conjunction or not. In the first case, the subordinating conjunction is tagged as P and the remainder of the subordinate clause is treated as the CP-ADV complement of P. Such clauses are illustrated under CP complements of P. Adverbial AS clauses belong to this type, but are discussed here in order to facilitate the comparison between them and other types of AS clauses. Adverbial AS clauses aside, we focus here on instances of bare CP-ADV (that is, adverbial clauses that are not complements of P).

Whether the subordinate clause contains a subordinating conjunction or not, it is the CP that is labelled ADV, even though in subordinate clauses that are introduced by a subordinating conjunction, it is the PP as a whole, rather than the CP-ADV on its own, that functions adverbially.

Adverbial AS clauses

Correlatives of the type AS ... , SO ... are treated as comparatives (see AS ... SO CLAUSES). See also AS free relatives.

Adverbial AS clauses fall into two main types: ones that contain a gap, and ones that do not.

Adverbial AS clauses with a gap

Adverbial AS clauses with a gap in turn fall into two types, depending on whether AS can be paraphrased (roughly) as IN THE SAME WAY THAT or as WHICH. In the first type, which often contains a specifier (JUST, LIKE, RIGHT, SO, etc.), the CP-ADV complement of AS contains an adverbial empty operator.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP wylle)
              (ADVP (ADV wel))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (PP (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO thow))
                                  (MD wilt)
                                  (HV have)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,4.76))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Soo))
          (NP-SBJ (D this))
          (BED was)
          (DAN done)
          (PP (P as)
              (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                              (VBD devysed))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,4.87))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P whan)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR syre) (NPR Ector))
                              (BED was)
                              (VBN come))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD made)
          (NP-OB1 (N fyaunce))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (D the) (N kyng)))
          (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
                  (VB nourisshe)
                  (NP-OB1 (D the) (N child))
                  (PP (ADV lyke)
                      (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
                                      (VBD desyred)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,6.147))

In the second type of adverbial AS clause with a gap, the PP dominates a CP-ADV with a nominal gap. This type includes AS continuative clauses, which might be treated as clause-adjoined relatives (CP-CAR), but are not so treated in our system.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (VBP serveth)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (Q many) (D a) (ADJ necessarie) (N conclusioun)
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (NS equacions)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (NS thinges)))))))
          (PP (P as)
              (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                              (MD shal)
                              (BE be)
                              (VAN shewid))))
          (. .))
(ID CMASTRO,669.C2.176))

( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q ani) (ADJ vnweote))
          (VBP aski+d)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO ou))
          (CP-QUE (WPP-1 (P of)
                         (WNP (WD wat) (N ordre)))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
                          (BEP beo+d)))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P ase)
              (CP-ADV (WNP-2 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                              (NP-SBJ (Q summe)
                                      (CP-REL *ICH*-3))
                              (DOP do+d)
                              (, ,)
                              (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
                                          (VBP telle+d)
                                          (NP-OB1 (PRO me)))
                              (, ,)
                              (CP-REL-3 (WNP-4 0)
                                        (C +te)
                                        (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-4)
                                                        (VBP si+ge+d)
                                                        (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N gnete)))
                                                (CONJP (CONJ ant)
                                                       (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-4)
                                                               (VBP swole+ge+d)
                                                               (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N fle+ge))))))))))
  (ID CMANCRIW,I.46.67))

In clauses of the type AS X SAID, AS X WROTE, AS YOU KNOW (WELL), etc., the PP is labelled as parenthetical (PP-PRN). If the clause after AS is a quote, then the entire CP-ADV is also labelled as direct speech (-SPE).

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N feblenesse)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (N age))))
              (VBP denye)
              (NP-OB1 (N power)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (N dede))))
              (, ,)
              (PP-PRN (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO +tey))
                                      (VBP seyn)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,30.121))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (EX ther))
              (BEP is)
              (NP-1 (Q no) (N wight)
                    (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                            (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                                    (HVP hath)
                                    (NP-OB1 (ADJ sovereyn) (N bountee))))
                    (PP (P save)
                        (NP (NPR God) (FP allone))))
              (, ,)
              (PP-PRN (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (WNP-3 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-3)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO he)
                                              (NP-PRN (PRO+N hymself)))
                                      (VBP recordeth)
                                      (PP (P in)
                                          (NP (PRO$ hys) (N Evaungelie)))))))
      (ID CMCTMELI,220.C2.139))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
              (NP-SBJ (D thes) (NUM eleven) (NS kyngis))
              (MD shall)
              (VB dye)
              (PP (Q all)
                  (P in)
                  (NP (ONE one) (N day)))
              (PP (P by)
                  (NP (D the) (ADJ grete) (N myght)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NX (N prouesse)))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NS armys)))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NUM two) (ADJ valyaunte) (NS knyghtes)))))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (, DASH)
              (PP-PRN (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                      (VBP tellith)
                                      (ADVP-TMP (ADV aftir)))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,31.996))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-TMP (D the) (ADJ same) (N nyght))
              (, ,)
              (PP-PRN (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                      (MD shal)
                                      (VB ansuer)
                                      (PP (P unto)
                                          (NP (NPR God))))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-SBJ (D this) (N child))
              (BED was)
              (VAN begoten)
              (PP (P upon)
                  (NP (PRO me)))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,5.129))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D An) (N hemme))
          (, ,)
          (PP-PRN (P as)
                  (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                  (VBP wost)
                                  (ADVP (ADV wel)))))
          (, ,)
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (ADJ laste) (N ende)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D a) (N clo+t))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMAELR3,34.225))

Adverbial AS clauses without a gap

In this type of AS clause, AS can be paraphrased as WHEN, WHILE, SINCE, AS IF, etc., and is treated as a subordinating conjunction (that is, as P in our system).
( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV So))
          (PP (P as)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                              (VBD rode)
                              (PP (P to)
                                  (NP (D the) (NS justes) (WARD ward))))))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay))
          (HVD had)
          (VBN lost)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N suerd))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,8.214))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P as)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
                              (VBD loked)
                              (PP (P besyde)
                                  (NP (PRO hym))))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD sawe)
          (NP-OB1 (D a) (N knyght)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C that)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BED was)
                                  (ADVP (ADV passyngely) (ADV well))
                                  (VAN horsed))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,26.818))

Bare CP-ADV clauses

Bare CP-ADV clauses headed by THAT

Bare CP-ADV clauses headed by THAT usually express purpose or result (often with the verbs SEND and WARN).
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot))
          (VBD smote)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
          (RP downe)
          (, ,)
          (CP-ADV (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (VBD lay)
                          (PP (P in)
                              (NP (D a) (N sowghe)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,199.3125))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ and)
              (VBI hange)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N swerde))
              (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
              (PP (P uppon)
                  (NP (D a) (N bowghe)))
              (CP-ADV (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                              (MD may)
                              (VB gete)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,206.3377))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV So))
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N Archebisshop))
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (D the) (N advys)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Merlyn)))))
          (VBD send)
          (PP (P for)
              (NP (Q alle) (D the) (NS lordes)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NX (NS gentilmen)
                             (PP (P of)
                                 (NP (NS armes)))))))
          (CP-ADV (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                          (MD shold)
                          (VB come)
                          (PP (P by)
                              (NP (NPR Crystmasse)))
                          (PP (FP even)
                              (P unto)
                              (NP (NPR London)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,7.188))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
              (VB sende)
              (NP-OB1 (NS messangeris))
              (PP (P into)
                  (NP (Q al) (NPR Israel)
                      (, ,)
                      (PP (P fro)
                          (NP (NPR Bersabee)))
                      (PP (P (P21 til) (P22 to))
                          (NP (NPR Dan)))))
              (, ,)
              (CP-ADV (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO thei))
                                        (MD schulden)
                                        (VB come))
                              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                     (IP-SUB=1 (VB make)
                                               (NP-OB1 (N pask))
                                               (PP (P to)
                                                   (NP (D the) (NPR Lord) (NPR God)
                                                       (PP (P of)
                                                           (NP (NPR Israel)))))
                                               (PP (P in)
                                                   (NP (NPR Jerusalem))))))))
      (ID CMPURVEY,I,26.1315))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
              (BEP bie)
              (VAN +gewarned)
              (, ,)
              (CP-ADV (C +dat)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
                              (NEG ne)
                              (VBP fol+ghi)
                              (NP-OB1 (Q none) (N+NS dwelmenn)
                                      (, ,)
                                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                              (C +de)
                                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                                      (NP-MSR (Q muchel))
                                                      (VBP misleue+d)))))))
      (ID CMVICES1,27.306))

V1 conditionals

See
Verb fronting to C for the representation of subject-verb inversion in our annotation scheme.

V1 conditionals include V1 counterparts of adverbial WHETHER questions.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
              (MD mi+gtest)
              (HV haue)
              (VBN falle)
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (D +te) (ADJ same)))
              (, ,)
              (CP-ADV (IP-SUB (NEG+HVD nadde)
                              (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N mercy)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (NPR Crist))))
                              (VBN ikepte))))
      (ID CMAELR3,53.858))

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ and)
                    (NP-SBJ *con*)
                    (HVD had)
                    (VBN slayne)
                    (NP-OB1 (PRO hym)))
          (CONJP (CONJ or)
                 (IP-MAT=1 (VBN takyn)
                           (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))))
          (, ,)
          (CP-ADV (IP-SUB (HVD had)
                          (NEG nat)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ good) (N knyght)
                                  (NP-PRN (NPR $sir) (NPR Galahad))
                                  (PP (P with)
                                      (NP (D the) (ADJ rede) (NS armys))))
                          (VBN com)
                          (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
                          (PP (P by)
                              (NP (N adventure)))
                          (PP (P into)
                              (NP (D tho) (NS partys)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,661.4665))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NEG Ne)
              (MD mai)
              (NP-SBJ (Q nan) (ADJ muche) (N $speche)
                      (CODE {TEXT:spelche}))
              (BE beon)
              (PP (P (P21 wi+d) (P22 uten))
                  (NP (N sunne)))
              (CP-ADV (IP-SUB (NEG ne)
                              (VBP ginne)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                              (ADVP (ADV neauer) (ADVR swa) (ADV wel))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.61.626))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CP-ADV (IP-SUB (VBP wite)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
                              (ADVP (ADV wel))
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO$ mi) (N tunge))))
              (, .)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
              (MD mai)
              (ADVP (ADV wel))
              (VB halden)
              (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N wei)
                      (PP (P toward)
                          (NP (NPR heouene))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.63.661))

THAT clauses (CP-THT)

THAT clause complements

THAT clause complements of verbs

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP suppose)
              (CP-THT (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                              (BEP ar)
                              (VAN displesyd)
                              (CP-THT (C that)
                                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                              (HVP have)
                                              (VBN shewed)
                                              (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
                                              (NP-OB1 (N unkyndnesse))))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,48.1574))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ But)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP pray)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
              (, ,)
              (NP-VOC (ADJ fayre) (N knyght))
              (, ,)
              (CP-THT (C that)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                              (VBP tarry)
                              (NEG nat)
                              (NP-MSR (ADJ longe))
                              (PP (P frome)
                                  (NP (PRO me)))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,48.1583))

THAT clause complements of adjectives

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D a) (N man))
              (MD mot)
              (BE be)
              (ADJP (ADJ war)
                    (CP-THT (C +tat)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                    (VBP take)
                                    (NEG not)
                                    (NP-OB1 (QP (ADVR to) (Q litel))
                                            (N hede))
                                    (PP (P of)
                                        (NP (PRO$ his) (N body)))))))
      (ID CMAELR3,31.148))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (ADVP (ADV Truly))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Balyne)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (BEP am)
              (ADJP (ADV ryght) (ADJ hevy)
                    (CP-THT (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (N lorde)
                                            (NP-PRN (NPR Arthure)))
                                    (BEP ys)
                                    (VAN displeased)
                                    (PP (P with)
                                        (NP (PRO me))))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,52.1746))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
              (PP (P+N bycause)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (PRO$ his) (N armoure)
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (NX (N shylde))))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (BEP am)
              (ADJP (ADJ sure)
                    (CP-THT (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                    (MD shall)
                                    (VB ryde)
                                    (PP (P in)
                                        (NP (N pease))))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,198.3079))

THAT clause complements of nouns

TO THE END/INTENT THAT clauses are treated as CP-THT rather than CP-ADV.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
              (BED was)
              (NP-OB1 (N causer)
                      (CP-THT (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (N modir))
                                      (BED was)
                                      (VAN brente))))
              (PP (P thorow)
                  (NP (PRO$ hir) (N falsehode)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NX (N trechory)))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
 (ID CMMALORY,49.1625))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (N cause)			← BECAUSE
                  (CP-THT (C that)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
                                  (BED was)
                                  (PP (P beforn)
                                      (NP (ADJ+N mydday)))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBD turned)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N riet)))
  (ID CMASTRO,670.C1.230))

Extraposed THAT clauses

Extraposed THAT clause complements

THAT clauses (and complement clauses more generally) that are extraposed from ADJP or NP are coindexed with an *ICH* trace.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV than))
          (BED was)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (ADJP (ADJ ware)
                (CP-THT *ICH*-1))
          (PP (P by)
              (NP (PRO$ hys) (NS armys)))
          (CP-THT-1 (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (EX there))
                            (VBD com)
                            (IP-PPL (VAG rydyng))
                            (NP-2 (PRO$ hys) (N brothir)
                                  (NP-PRN (NPR Balan)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,52.1732))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (D Thys))
              (BED was)
              (NP-OB1 (D the) (N cause)
                      (CP-THT *ICH*-1))
              (, ,)
              (NP-VOC (N damesell))
              (, ,)
              (CP-THT-1 (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                (VBD com)
                                (PP (P into)
                                    (NP (D thys) (N courte)))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,50.1673))

THAT clauses (and complement clauses more generally) that are associated with an expletive object IT are coindexed with the pronoun, as in the case of extraposed subject THAT clauses. But THAT clauses associated with demonstrative pronouns or other NPs are treated as appositives on the demonstrative phrase.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VBP take)
	  (NP-OB1=1 (PRO it))
	  (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D a) (N man))
			    (BEP is)
			    (IP-INF (TO to)
				    (VB seek)
				    (NP-OB1 (N remedy)
					    (PP (P against)
						(NP (NS euils)))))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID GIFFORD,E3V.437))

( (IP-MAT (META (NP (CODE <font>) (NPR Phil.) (CODE <$$font>)))
	  (PP (P By)
	      (NP (D that)
		  (Q little)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
				  (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
				  (HVP have)
				  (VBN mentioned)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VBP take)
	  (NP-OB1=2 (PRO it))
	  (CP-THT-2 (C that)
		    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
			    (HVP have)
			    (VBN seene)
			    (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADV very) (ADJ same))))
	  (. :))
  (ID BRINSLEY,6.67))

( (IP-IMP (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ *pro*)
		      (VBP Pray))
	  (VBI send)
	  (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (ADJ bay) (N gelding))
	  (PP (RP downe)
	      (P into)
	      (NP (D the) (N Marsh)))
	  (PP (P to)
	      (NP (ADJ+N goodman)
		  (NPR Collier)
		  (, ,)
		  (PP (P as)
		      (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
			      (C 0)
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
				      (VBP take)
				      (NP-OB1=3 (PRO it))
				      (CP-THT-3 (C 0)
						(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
							(NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N name))
							(BEP is))))))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-2 (WPRO who))
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
				  (VBP uses)
				  (IP-INF (TO to)
					  (VB keepe)
					  (NP-OB1 (NS horses))
					  (PP (P for)
					      (NP (PRO mee))))))))
	  (. ;))
  (ID HOXINDEN-1640,138.149))

Extraposed subject THAT clauses

THAT clauses "extraposed" from subject position are coindexed with the
expletive subject, whether overt or empty. Clauses of the type IT SEEMS THAT (where "extraposition" is obligatory) are treated the same way.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
              (BEP ys)
              (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N pite`))
              (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                (MD shall)
                                (NEG nat)
                                (VB endure)
                                (NP-MSR (FP but) (D a) (N whyle))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1680))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (PP (P as)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (VBD paste)
                              (PP (P beyonde)
                                  (NP (D the) (N castell))))))
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (VBD thought)
          (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                            (VBD herde)
                            (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (NS bellys))
                                    (VB rynge))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,205.3340))

Appositive THAT clauses

THAT clauses are often in apposition to a demonstrative or other NP. In this case, the NP is labelled as the argument of the verb and the THAT clause is labelled as an
appositive/parenthetical.
( (IP-IMP (VBI Take)
          (NP-OB1 (N heed))
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (ONE oo) (N thynge)
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-THT-PRN (C that)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                                      (VBP slepe)
                                      (NEG not)
                                      (PP (P whan)
                                          (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                                                          (MD shuldest)
                                                          (VB wake))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR4,6.167))

If the THAT clause is extraposed, as is often the case, a coindexed *ICH* trace indicates the relationship between the clause and the position where it is interpreted.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (D that)
                      (CP-THT-PRN *ICH*-1))
              (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
              (VBP forthynkith)
              (CP-THT-PRN-1 (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                    (HVP have)
                                    (VBN greved)
                                    (NP-OB1 (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
                                            (CONJP (CONJ or)
                                                   (NP (Q ony)
                                                       (PP (P of)
                                                           (NP (PRO$ hys) (N courte))))))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1698))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR Crist))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hit)
                  (CP-THT-PRN *ICH*-1))
          (VBP wat)
          (CP-THT-PRN-1 (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO $ha)
                                        (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
                                (BEP $beo+d)
                                (CODE {TEXT:hebeo+d})
                                (ADJP (ADJP (ADVR to) (ADJ woake))
                                      (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                             (ADJP (ADVR to) (ADJ (ADJ21 unwreste) (ADJ22 iheorted)))))
                                (CP-REL-2 (WNP-3 0)
                                          (C +te)
                                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                                  (PP (P wi+d)
                                                      (NP (ADJ +tullich) (N gest)))
                                                  (ADVP (ADV hardeliche))
                                                  (NEG ne)
                                                  (VBP fechte+d)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.196.2809))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (D This)
                      (CP-THT-PRN *ICH*-1))
              (BEP is)
              (NP-OB1 (D an) (ADJ harde) (N ease))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (CP-THT-PRN-1 (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (CONJ other)
                                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                            (MD muste)
                                            (VB dye))
                                    (CONJP (CONJ other)
                                           (IP-INF (TO to)
                                                   (VB chose)
                                                   (NP-OB1 (ONE one)
                                                           (PP (P of)
                                                               (NP (PRO you))))))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,184.2552))

Degree complements (CP-DEG)

The treatment of the obligatorily extraposed degree complements of SUCH, which do not contain a gap, differs from that of SUCH comparative clauses, which do.

Degree complement clauses differ from comparatives in not containing a gap. They are treated as sisters of the head that licenses them (SO, see below for SUCH).

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD smote)
          (NP-OB1 (NPR sir) (NPR Sagramoure))
          (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV sore)
                (CP-DEG (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N horse) (CONJ and) (N man))
                                (VBD wente)
                                (Q bothe)
                                (PP (P to)
                                    (NP (D the) (N erthe))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,200.3170))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
              (PP (P yf)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (N lorde)
                                          (NP-PRN (PRO$ my) (N husbande)))
                                  (VBP wete)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hit)))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (BEP is)
              (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ hasty)
                    (CP-DEG (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                    (MD wyll)
                                    (VB sle)
                                    (NP-OB1 (PRO me)))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,205.3353))

Degree clauses are generally introduced by overt THAT but occasionally by AS or a silent complementizer.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
              (PP (P if)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                  (MD woll)
                                  (VB abyde)
                                  (PP (P in)
                                      (NP (D thys) (N courte)))
                                  (PP (P amonge)
                                      (NP (PRO$ my) (N felyship))))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD shall)
              (ADVP (ADVR so)
                    (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
              (VB avaunce)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO $you))
              (CP-DEG-1 (C as)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                (MD shall)
                                (BE be)
                                (VAN pleased)))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,48.1578))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (VBD helde)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
          (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV faste)
                (CP-DEG (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                (MD myght)
                                (NEG nat)
                                (VB take)
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
                                (PP (RP oute) (P of)
                                    (NP (PRO$ hir) (N honde)))
                                (PP (P but)
                                    (PP (P yf)
                                        (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                                        (MD sholde)
                                                        (HV have)
                                                        (VBN hurte)
                                                        (NP-OB1 (PRO hir)))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,52.1723))

Extraposed degree complements

Separated SO ... THAT clauses are always treated as extraposed degree complements (rather than as adverbial result or purpose clauses).

The traces of extraposed degree complements are treated in the same way as the degree complements themselves---namely, as sisters of the head they are associated with. In connection with SUCH, a phrasal constituent (ADJP) is added around SUCH and the trace of its obligatorily extraposed degree complement (unlike in the case of SUCH comparative clauses).

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD gaff)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (NP-OB1 (ADJP (SUCH suche)		← note ADJP
                        (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
                  (D a) (N falle)
                  (CP-DEG-1 (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N horse))
                                    (VBD felle)
                                    (PP (RP downe)
                                        (P to)
                                        (NP (D the) (N erthe))))))
          (. .))
          (ID CMMALORY,23.719))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot))
          (VBD charged)
          (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV sore)
                (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
          (PP (P uppon)
              (NP (PRO hym)))
          (CP-DEG-1 (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N horse))
                            (VBD reversed)
                            (ADVP (ADV up-so-downe))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,201.3194))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
          (DOD dud)
          (ADVP (ADVR so) (ADV mervaylesly)
                (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (NS armys)))
          (CP-DEG-1 (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q all) (NS men))
                            (HVD had)
                            (NP-OB1 (N wondir))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,22.691))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO$ oure) (NS synnes))
              (BED were)
              (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ grete)
                    (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
              (PP (P at)
                  (NP (D that) (N tyme)))
              (CP-DEG-1 (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (QP (ADV+ADV well-nyghe) (Q all)))
                                (BED was)
                                (NP-OB1 (N wyckednesse))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,643.4044))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N Wra+d+de))
          (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                      (VBP sei+d))
          (PP (P hwil)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                              (VBP lest))))
          (VBP Ablinde+d)
          (ADVP (ADVR swa)
                (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N heorte))
          (, .)
          (CP-DEG-1 (C +tt)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
                            (NEG ne)
                            (MD mei)
                            (NP-OB1 (N so+d))
                            (VB icnawen)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.96.1152))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP (ADVR so)
                (CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD drove)
          (PP (P over)
              (NP (NP-POS (D the) (N$ horse))
                  (N tayle)))
          (, ,)
          (CP-DEG-1 (C that)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N helme))
                            (VBD smote)
                            (PP (P into)
                                (NP (D the) (N erthe)))
                            (NP-MSR (NP (D a) (N foote))
                                    (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                           (NP (QR more))))
                            (, ,)
                            (CP-ADV (C that)
                                    (IP-SUB (ADVP (ADV nyghe))
                                            (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N nek))
                                            (BED was)
                                            (VAN broke)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,188.2720))

ALL THAT degree clauses

ALL THAT degree clauses (with the meaning AS MUCH AS) are treated as measure NPs with a Q head that takes a degree complement.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD (VBD robbit) (CONJ and) (VBD quellede))
          (NP-OB1 (N folc))
          (, ,)
          (NP-MSR (Q al)
                  (CP-DEG (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tat)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (MD might)
                                  (VB *))))
          (. .))(ID CMBRUT3,226.4097))

(NODE (IP-INF-2 (VB g+atenn)
                (NP-OB1 (PRO +te))
                (LB |)
                (LB |)
                (NP-MSR (Q All)
                        (CP-DEG (WNP-3 0)
                                (C +tatt)
                                (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-3)
                                        (NP-SBJ (PRO +gho))
                                        (MD ma+g+g)
                                        (VB *))))
                (PP (P fra)
                    (NP (N sinne))))
      (ID CMORM,I,214.1767))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (BED w+as)
          (PP (ADV+P +t+artogeanes))
          (NP-MSR (Q eall)
                  (CP-DEG (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tet)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (MD (MD mihte) (CONJ &) (MD cu+de))
                                  (VB *))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMPETERB,43.54))

Comparative clauses (CP-CMP)

The treatment of SUCH comparative clauses, which contain a gap, differs from that of the obligatorily extraposed degree complements of SUCH, which do not.

The treatment of full correlative comparative clauses (THE MORE YOU SPEND, THE MORE YOU SAVE) differs from that of their counterparts with elision (THE MORE YOU SAVE, THE BETTER; THE MORE, THE MERRIER; EVER LONGER, THE WORSE).

The external structure of comparatives is as follows. The whole comparison is treated as single constituent, which is labelled according to the category of its head. For example, AS TALL AS... is labelled as an ADJP, MORE CAKE THAN... is labelled as an NP, etc. The AS or THAN that introduces the comparative clause is labelled P, which takes a CP-CMP complement. The PP consisting of AS/THAN and its clausal complement is treated as a daughter of the entire comparison structure (not necessarily as a sister of the licensing comparative head). This leads to differences in annotation between comparatives and degree complements. Internally, all instances of CP-CMP have an empty operator coindexed with a trace indicating the elided target of the comparison.

(NODE (ADJP (Q muche) (ADJR bygger)
            (PP (P than)
                (CP-CMP (WADJP-2 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-2)
                                (ADVP-TMP (ADV ever))
                                (BED was)
                                (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,200.3172))

(NODE (ADVP (ADVR as) (ADV faste)
            (PP (P as)
                (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO$ hys) (N horse))
                                (MD myght)
                                (VB renne)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,639.3917))

(NODE (NP (QR more) (N worshyp)
          (PP (P than)
              (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                              (VBP wotist)
                              (PP (P off)
                                  (NP *T*-1))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,40.1325))

SUCH comparatives

SUCH comparatives differ from
SUCH degree complements in containing a gap. SUCH comparatives are treated in the same way as other comparatives; that is, the PP dominating the CP-CMP is a daughter of the entire comparison structure (but not necessarily a sister of the licensing head). Therefore, no ADJP is added around SUCH, in contrast to extraposed degree complements of SUCH.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (MD shulde)
          (HV have)
          (NP-OB1 (SUCH such) (N chere)
                  (PP (P as)
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (MD myght)
                                      (BE be)
                                      (VAN made)
                                      (PP (P for)
                                          (NP (PRO them)))
                                      (PP (P in)
                                          (NP (D thys) (NS marchis)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,16.493))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (HVD had)
              (NEG nat)
              (BEN bene)
              (NP-OB1 (SUCH such) (D a) (N knyght)
                      (PP (P as)
                          (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                          (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                          (BEP ar))))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (N worship) (CONJ and) (N prouesse)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,48.1577))

Postposed SUCH and other quantifiers

When SUCH or other quantifiers are postposed (A KNIGHT SUCH AS HE IS), they are enclosed in phrase brackets, following
general principles. SUCH is labelled ADJP, and other quantifiers QP. The comparative clause continues to be treated as a daughter of the whole comparison structure, not of the licensing head.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
              (MD schalt)
              (HV haue)
              (NP-OB1 (D a) (N chyld)
                      (ADJP (SUCH suche))
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +tat)
                              (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP (ADV neuer))
                                              (NP-SBJ (Q noon))
                                              (HVD had)
                                              (ADJP (NP *T*-1)
                                                    (ADJ lyke)))
                                      (, ,)
                                      (CONJP (CONJ ny)
                                             (IP-SUB (ADJP (NP *T*-1)
                                                           (ADJ (CODE {like})))
                                                     (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                                     (ADVP-TMP (ADV neuer))
                                                     (MD schall)
                                                     (BE be)
                                                     (ADVP-TMP (ADV byfore) (CONJ nor) (ADV aftyr)))))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMIRK,16.448))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD rode)
          (ADVP (ADV aftir))
          (NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ grete) (N pace)
                  (QP (ADVR as) (Q muche))
                  (PP (P as)
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO$ hys) (N horse))
                                      (MD myght)
                                      (VB dryve)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1686))

Comparatives with empty expletive subjects

When the comparison is on a predicate, the subject is sometimes empty and must therefore be filled by an empty expletive. Note that the indices indicating movement are distinct from those indicating the relationship between the empty expletive and any associate (= logical subject).
(ADJP (ADVR as) (ADJ easy)
      (PP (P as)
          (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ *exp*)	← empty expletive corresponds to IT
			  (MD may)
		          (BE be)))))

(NP (QP (ADVR as) (Q few))
    (PP (P as)
        (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                (C 0)
                (IP-SUB (NP=2 *T*-1)
                        (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)	← empty expletive corresponds to THERE
	    	        (MD may)
		        (BE be)))))

(PP (P with)
    (NP (QP (ADVR as) (Q little))
        (N noise)
        (PP (P as)
            (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                    (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (NP=2 *T*-1)
                            (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)	← empty expletive corresponds to THERE
		  	    (MD may)
		            (BE be)))))

Correlative comparatives

Full correlative comparatives (THE MORE YOU SPEND, THE MORE YOU SAVE)

Full correlative comparatives are treated differently than their
counterparts with elision. Schematically:
( (IP-MAT (NP-ADT the more
                  (CP-CMP you spend))
          the more you save))

( (IP-MAT (ADJP-SPR the bigger
                    (CP-CMP they get))
          the more they eat))

( (NP-ADV (NP-MSR the more			← entire construction = NP-ADV
                  (CP-CMP you spend))
          (ADJP the better)))

( (NP-ADV (NP-MSR the more)
          (ADJP the merrier)))

( (NP-ADV (NP-MSR ever longer)
          (ADJP the worse)))

The two comparative constituents in a correlative comparative construction do not receive dash tags; in particular, they are not treated as a pair of left-dislocated (-LFD) and resumptive (-RSP) elements.

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (D +te) (ADVR better)
                (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
                                (VBP prayes))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (D +te) (ADVR wyseleere))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
          (VBP thynkis)
          (. .))
  (ID CMROLLTR,33.704))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADVR as) (ADV ofte)
                    (PP (P as)
                        (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
                                        (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                        (VBD wyped)
                                        (RP of)
                                        (NP-OB1 (D a) (N drope)
                                                (PP (P of)
                                                    (NP (N corrupcioun))))
                                        (PP (P of)
                                            (NP (PRO$ his) (N nose)
                                                (, ,)
                                                (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                                                        (C +tat)
                                                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                                                                (BED was)
                                                                (NP-TMP (Q+N somtyme))
                                                                (VAN i-kutte)))))))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADVR so) (ADV ofte))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD made)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (VB slee)
                  (NP-OB1 (Q som)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (PRO$ his) (NS enemyes)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,171.1215))

An initial ADJP in a full correlative comparative is labelled ADJP-SPR.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV ay))
          (ADJP-SPR (D the) (QR moore) (ADJ strong)
                    (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                            (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                                    (NP-SBJ (D the) (N flessh))
                                    (BEP is))))
          (, ,)
          (ADJP (D the) (ADJR sorier))
          (MD may)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N soule))
          (BE be)
          (. .))
          (ID CMCTPARS,302.C1.556))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (ADJP-SPR (D +Te) (ADJR grettyr)
                        (CP-CMP (WADJP-2 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-2)
                                        (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
                                        (BEP be))))
              (, ,)
              (ADJP-3 (D +te) (ADJR meker))
              (VBI make)
              (IP-SMC (ADJP *ICH*-3)
                      (NP-SBJ (PRO +te)))
              (PP (P yn)
                  (NP (Q all) (N +tyng))))
              (ID CMMIRK,58.1600))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
              (, ,)
              (PP-PRN (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ same) (NPR Senec))
                                      (VBP seith))))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (ADJP-SPR (ADJP (D The) (QR moore) (ADJ cleer))
                        (CONJP (CONJ and)
                               (ADJP (D the) (QR moore) (VAG shynyng)))
                        (CP-CMP (WADJP-2 0)
                                (C that)
                                (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-2)
                                        (NP-SBJ (N Fortune))
                                        (BEP is))))
              (, ,)
              (ADJP (ADJP (D the) (QR moore) (ADJ brotil))
                    (CONJP (CONJ and)
                           (ADJP (D the) (ADVR sonner) (VAN broken))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
              (BEP is)
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMCTMELI,230.C1.510))

An initial NP in a full correlative comparative is labelled NP-ADT.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ For)
          (PP (P when)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NS men))
                              (HVP hase)
                              (VBN feled)
                              (NP-OB1 (Q oght)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (D +tat) (N savoure)))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-ADT (D +te) (QR mare)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO +tai))
                                  (HVP have))))
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (QR mare))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tai))
          (VBP covayte)
          (. ;))
  (ID CMROLLEP,114.899))

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADT (D +Te) (QR mare)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (HVP hauis)
                                  (PP (P in)
                                      (NP (N pouste))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (QR mare)
                  (CP-EOP *ICH*-2))
          (HVP hauis)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (CP-EOP-2 (WNP-3 0)
                    (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-3)
                            (TO at)
                            (VB yelde)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBENRUL,6.192))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-ADT (QP (ADVR zuo) (Q moche))
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (BEP is)
                                      (ADJP (NP *T*-1)
                                            (ADJ wor+t))
                                      (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N man)))))
              (, /)
              (NP-2 (QP (ADVR zuo) (Q moche)))
              (BEP bye+t)
              (ADJP (NP *ICH*-2)
                    (ADJ wor+t))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (NS workes)))
      (ID CMAYENBI,91.1772))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-ADT (NP (D the) (ADJR more) (N peyne))
                      (CONJP (CONJ &)
                             (NP (D the) (QR more) (N tribulacioun)))
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-2 0)
                              (C +tat)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
                                      (VBP suffren)
                                      (PP (P for)
                                          (NP (N loue)
                                              (PP (P of)
                                                  (NP (PRO$ here) (N god))))))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-OB1 (D the) (CODE <P_117>) (QR more) (N ioye))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
              (MD schull)
              (HV haue)
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (D+OTHER another) (N world))))
      (ID CMMANDEV,117.2854))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-ADT (D +te) (QR mor) (N schame)
                      (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                      (VBP suffyr)))
                      (CONJP (CONJ &)
                             (NX (N despite))))
              (, ,)
              (ADJP (D +te) (ADJR meryar))
              (MD may)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (BE ben)
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (PRO$ owr) (NPR Lord)
                      (NP-PRN (NPR Ihesu) (NPR Crist))))
              (. .)
              (" "))
  (ID CMKEMPE,135.3157))

AS ... SO clauses

(RIGHT/SO/LIKE/EVER) AS ... SO clauses are treated like
full correlative comparatives. The two correlative constituents do not receive dash tags; in particular, they are not treated as a pair of left-dislocated (-LFD) and resumptive (-RSP) elements. SO is tagged ADV (not ADVR) in this construction.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P as)
              (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (NPR Arthur))
                              (VBD sped)
                              (ADVP-TMP (ADV afore)))))
          (ADVP (ADV so))
          (DOD dyd)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (NPR Eester)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,10.294))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (PP (ADV alswa)
              (P as)
              (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (Q euch) (N +ting))
                              (HVD hefde)
                              (NP-OB1 (N biginnunge))
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (PRO$ his) (N godlec)))))))
          (, ;)
          (ADVP (ADV alswa))
          (MD schulden)
          (NP-SBJ (Q alle))
          (HV habben)
          (NP-OB1 (N endunge))
          (, .)
          (PP (P +gef)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (NP-OB1 (D +tt))
                              (VBD walde))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMKATHE,22.57))

( (IP-MAT (PP (ADV Riht)
              (P alswo)
              (CP-CMP (WADVP-1 0)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (D +de) (N lichame))
                              (NP-OB1 (Q none) (N strenc+te))
                              (NEG ne)
                              (MD mai)
                              (HV habben)
                              (PP (P wi+d-uten)
                                  (NP (NS bonen))))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (Q al) (ADV swo))
          (NEG ne)
          (MD mai)
          (NP-SBJ (NP (PRO ic))
                  (CONJP (CONJ ne)
                         (NP (Q non) (N saule))))
          (NP-OB1 (N $streng+te) (CONJ ne) (N mihte))
          (HV habben)
          (PP (P wi+d-uten)
              (NP (D +dese) (ADJ hali) (NS mihten)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,93.1099))

Elision in comparative clauses

Often, parts of the comparative clause are elided. If only one element is missing, it is usually indicated by the generic empty category (X *). If more material is missing, appropriate material is sometimes added in (CODE {...}) in order to make the structure clearer. Elision contexts license clausal complements of P other than CP-ADV and CP-CMP.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (QP (ADVR as) (Q many))
                      (PP *ICH*-2))
              (MD mict)
              (BE be)
              (VAN turnyd)
              (PP (P be)
                  (NP (PRO$ hys) (N voys)))
              (PP-2 (P as)
                    (CP-CMP (WNP-3 0)
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                    (MD xulde)
                                    (BE ben)
                                    (VAN *)		← verb elided
                                    (PP (P be)
                                        (NP (PRO$ thy) (N voys)))
                                    (PP (P +gyf)
                                        (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu)
								(NP-PRN *ICH*-4))
                                                        (VBD prechedist)
                                                        (NP-PRN-4 (PRO$+N thy-selfe)))))))))
      (ID CMKEMPE,149.3461))

(NODE (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (NP (NPR sir) (NPR Ulphuns))
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (NP (NPR sir) (NPR Brastias))))
              (VB tarry)
              (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
              (NP-MSR (ADJP (ADVR as) (ADJ longe))
                      (PP (P as)
                          (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                          (MD wolde)
                                          (VB *))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,16.492))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
          (MD cou+te)
          (ADVP (ADVR bettre)
                (PP *ICH*-1))
          (VB understonde)
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N longage)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Grew))))
          (PP-1 (P +tan)
                (CP-CMP (WADVP-2 0)
                        (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-2)
                                (CODE {he_could})
                                (VB speke)
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,255.1858))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
              (BEP ys)
              (ADJP (ADJR bettir)
                    (PP *ICH*-2))
              (CP-THT-1 (C 0)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                (VBP sle)
                                (NP-OB1 (D a) (N cowarde))))
              (PP-2 (P than)
                    (CP-CMP (WADJP-3 0)
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-3)
                                    (CODE {it_is})
                                    (CP-THT (C 0)
                                            (IP-SUB (PP (P thorow)
                                                        (NP (D a) (N coward)))
                                                    (NP-SBJ (Q all) (PRO we))
                                                    (BEP be)
                                                    (VAN slayne))))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,27.865))

(NODE (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO+N hemselff))
              (ADJP (ADJP (QR more) (VAN blessed))
                    (CONJP (CONJ and)
                           (ADJP (ADJR more)
                                 (PP (P in)
                                     (NP (N worship)))))
                    (PP (P than)
                        (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (ADJP *T*-1)
                                        (CODE {they_think_themself_blessed_if})
                                        (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                                        (HVD had)
                                                        (VBN gotyn)
                                                        (NP-OB1 (Q halff) (D the) (N worlde)))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,659.4580))

If an entire clause containing a trace is elided, the clause brackets are included but no internal structure is given except the trace. The content of the elided clause is added (using Modern English) within (CODE {...}) to make the structure clearer. See also Deletion ("chopping") of stranded prepositions.

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD wol)
              (VB venge)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO yow))
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (D the) (N outrage)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO$ youre) (NS adversaries)))))
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (OTHER oother) (N manere)
                      (PP (P than)
                          (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N right))
                                          (VBP comandeth))))))))
					  (CP-THT (PP (P (CODE {in}))
                                                      (NP *T*-1))
                                                  (CODE {that_you_venge_yourself})
      (ID CMCTMELI,232.C1.582))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
              (BED weren)
              (ADJP (ADJP (ADVR se) (ADJ wise))
                    (CONJP (CONJ ant)
                           (ADJP (ADVR se) (ADJ witi)))
                    (PP (P as)
                        (CP-CMP (WADJP-1 0)
                                (C 0)
                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN me))
                                        (VBD fore-seide)
					(CP-THT (ADJP *T*-1)
                                                (CODE {that_they_were})))))))
      (ID CMKATHE,27.132))

Comparative subdeletion

Sometimes the target of the comparison in a comparative clause is not entirely elided. The implicit measure or degree phrase is missing, but the head (noun, adjective, or other) is present. This normally occurs when the head differs from the head of the containing comparison structure. In these cases, the missing measure or degree phrase is indicated by a NP-MSR trace in the constituent containing the lower head.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV +te+d+dan))
          (BED weren)
          (NP-1 (QP (ADVR swa) (Q felen))
                (NS spechen)
                (PP (P swa)
                    (CP-CMP (WNP-3 0)
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (EX +tere))
                                    (NP-2 (NP-MSR *T*-3)
                                          (NS wurhten))
                                    (BED weren)))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMLAMBX1,93.822))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N body))
              (VBD stickede)
              (ADJP-SPR (ADVR alse) (ADJ ful)
                        (PP (P of)
                            (NP (NS Arwes)))
                        (PP (P as)
                            (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                                    (C 0)
                                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D an) (N hirchone))
                                            (BEP is)
                                            (ADJP (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                                  (ADJ ful)
                                                  (PP (P of)
                                                      (NP (NS prickes)))))))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,107.3234))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (HVP ha+t)
              (NP-OB1 (QR more) (N ioie)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (D +te) (N fynding)
                              (PP (ADV+P +ter-of))))
                      (, ,)
                      (PP (P +ten)
                          (CP-CMP (WNP-3 0)
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP (ADV euer))
                                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                          (HVD had)
                                          (NP-OB1 (NP-MSR *T*-3)
                                                  (N sorow)
                                                  (PP (P of)
                                                      (NP (D +te) (N lesing)))))))))

      (ID CMCLOUD,132.820))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Certes))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P agayns)
              (NP (D that) (VAN cursed) (N wanhope)))
          (MD sholde)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VB thynke)
          (CP-THT (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (NPR passion)
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP (NPR Jhesu) (NPR Crist))))
                          (BEP is)
                          (ADJP (QR moore) (ADJ strong)
                                (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
                                        (VB bynde))
                                (PP (P than)
                                    (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                                            (C 0)
                                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N synne))
                                                    (BEP is)
                                                    (ADJP (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                                          (ADJ strong)
                                                          (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
                                                                  (VB bynde))))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,327.C2.1673))

THE ... MORE comparatives

Vices and Virtues still exhibits a few correlative comparatives where THE still retains its original meaning (roughly, TO THAT DEGREE) and is separated from the quantifier. Exceptionally, in such cases, when THE is not separated from the rest of the constituent, it is labelled NP-MSR.
( (IP-MAT (NP-MSR (D +de)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (NP-MSR (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                          (QR more))
                                  (BEP is)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ swaint))
                                  (PP (P mid)
                                      (NP (NP (NS deules))
                                          (, ,)
                                          (CONJP (NP (NS fondinges)
                                                     (PP (PP (P of)
                                                             (NP (NPR dieule)))
                                                         (CONJP (CONJ o+der)
                                                                (PP (P of)
                                                                    (NP (N manne))))))))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-MSR-2 (D +de))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (ADJP (NP-MSR *ICH*-2)
                (ADJR strengere)
                (CONJP (CONJ and)
                       (ADJX (ADJR betere))))
          (BEP is)
          (PP (P on)
              (NP (ADJ gode) (NS werkes)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,29.329))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P Gif)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +du))
                              (NP-OB1 (D +dis) (N liht))
                              (MD miht)
                              (VB isien))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (ADV full) (ADV +gewiss))
          (NP-MSR (D +de)
                  (CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +du))
                                  (ADJP (NP-MSR *T*-1)
                                        (ADJR hei+ger))
                                  (BEP art))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (NP-MSR (D +te))        <--- THE labelled NP-MSR
                (ADVR warliker))
          (NP-SBJ *pro*)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO +de) (N seluen))
          (MD wilt)
          (VB ne+derin)
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,49.553))

The Lambeth Homilies have one comparative with THES, a genitive of extent, as the head of the comparison.

(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ ah)
                (NP-MSR (D +tes)
                        (CP-CMP (WNP-2 0)
                                (C +te)
                                (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                        (HVD heoueden)
                                        (NP-OB1 (NP-MSR *T*-2)
                                                (QR mare) (N wele))
                                        (PP (P on)
                                            (NP (D +tisse) (N liue))))))
                (, .)
                (NP-MSR-3 (D +tes))
                (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                (MD ahte)
                (TO to)
                (BE beon)
                (ADJP (ADJP (NP-MSR *ICH*-3)
                            (D +te) (ADJR edmoddre))
                      (, .)
                      (CONJP (CONJ and)
                             (ADJP (NP-MSR *ICH*-3)
                                   (D +ta) (QR mare) (ADJ imete))))
                (PP (Q al)
                    (P swa)
                    (CP-ADV (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                    (NP-OB1 (PRO$ ure) (N wele))
                                    (NEG+BED nere)))))
      (ID CMLAMBX1,5.43))

Implied comparatives

Implied comparatives do not have an overt comparative element modifying the head of the comparison, but have a comparative interpretation, and so we annotate them in the same way. There are two types:

Questions (CP-QUE)

Direct and indirect questions are not differentiated by clause label. Questions contain a C position depending on whether they exhibit subject-verb inversion (see Verb fronting to C). Direct questions generally exhibit inversion, with some exceptions. Conversely, indirect questions generally do not exhibit inversion, again with some exceptions, especially when the verb is main verb BE.

Indirect questions

Ordinary indirect questions

In cases that are ambiguous between an analysis as an indirect question (CP-QUE) or a free relative (CP-FRL), the default is CP-QUE if the licensing head is compatible with a clause introduced by why or whether.

Indirect questions usually occur as complements, but occasionally as complete tokens, usually in the context of headings.

( (IP-IMP-SPE (' ')
              (VBI Aske)
              (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                              (VBP woll))))
  (ID CMMALORY,48.1599))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ and)
              (VBI telle)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO hem))
              (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV how))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                              (HVP have)
                              (VBN spedde)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,49.1638))

(NODE (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
                  (VB bryng)
                  (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N tydyng)
                          (CP-QUE (WADJP-1 (WADV howe) (ADJ ny))
                                  (C that)
                                  (IP-SUB (ADJP-LOC *T*-1)
                                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N Quene))
                                          (BED was)))))
      (ID CMGREGOR,213.1957))

Sluicing

The term "sluicing" refers to the elision of the entire IP-SUB part of an indirect question. Our annotation includes only the the wh- phrase and the CP-QUE immediately dominating it. The elided IP-SUB is completely omitted, as is the silent complementizer.

Sluiced indirect questions occur in various constructions, including

Appositive/parenthetical indirect questions

When indirect questions occur in apposition to a demonstrative or other NP, they carry the extended tag -PRN. If extraposed, they (like extraposed appositive/parenthetical THAT clauses) are coindexed with a trace within the NP in order to distinguish them from verbal complements.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (ADJ laste) (N thyng)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C that)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (NS men))
                                  (MD shal)
                                  (VB understonde)
                                  (PP (P in)
                                      (NP (N contricioun))))))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (D this)
                  (, :)
                  (CP-QUE-PRN (WPP-2 (WADV+P wherof))
                              (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
                                      (VBP avayleth)
                                      (NP-SBJ (N contricioun)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,296.C1a.333))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ but)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
              (VBP knowen)
              (NEG not)
              (NP-OB1 (D this)
                      (, ,)
                      (CP-QUE-PRN (WPP-1 (P of)
                                         (WNP (WPRO whennus)))
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                          (BEP is))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMNTEST,IX,20.924))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Na+telees))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
          (MD maist)
          (PP (P bi)
              (NP (D +tat) (N si+gt)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR$ Cristis) (N liif)))))
          (, ,)
          (VB (VB folowe) (CONJ and) (VB rule))
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ +tin) (ADJ owne) (N conscience))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (D +tis) (N poynt)
                  (, :)
                  (CP-QUE-PRN (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO whom))
                                      (C 0)
                                      (IP-SUB-3 (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
                                                (MD schalt)
                                                (VB folowe)))
                              (, ,)
                              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                     (CP-QUE (WNP-2 (WPRO whom))
                                             (C 0)
                                             (IP-SUB=3 (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                                       (VB reffuse))))
                              (, ,)
                              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                     (CP-QUE (WPP-4 (P wi+t)
                                                    (WNP (WPRO whom)))
                                             (C 0)
                                             (IP-SUB (PP *T*-4)
                                                     (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
                                                     (MD maist)
                                                     (BE ben)
                                                     (ADJP (ADJ hoomly)))))
                              (, ,)
                              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                     (CP-QUE (WPP-5 (P with)
                                                    (WNP (WPRO whom)))
                                             (C 0)
                                             (IP-SUB (PP *T*-5)
                                                     (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
                                                     (MD schalt)
                                                     (BE be)
                                                     (ADJP (ADJ strange))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMHILTON,12.79))

IF questions

When IF heads questions (including direct questions), it is tagged WQ. A complementizer position is always included, as it is sometimes filled (parallel to
WHETHER).
( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV then))
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N prynce))
          (VBD askyd)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (CP-QUE (WQ yf)
                  (C that)
                  (CODE <P_106>)
                  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                    (MD wolde)
                                    (VB for-sake)
                                    (NP-OB1 (PRO$ hys) (N heresy)))
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (IP-SUB=1 (VB be-leve)
                                           (PP (P on)
                                               (NP (D the) (N faythe)
                                                   (PP (P of)
                                                       (NP (Q alle) (ADJ Hooly) (NPR Chyrche)))))))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMGREGOR,106.228))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
          (VBD asked)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
          (CP-QUE (WQ +gif)
                  (C +tat)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (BED were)
                          (NP-OB1 (D a) (N knyght)))))
  (ID CMMANDEV,15.331))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te+g+gm))
              (VBD +g+afe)
              (NP-OB1 (N ra+t)
                      (CP-QUE *ICH*-1))
              (NP-TMP (D +tatt) (N nahht))
              (LB |)
              (LB |)
              (PP (P +Turrh)
                  (NP (NP-POS (NPR Hali+g) (NPR$ Gastess))
                      (N rune)))
              (, ,)
              (LB |)
              (LB |)
              (CP-QUE-1 (WQ +Giff)
                        (C +tatt)
                        (IP-SUB-2 (NP-SBJ (PRO te+g+g))
                                  (MD sholldenn)
                                  (IP-SUB-PRN=2 (CONJ o+terr)
                                                (NEG nohht))
                                  (LB |)
                                  (LB |)
                                  (ADVP (ADV Efft))
                                  (VB wendenn)
                                  (PP (P till)
                                      (NP (NPR Herode))))))
      (ID CMORM,I,258.2093))

Indirect WHETHER questions

See also
Adverbial WHETHER questions, Direct WHETHER questions, and WHETHER free relatives. Originally, WHETHER meant WHICH OF TWO, and it still occasionally occurs with that meaning in early texts. In that case, it is tagged WPRO and contained in a WNP.

( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Thus))
          (MD maist)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
          (VB rekne)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (Q bothe) (NS arches))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ or)
                         (NP (Q every) (N porcioun)
                             (, ,)
                             (CP-REL (WPP-1 (P of)
                                            (WNP (WPRO whether))) ← = WHICH OF TWO
                                     (C that)
                                     (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                                             (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                                             (NP-OB2 (PRO the))
                                             (VBP liketh))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMASTRO,672.C1.320))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ Ne)
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV neauer))
              (NEG+VBP nuten)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (D +teos) (NUM twa)))
              (, ;)
              (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO hwe+der))		← = WHICH OF TWO
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                              (NP-OB2 (PRO ham))
                              (VBP +tunche+d)
                              (ADJP (ADJR wurse))
                              (, .)
                              (PP (P for)
                                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q ei+der))
                                                  (BEP is)
                                                  (ADJP (ADJ un+tolelich)))))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMSAWLES,172.82))

Ordinary WHETHER is labelled WQ with no containing phrasal tag and no associated trace. A complementizer position is always included in the annotation, as it is sometimes filled.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD asked)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (CP-QUE (WQ whethir)
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                    (BEP were)
                                    (ADVP (ADV sore))
                                    (VAN wounded))
                          (CONJP (CONJ or)
                                 (IP-SUB=1 (NEG none)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,639.3936))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ but)
              (PP (P and)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                  (MD myght)
                                  (VB preve)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hit)))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD wolde)
              (VB weete)
              (CP-QUE (WQ whether)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
                                        (BED were)
                                        (ADJP (ADVR bettir) (ADJ worthy)
                                              (IP-INF (TO to)
                                                      (HV have)
                                                      (NP-OB1 (PRO hym)))))
                              (CONJP (CONJ or)
                                     (IP-SUB=1 (NP-SBJ (PRO I))))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,34.1075))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD may)
              (VB chose)
              (CP-QUE (WQ whether)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                              (MD woll)
                              (VB (VB dye) (CONJ other) (VB lyve))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,197.3040))

Finally, WHETHER occurs as a spelling variant of WHITHER, in which case it is tagged WADV and contained in a WADVP that is coindexed with an ADVP-DIR.

Adverbial WHETHER questions (CP-QUE-ADV)

WHETHER questions that are not direct questions or the complement of a verb, but fill an adverbial function, are labelled CP-QUE-ADV.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD shal)
              (VB overcome)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO hem)
                      (QP (Q all)))
              (, ,)
              (CP-QUE-ADV (WQ whether)
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                                            (VBP wille))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ or)
                                         (IP-SUB=1 (NEG+VBP nylle)))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,13.372))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO Thou))
                  (BEP arte)
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (PRO$ my) (N daungere)))
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-QUE-ADV (WQ whethir)
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
                                      (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
                                      (VBP lyste)
                                      (IP-INF-1 (IP-INF (TO to)
                                                        (VB save)
                                                        (NP-OB1 (PRO the)))
                                                (CONJP (CONJ or)
                                                       (IP-INF (TO *)
                                                               (VB sle)
                                                               (NP-OB1 (PRO the))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,40.1309))

Direct questions

Direct questions (both wh- and YES/NO questions) are usually matrix clauses, but can appear
in direct speech contexts as the complement of verbs, in which case the dash tag -SPE is added.

Direct wh- questions

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
              (WADVP-1 (WADV Where))
              (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                          (BEP is)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he)))
              (, ?)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N kyng)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,3.65))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
              (WADVP-1 (WADV How))
              (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP *T*-1)
                          (VBD gate)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                          (NP-OB1 (D this) (N swerd)))
              (, ?)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Ector))
                          (PP (P to)
                              (NP (NPR Arthur))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.242))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
              (WNP-1 (WPRO What))
              (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                          (MD will)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                          (DO do))
              (, ?)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Merlyn))
                          (PP (P to)
                              (NP (D the) (NS kynges))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,13.384))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
          (VBD seyde)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ olde) (N man))
          (, ,)
          (' ')
          (CP-QUE-SPE (WADVP-1 (WADV Why))
                      (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP *T*-1)
                                  (BEP ar)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                  (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ sad))))
          (. ?)
          (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,34.1100))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
          (VBP praye)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO the))
          (, ,)
          (CP-QUE-SPE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                      (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (VBP hatte)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))))
          (. ?))
  (ID CMAELR4,20.582))

YES/NO questions

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
              (IP-SUB-SPE (VBD Found)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                          (NP-OB1 (Q ony) (NS knyghtes))
                          (PP (P about)
                              (NP (D this) (N swerd))))
              (, ?)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seid)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Ector)))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.248))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
              (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-VOC (N Sir))
                          (, ,)
                          (' ')
                          (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
                                      (NP-SBJ (NPR Ector))
                                      (PP (P unto)
                                          (NP (NPR Arthur))))
                          (, ,)
                          (' ')
                          (MD woll)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                          (BE be)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ good) (CONJ and) (ADJ gracious))
                                  (N lord))
                          (PP (P when)
                              (CP-ADV-SPE (C 0)
                                      (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                                  (BEP are)
                                                  (NP-OB1 (N kyng))))))
          (. ?)
          (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.272))

Direct questions without inversion

Certain direct questions do not exhibit inversion:
echo questions and second conjuncts of questions. Direct WHETHER questions, which exhibit variable inversion, are treated separately.

Echo questions

( (CP-QUE-SPE (" ")
              (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (N Suffisaunce) (CONJ and) (N power))
                          (BEP ben)
                          (ADVP-TMP (ADV thanne))
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (ONE o) (N kynde))))
              (. ?)
              (" ")) (ID CMBOETH,429.C1.22))

(NODE (CP-QUE-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (D This) (N thing))
                              (VBP sclaundrith)
                              (NP-OB1 (PRO +gou))))
      (. ?)) (ID CMNTEST,VI,60.558))

Second conjunct of questions

Although syntactically integrated by conjunction, second conjuncts of questions often do not form part of what is asked and do not exhibit inversion.
( (CP-QUE-SPE (WADVP-1 (WADV Hou))
              (IP-SUB-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP *T*-1)
                                      (MD moun)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge)
                                      (CP-REL-SPE *ICH*-2))
                                      (VB bileue)
                                      (, ,)
                                      (CP-REL-SPE-2 (WNP-3 0)
                                                    (C that)
                                                    (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                                                (VBP resseyuen)
                                                                (NP-OB1 (N glorie))
                                                                (NP-ADV (NP (Q ech))
                                                                        (PP (P of)
                                                                            (NP (OTHER othere))))))
                          (, ,)
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
                                             (VBP seken)
                                             (NEG not)
                                             (NP-OB1 (D the) (N glorie)
                                                     (CP-REL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
                                                                 (C that)
                                                                 (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                                                             (BEP is)
                                                                             (PP (P of)
                                                                                 (NP (NPR God)
                                                                                     (ADJP (ADJ aloone))))))))))
              (. ?))
  (ID CMNTEST,V,40.445))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (WQ Whether)
              (C 0)
              (IP-SUB-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (NPR Moises))
                                      (VBD +gaf)
                                      (NEG not)
                                      (PP (P to)
                                          (NP (PRO +gou)))
                                      (NP-OB1 (D a) (N lawe)))
                          (, ,)
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (Q noon)
                                                     (PP (P of)
                                                         (NP (PRO +gou))))
                                             (DOP doith)
                                             (NP-OB1 (D the) (N lawe)))))
              (. ?))
  (ID CMNTEST,VII,1.617))

Direct WHETHER questions

In some texts, WHETHER introduces direct questions, which exhibit optional inversion. Clauses without inversion contain a C position, and conversely, ones with inversion do not.

( (IP-MAT (PP (ADV+P Therfor))
          (NP-SBJ (NS disciplis))
          (VBD seiden)
          (ADVP (ADV togidir))
          (, ,)
          (CP-QUE-SPE (WQ Whether)
                      (C 0)				← no inversion, with C
                      (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (Q ony) (N man))
                                  (HVP hath)
                                  (VBN brou+gt)
                                  (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
                                  (NP-OB1 (N mete)
                                          (CP-EOP-SPE (WNP-1 0)
                                                      (IP-INF-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                                  (TO to)
                                                                  (VB ete))))))
          (. ?))
  (ID CMNTEST,IV,20.309))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV sythen))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD seyd)
          (, ,)
          (" ")
          (CP-QUE-SPE (WQ Whe+tyr)
                      (IP-SUB-SPE (HVP haue)		← with inversion, no C
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                  (VBN synned)
                                  (PP (PP (P wyth)
                                          (NP (NS wyfes)))
                                      (CONJP (CONJ er)
                                             (PP (P wyth)
                                                 (NP (ADJ sengyl) (NS women)))))))
          (. ?)
          (" "))
  (ID CMKEMPE,27.579))

Exclamatives (CP-EXL)

Exclamations are tagged CP-EXL. Their internal syntax is that of
questions.
( (CP-EXL (WNP-1 (WD what)
		 (NS Pains)
		 (IP-INF *ICH*-3))
	  (IP-SUB (BEP is)
		  (NP-SBJ (D a) (N Man))
		  (PP (P at)
		      (NP *T*-1))
		  (IP-INF-3 (TO to)
			    (VB get)
			    (NP-OB1 (D the) (N Truth))
			    (PP (RP out)
				(P of)
				(NP (D these) (NS Fellows)))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID LISLE,IV,114C2.114))

( (CP-EXL (META (CODE <font>) (NPR Jo.) (CODE <$$font>))
	  (INTJ O)
	  (WNP-1 (WD what) (D a) (ADJ happy) (N man))
	  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
		  (MD shall)
		  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
		  (BE be))
	  (. ,))
  (ID PENNY,116.18))

( (CP-EXL (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
	  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
		  (MD should)
		  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
		  (DO do)
		  (PP (P with)
		      (NP (SUCH such) (D a) (N house))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID PENNY,116.36))

( (CP-EXL (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *pro*)
		  (VBD Woulde)
		  (CP-THT (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
				  (MD might)
				  (PP (P for)
				      (NP (PRO$ your) (N sake)))
				  (, ,)
				  (VB spende)
				  (NP-OB1 (NP-MSR (NUMP (D a) (NUM thousande))
						  (N pound))
					  (N land)))))
	  (. .))
  (ID UDALL,L.1145.479))

Relative clauses (CP-REL)

This section focuses on finite relative clauses. Infinitival relatives are discussed elsewhere.

Our annotation system does not distinguish restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses. Both types are contained within the brackets of their antecedent. Relative clauses that are not contained in (or do not leave a trace of extraposition in) the brackets of their antecedents are given a separate label: CP-CAR (CAR = clause-adjoined relative).

(NODE (NP (D the) (ADJS byggest) (N castell)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)				← restrictive
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (HVP hath))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.32))


(NODE (NP (D a) (N knyghte)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (VBP hyghte)
                          (NP-OB1 (NPR syr) (NPR Jordanus)
                                  (, ,)
                                  (NP-PRN (D a) (N knyghte)
                                          (PP (P of)
                                              (NP (NP-POS (D the) (N$ dukes)))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.81))

(NODE (NP (D the) (N castel)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (NPR Terrabyl)))
          (, ,)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 (D the) (WPRO whiche))		← non-restrictive
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                          (HVD had)
                          (NP-OB1 (Q many) (NS yssues)
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (NX (NS posternes)))
                                  (RP oute)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,3.36))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D the) (N mayster) (N fyende)
              (PP (P of)
                  (NP (NPR helle)))
              (, ,)
              (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                              (HVP hath)
                              (NP-OB1 (N pouste`))
                              (PP (P over)
                                  (NP (Q all) (OTHER other) (NS devyllis))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,670.4984))

As usual, both the wh- constituent and the trace indicate the category of the gap, with additional functional information appearing on the trace only.

In contrast to the modern standard language, earlier stages of the language allow relative clauses on subject position with both the relative pronoun and the complementizer position empty.

(NODE (NP (Q ony) (N man)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)		← NP gap; function: subject
                          (MD woll)
                          (VB sey)
                          (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJ contrary)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,35.1136))

(NODE (NP (D the) (ADJS byggest) (N castell)
          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                  (C that)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)		← NP gap; function: object
                          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (HVP hath))))
      (ID CMMALORY,2.32))

(NODE (NP (D a) (N tyme)
          (CP-REL (WADVP-1 (WADV whan))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)		← ADVP gap; function: temporal
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
                          (BED was)
                          (PP (P at)
                              (NP (NPR London))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,45.1483))

(NODE (NP (D the) (N castell)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (NPR Carbonek)))
          (CP-REL (WADVP-1 (WADV where))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)		← ADVP gap; function: locative
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (VAN Maymed) (N Kyng))
                          (BEP ys)
                          (VAG lyyng))))
      (ID CMMALORY,659.4600))

AS relatives

AS relatives have the same structure as other relative clauses. They always contain an empty operator rather than an overt wh- word, and the complementizer is AS rather than THAT.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ ne)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD cowde)
          (NP-PB1 (Q no) (N thing)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C as)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (N knyghthood))
                                  (VBD axed))))
           (. ,))
  (ID CMBRUT3,48.1438))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Outher)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (D+N th'estaat)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (N innocence)))
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C as)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BED was)
                                  (NP-OB1 (D+N th'estaat)
                                          (PP (P of)
                                              (NP (NPR adam))))
                                  (PP (P biforn)
                                      (CP-ADV (C that)
                                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                                      (VBD fil)
                                                      (PP (P into)
                                                          (NP (N synne)))))))))
  (ID CMCTPARS,311.C1.981))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P yf)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                      (VBD dyfferre))
                              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                     (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                             (MD wyll)
                                             (NEG not)
                                             (VB correcte)
                                             (NP-OB1 (PRO$ our) (N selfe))
                                             (ADVP-LOC (ADV here))
                                             (PP (P in)
                                                 (NP (D the) (N scole)
                                                     (PP (P of)
                                                         (NP (N mercy))))))))))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP (ADVP (ADV full) (ADV grevously))
                (CONJP (CONJ and)
                       (ADVP (QS moost) (ADV sharply))))
          (MD shall)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
          (VB abyde)
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (N correccyon)))
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (PRO$ his) (N ryghtwysnesse)))
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C as)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (ADVP (ADV dayly))
                                  (PP (P by)
                                      (NP (N experyence)))
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                  (MD maye)
                                  (VB fele))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMINNOCE,9.138))

Extraposed relative clauses

As usual, extraposed relative clauses are coindexed to an *ICH* trace within the brackets of their antecedent.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q every) (N man)
                      (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
              (MD shold)
              (VB assay)
              (CP-REL-2 (WNP-3 0)
                        (C that)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                (VBD wold)))
              (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
                      (VB wynne)
                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd))))
      (ID CMMALORY,8.206))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (NPR God))
                  (VBP gyff)
                  (NP-OB2 (PRO hym)
                          (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
                  (NP-OB1 (N joy))
                  (CP-REL-2 (WNP-1 0)
                            (C that)
                            (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                    (NP-OB1 (D this) (N spere))
                                    (VBD made))))
      (ID CMMALORY,201.3198))

SE +TE relatives

+TE/THAT relatives (without SE) are treated as free relatives.
(NP (CP-FRL (WNP 0)
            (C +te/that)
            (IP-SUB ...)))

SE is often replaced by +TE in Middle English texts, yielding +TE +TE relatives.

SE +TE relatives are difficult to categorize unambiguously. In Old English, demonstrative pronouns (instead of wh- words) were used as relative pronouns, so that relative clauses introduced by demonstratives are at least potentially ambiguous between a reading in which the demonstrative is the antecedent of an ordinary relative clause containing an empty operator, and a free relative reading in which the demonstrative is the relative pronoun.

(NP (D se)			← ordinary relative analysis - type 1
    (CP-REL (WNP 0)
            (C +te)
            (IP-SUB ...)))

(NP (CP-FRL (WNP (D se))	← free relative analysis - type 2
            (C +te)
            (IP-SUB ...)))

In Old English, it is possible in most cases to deduce from the inflection on the demonstrative which of these two possibilities is instantiated (Cynthia Allen, 1980, Topics in diachronic English syntax, Garland Press). In type (1), the demonstrative reflects its role in the matrix clause, while in type (2), it reflects its role in the subordinate clause. But this criterion would be exceptionally difficult and time-consuming to apply in Middle English, and so we uniformly treat SE +TE relatives as ordinary relatives, even though this is (or may be) the wrong analysis in some cases.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-LFD (D se)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +de)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (NP-OB1 (NP (PRO +gew))
                                              (CONJP *ICH*-2))
                                      (VBP forsak+t)
                                      (CONJP-2 (CONJ and)
                                               (NP (PRO$ +gewere) (N lare))))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO he))
              (VBP forsak+t)
              (ADVP (ADV+ADV full+gewiss))
              (NP-OB1 (PRO me) (N seluen))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMVICES1,45.496))

(NODE (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D se)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +de)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
                                      (VB wissin)
                                      (MD scolde))))
              (, ,)
              (DOP de+d)
              (NP-OB1 (D +do) (ADJ ilke) (NS sennes)))
      (ID CMVICES1,127.1568))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-LFD (D +te)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +te)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BEP bi+d)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ $wis)))))
          (NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO he))
          (NEG $ne)
          (VBP $wur+d)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV $neure))
          (CODE {TEXT:neme})
          (ADJP (ADJ modi))
          (. .))
  (ID CMLAMBX1,107.991))

(NODE (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-2)
              (NP-SBJ (D +te)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +te)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (VBP nicke+d)
                                      (ADVP (ADV wel)))))
              (, .)
              (MD Mei)
              (BE beon)
              (VAN ibore+gen))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.228.3299))

There are a few cases in the early texts with an NP antecedent and a SE +TE relative. Since the demonstrative cannot itself be treated as an antecedent in these cases, it is treated as a relative pronoun instead.

(NP (D the) (N man)
    (CP-REL (WNP (D se))
            (C +te/0)
            (IP-SUB ...)))

The two elements in SE +TE relatives are not always both overt, and when only one element intervenes between the antecedent and the IP, it is not always possible to tell whether it occupies the wh- position or C. Our rule in these cases is that a single +TE or THAT occupies C, and that other demonstratives (SE, +TA, +TO, etc.) occupy the wh- position. As mentioned above, cases with +TE or THAT alone but without an antecedent are treated as free relatives.

(NP (D the) (N man)
    (CP-REL (WNP 0)
            (C +te)
            (IP-SUB ...)))

(NP (D the) (N man)
    (CP-REL (WNP (D se))
            (C 0)
            (IP-SUB ...)))
( (IP-MAT (PP (P Of)
              (NP (D +tan)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO heo))
          (HVD h+afde)
          (NP-OB1 (D an) (OTHER o+dre) (N dohter)
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (D seo))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (BED w+as)
                                  (ALSO eac)
                                  (VAN gen+amd)
                                  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-2)
                                          (NP-OB1 (NPR maria)))
                                  (PP (P +after)
                                      (NP (D +t+are) (ADJR +arre) (N dohter)))))
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-3 (D +tas))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN man))
                                  (VBP cleope+d)
                                  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                          (NP-OB1 (NPR Maria) (NPR Cleophe))))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMKENTHO,139.145))

( (IP-IMP (VBI Harke)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV nu))
          (NP-OB1 (D +de) (ADJ formeste) (N forbysne)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +de)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (NP-OB2 (N+N mankenn))
                                  (VBD sceawede)))
                  (CP-REL (WNP-2 (D +das))
                          (C +te)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
                                  (MD cunnen)
                                  (VB understonden))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,49.549))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (D An) (ADJ lytel) (N synne)
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (D +tone))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (MAN man))
                                  (NP-OB2 (PRO heo))
                                  (HVP h+af+d)
                                  (DON gedon)
                                  (, ,)
                                  (PP (P beo)
                                      (NP (PRO$ his) (N gewittscipe))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO heo))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (QR mare)
                  (PP (P +tone)
                      (NP (Q eall) (NPR middeneard))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMKENTHO,140.170))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ (D se)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (D +te))
                          (C +tet)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (NEG ne)
                                  (MD wolden)
                                  (DO done))))
          (VBD forgede)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (PRO$ his) (N circe))
                  (CONJP (CONJ &)
                         (NP (PRO$ his) (N hus)))
                  (CONJP (CONJ &)
                         (NP (PRO$ his) (N ham)))))
  (ID CMPETERB,51.292))

THERE relatives

In the absence of both an antecedent and a complementizer, THERE relatives are treated as free relatives.
(ADVP-LOC (CP-FRL (WADVP (ADV there))
                  (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB ...))

Relatives introduced by THERE and containing a complementizer (AS, THAT) are treated analogously to SE +TE relatives. THERE is treated as the antecedent unless another antecedent is present, in which case THERE occupies the wh- position and is labelled WADVP.

(ADVP-LOC (ADV there)
          (CP-REL (WADVP 0)
                  (C as/that)
                  (IP-SUB ...)))

(ADVP-LOC (ADV there)
          (CP-REL (WADVP there)
                  (C as/that/0)
                  (IP-SUB ...)))

(NP (D the) (N place)
    (CP-REL (WADVP (ADV there))
            (C as/that/0)
            (IP-SUB ...)))
( (IP-IMP (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV +tanne))
          (PP (P wit)
              (NP (Q alle) (N reuerence)))
          (VBI beklep)
          (NP-OB1 (Q sum) (N party)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D+ADJ +tilke) (ADJ swete) (N stalle)		← NP THERE
                          (CP-REL (WADVP-1 (ADV +ter))
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ +ty) (ADJ +gunge) (N husbonde))
                                          (VBP ly+t)
                                          (PP (P in)
                                              (ADVP *T*-1)))))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMAELR3,40.420))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N munt)			← NP THERE
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR caluarie)))
                  (CP-REL (WADVP-1 (ADV +ter))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO$ ure) (NPR lauerd))
                                  (VBD hongede))))
          (, .)
          (BED wes)
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (N kwalm) (N stouwe)		← NP THERE
                  (CP-REL (WADVP-2 (ADV +ter))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-2)
                                          (VBD lei+gen)
                                          (ADVP-TMP (ADV ofte))
                                          (NP-SBJ (NS licomes)
                                                  (RRC (VAN iroted)))
                                          (PP (P buuen)
                                              (NP (N eor+de))))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                         (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-2)
                                                 (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                                 (VBD stunke)
                                                 (ADVP (ADV swi+de) (ADV fule)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.84.1018))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO he)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tet)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (HVP haue+d)
                                  (NP-OB1 (D +tet) (N+N hors-hus)
                                          (CP-EOP (WNP-2 0)
                                                  (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                                          (TO te)
                                                          (VB witene)))))))
          (, ;)
          (MD scal)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV +ter)				← THERE THERE
                    (, .)
                    (CP-REL (WADVP-3 (ADV +ter))
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-3)
                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                    (BEP is)
                                    (ADJP (ADJ ful)))))
          (, ;)
          (VB makien)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                  (ADJP (ADJ clene)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMLAMB1,85.212))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD bare)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (NPR Vortiger)))
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV +tere)				← THERE THAT
                    (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                            (C +tat)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                    (VBD duellede))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBRUT3,48.1453))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-LOC (ADV +ter)				← THERE AS
                    (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                            (C as)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                    (NP-SBJ (D +tis) (N water))
                                    (BEP is))))
          (, .)
          (ADVP (ADV sikerliche))
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (NPR feont))
          (VBP fli+d)
          (PP (P leoste)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (BEP beo)
                              (VAN (VAN21 for) (VAN22 schalded)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.180.2535))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
              (BE be)
              (ADVP-LOC (ADV $there)			← THERE AS
                        (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                                (C $as)
                                (CODE {TEXT:thereas})
                                (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                        (NP-SBJ (D the) (NPR Sankgreall))
                                        (BED was)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,660.4639))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N sonne) (N beem))
          (VBD bare)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
          (NP-MSR (ADJ longe) (N tyme))
          (, ,)
          (ADVP-LOC (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (ADV +tere))	← THERE
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                    (NP-SBJ (OTHER o+tere) (NS servauntes))
                                    (VBD faillede))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMPOLYCH,VI,181.1300))

Reduced relative clauses (RRC)

Reduced relatives (RRC) headed by participles are not always easy to distinguish from participial clauses (IP-PPL) (see below for some discussion). In searches for one category, it is wise to include the other.

Reduced relatives ("wh+is" deletion) are labelled RRC (= reduced relative clause). They can be restrictive or non-restrictive, but almost always immediately follow their antecedent. RRCs contain no operator or gap of their own. They may, however, contain a small clause with a subject gap; in this case, a placeholder for the subject (which in a full relative clause would contain the trace of the wh- word) is added in order to make clear the structure. The predicate of a reduced relative is ordinarily a present or past participle, but nonverbal predicates are also possible.

(NODE (NP (D a) (N fygure)
          (RRC (VAG stondynge)
               (PP (P aboven)
                   (NP (PRO them)))
               (PP (P with)
                   (NP (D a) (N swerde)
                       (RRC (VAN drawyn)
                            (PP (P in)
                                (NP (PRO$ hys) (N honde))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,59.1953))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ nethir)
              (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ greet) (N flood)
                      (RRC (VAG distriynge)
                           (NP-OB1 (Q al) (NPR erthe))))
              (MD schal)
              (BE be)
              (ADJP (ADJR more))
              (. .))
  (ID CMOTEST,IX,1G.350))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (PP (ADV+P thereby))
          (PP (P undir)
              (NP (D a) (N cloth)))
          (VBD stood)
          (NP-SBJ (D an)
                  (N horse)
                  (RRC (ADVP (ADV well))
                       (VAN (VAN sadeled) (CONJ and) (VAN brydyled))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,37.1191))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ For)
          (NP-SBJ (D a) (N candyll)
                  (RRC (VAG brennyng)))
          (VBP bytokenyth)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (PRO$ oure) (NPR lady))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (NP (PRO$ hor) (N sonne))
                             (, ,)
                             (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                    (NP (D a) (N man)
                                        (NP-PRN (PRO+N hymselfe)))))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMMIRK,60.1636))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
          (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ good) (N man)
                  (RRC (VAN named)
                       (PP (P of)
                           (NP (PRO$ his) (N body)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,46.1527))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (D this) (ADJ same) (N lady))
              (BED was)
              (NP-OB1 (D the) (ADJS untrwyste) (N lady)
                      (RRC (VAG lyvynge)))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,49.1623))

(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ And)
                (ADVP-TMP (ADV +ter))
                (, ,)
                (NP-VOC (N suster))
                (, ,)
                (PP (P at)
                    (NP (D+ADJ +tylke) (ADJ gostly) (N breedale)))
                (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                (MD mi+gt)
                (VB $vnderfonge)
                (NP-OB1 (PRO$ +tyn) (N husbounde)
                        (RRC (VAN i+gyue)
                             (PP (P of)
                                 (NP (D +te) (NPR Fader))))))
      (ID CMAELR3,42.449))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (BED were)
          (NP-OB1 (NS messyngers)
                  (PP (P unto)
                      (NP (NPR kyng) (NPR Ban)
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (NX (NPR Bors)))))
                  (RRC (VAN isente)
                       (PP (P frome)
                           (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,15.459))

Reduced relative clauses with subject gap

(NODE (NP (D the) (N castell)
          (RRC (VAN called)
               (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)		← small clause with subject placeholder
                       (NP-OB1 (NPR Camelot)))
               (PP (P in)
                   (NP (D tho) (NS dayes)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,45.1488))

Reduced relative clauses with nonverbal predicate

Postnominal ADJP's, parenthetical NP's, and PP's in isolation are not treated as reduced relative clauses. The general idea is that RRC's with nonverbal predicate are a last resort.

(NODE (NP (D +te) (N contre)
          (RRC (RP about)))				← RRC because predicate = RP
      (, ,)
      (ID CMBRUT3,226.4095))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
              (VBP make)
              (NP-OB1 (Q ony) (N gadering))
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (N coumfort)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (NPR Richard)
                              (, ,)
                              (RRC (NP-TMP (Q+N sumtyme))	← RRC because NP-TMP and NP-OB1 need to form a constituent
                                   (NP-OB1 (N kyng))))))))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,215.3858))

(NODE (IP-PPL (VAG sitting)
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (D a) (N tunne)
                      (RRC (ADVP-TMP (ADV euyr))		← RRC because ADVP-TMP and ADJP need to form a constituent
                           (ADJP (ADJ open)	
                                 (PP (P to)
                                     (NP (D +te) (N sunne))))))))
      (ID CMCAPCHR,41.292))

(NODE (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO ou)
                      (NP-PRN (Q alle) (NUM +treo) (NS wimmen))
                      (RRC (NP-OB2 (PRO me))			← RRC because NP-OB2 and ADJP need to form a constituent
                           (ADJP (ADJS leouest))))
              (, .)
              (VB hongen)
              (, .)
              (PP (P on)
                  (NP (D an) (N gibet)))
              (IP-INF-PRP (FOR for)
                          (TO to)
                          (VB (VB21 wi+d) (VB22 buwe))
                          (NP-OB1 (N sunne))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.92.1099))

Reduced relative clauses versus participial clauses

As mentioned earlier, reduced relatives are not always easy to distinguish from participial clauses (IP-PPL). We apply the following rules:

Clause-adjoined relatives (CP-CAR)

The following types of relative clauses are treated as clause-adjoined. With the exception noted below, clause-adjoined relative clauses are daughters of IP.

When the wh- phrase introducing the clause-adjoined relative has no evident relation to the body of the clause, the wh- trace is labelled NP-ADT.

(NODE (CP-CAR (WNP-1 (D the) (WPRO which))
              (C 0)
	      (IP-SUB (NP-ADT *T*-1)
		      (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
		      (VBP marvell)
		      (ADVP (ADV greatly))
		      (CP-THT (C that)
			      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
				      (HVP have)
				      (NP-OB1 (Q no) (N word))
			     	      (PP (P from)
					  (NP (PRO you)))))))
      (ID APLUMPT,186.92))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
	  (VBP judge)
	  (CP-THT (C 0)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ there) (N designe))
			  (BEP is)
			  (IP-INF-ACC (TO to)
				      (VB ingage)
				      (NP-ACC (PRO us))
				      (PP (P amongst)
					  (NP (D the) (NS sands))))))
	  (, ,)
	  (CP-CAR (WNP-1 (WPRO w=ch=))
		  (C 0)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-ADT *T*-1)
			  (ADVP (ADV posibly))
			  (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
			  (MD may)
			  (BE be)
			  (VAN deceaved)
			  (PP (P in)
			      (NP (PRO$ there) (N expectation)))))
	  (. .))
  (ID RHADDSR-1670-E3-P2,11.34))

Free relatives (CP-FRL)

Internally, free relative clauses are treated in the same way as indirect questions or ordinary relative clauses. A wh- position and a complementizer position are included in every case. The wh- position may be filled by a wh- word or a th- word. Externally, free relatives are bracketed by function (as subjects, objects, complements of prepositions, adverb phrases, etc.). The basic category enclosing the free relative is identical with the gap in the free relative, but the dash tags on the two categories may differ. This is particularly common with free relative clauses containing WNP. Internally, the WNP is generally coindexed with an argument trace, but externally, the entire free relative often has a non-argument function (NP-ADT, NP-ADV, NP-LFD).

In certain cases, a free relative is preceded by a preposition that does double duty in the sense that it governs the wh- phrase within the free relative, but is also part of the matrix clause. These cases, which should not be confused with the ordinary case of a free relative functioning as the complement of a preposition, are treated below.

For cases that are ambiguous between an analysis as a free relative or an indirect question, see Indirect questions.

Wh- free relatives

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (PP (P Be)
                  (NP (PRO$ my) (N feyth)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR Arthure)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD woll)
              (VB gyff)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
              (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 (WD what) (N gyffte))
                                  (C that)
                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                              (MD woll)
                                              (VB aske))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,42.1380))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P From)
              (NP (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                          (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
			          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
				  (VBP says)))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (BEP is)
          (DAG doing)
          (ADVP (ADV well))
          (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-ADV (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO+ADV+ADV what-so-euere))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (DOD dide))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
          (VBD thoughte)
          (CP-THT-2 (C 0)
                    (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                    (VBD stood))
                            (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                   (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                           (BED was)
                                           (VAN presented)
                                           (PP (P afore)
                                               (NP (D the) (ADJ dredful) (N doom)))))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMAELR4,13.356))

( (IP-MAT (VAN Iblessyd)
          (BEP is)
          (NP-SBJ (D +tat) (N man))
          (, ,)
          (NP-ADV (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO what) (ADV euere))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (BEP bee))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,45.587))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (PP (P Be)
                  (NP (PRO$ my) (N fayth)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N knyght)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-ADV (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 (WPRO+ADV+ADV whatsomever))
                                  (C 0)
                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                              (BEP be))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (BEP ys)
              (ADJP (ADJ un-happy))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,654.4421))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-LFD (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 (WPRO who))
                                  (C that)
                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                              (VBP holdeth)
                                              (PP (P ageynst)
                                                  (NP (PRO it))))))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
              (MD wille)
              (VB slee)
              (NP-OB1-RSP (PRO hym))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,11.306))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-VOC (ADJ faire) (NS sires))
                  (, ,)
                  (NP-SBJ (PRO y))
                  (MD wil)
                  (VB go)
                  (PP (P wi+t)
                      (NP (PRO +tow)))
                  (ADVP-DIR (CP-FRL-SPE (WADVP-1 (WADV+ADV+ADV whider-so-euer))
                                        (C 0)
                                        (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP-DIR *T*-1)
                                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
                                                    (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
                                                    (VBP lede)))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,217.3893))

(NODE (IP-IMP-SPE (VBI Withdraw)
                  (ADVP-LOC (CP-FRL-SPE (WADVP-1 (WADV where))
                                        (C 0)
                                        (IP-SUB-SPE (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                                                    (VBP lyste)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,29.912))

In certain cases, a free relative is preceded by a preposition that does double duty in the sense that it governs the wh- phrase within the free relative, but is also part of the matrix clause. Prepositions doing such double duty are bracketed within the free relative, as in the following examples.

(NODE (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (N lorde))
              (MD woll)
              (VB sle)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
              (PP (CP-FRL (WPP-2 (P in)
                                 (WNP (WD what) (N place) (ADV+ADV somever)))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (VBP fyndith)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO me))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,662.4701))

( (IP-IMP (PP (CP-FRL (WPP-1 (P In)
                             (WNP (WD what) (N dede) (ADV sam)))
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
                              (BEP be))))
          (, ,)
          (VBI loke)
          (CP-THT (C +tat)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NP (PRO$ yure) (N +toht))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                         (NP (PRO$ +gure) (N herte))))
                          (BEP $be)
                          (PP (P to)
                              (NP (NPR god)
                                  (ADJP (ADJ almihten))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBENRUL,14.486))

(NODE (IP-SUB (VBP cum+t)
              (ADVP (ADV eft))
              (NP-SBJ (NP (Q sum) (N euel))
                      (CONJP (CONJ o+der)
                             (NP (Q sum) (N un+gelimp))))
              (, ,)
              (PP (CP-FRL (WPP-1 (P an)
                                 (WNP (NP-COM (WD hwil-ches) (N$ kennes))
                                      (N wise)))
                          (C +de)
                          (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                  (ADVP-TMP (ADV +aure))
                                  (VBP cum+t)))))
      (ID CMVICES1,29.317))

AS free relatives

AS clauses with a nominal gap that act as arguments of the matrix verb are treated as free relatives with a nominal empty operator and with AS filling the complementizer position.
( (IP-IMP-SPE (FP Only)
              (DOI doo)
              (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C as)
                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                                              (VBP say)
                                              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te)))))
              (. :))
  (ID CMAELR3,50.784))

( (IP-IMP (DOI do)
          (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C as)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (D the) (N prophete))
                                  (VBP saith))))
          (. :))
  (ID CMAELR4,4.87))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
          (DOP do+d)
          (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C as)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (DOD dude)
                                  (IP-PPL (VAG honginde)
                                          (PP (P on)
                                              (NP (NPR rode)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.176.2461))

WHETHER free relatives

In free relatives, WHETHER is often used in its original meaning WHICH OF TWO, in which case it is tagged WPRO and dominated by WNP.
( (IP-IMP (NP-ADV (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO hwe+der) (ADV se))	← WHICH OF TWO
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                  (DOP de+d))))
          (, ;)
          (VBI scarne+d)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.182.2568))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-OB2 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO hwa+der)			← WHICH OF YOU TWO
                                 (NP-COM (PRO$ +gunker)))
                          (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hes))
                                  (VBP tobrec+d))))
          (, :)
          (NP-SBJ (LATIN (FW justicia) (FW dei)))
          (MD scall)
          (PP (ADVP (ADV +dar))
              (P of))
          (DO don)
          (NP-OB1 (N riht))
          (. .))
  (ID CMVICES1,95.1131))

Verb fronting in free relative clauses (COME WHAT MAY)

In adverbial free relatives of the type COME WHAT MAY, the fronted verb precedes the wh- position. Externally, these clauses are labelled as NP-ADV. If the verb is not repeated within the clause, it is coindexed with an *ICH* trace within the clause. If the verb is repeated, it is labelled as a left-dislocated (-LFD) element (even though a word rather than a phrase), and the copy of the verb within the clause is labelled as resumptive (-RSP).
( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-OB1 (D +tis))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
              (VBP schawi+d)
              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV nu))
              (NP-ADV (CP-FRL-SPE (VB-2 sei)
                                  (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C +tt)
                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (VB *ICH*-2)
                                              (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                              (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
                                              (MD wult)
                                              (ADVP-TMP (ADV nu)))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMKATHE,34.237))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (D +tt))
              (VBP stont)
              (ADVP (ADV studeuest))
              (NP-ADV (CP-FRL-SPE (VBP-LFD falle)
                                  (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C +tt)
                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                              (VBP-RSP falle))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMJULIA,124.520))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
              (BEP am)
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV eauer))
              (PP (P wi+d)
                  (NP (PRO +te)))
              (, .)
              (NP-ADV (CP-FRL-SPE (DOP-LFD do)
                                  (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C +tt)
                                  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                              (NP-SBJ (MAN me))
                                              (DOP-RSP do)
                                              (NP-OB2 (PRO +te)))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMKATHE,42.376))

Non-wh free relatives

+TE/THAT free relatives

See also
SE +TE relatives.

In principle, relatives introduced by +TE or THAT alone are amenable to a free relative or an ordinary relative analysis, depending on whether +TE/THAT is taken as a complementizer or as an antecedent:

(NP (CP-FRL (WNP 0))		← free relative analysis
            (C +te)
            (IP-SUB ...)))

(NP (D +te)			← ordinary relative analysis
    (CP-REL (WNP 0)
            (C 0)
            (IP-SUB ...)))

Because it is difficult or impossible to decide for each case which analysis is correct, we uniformly treat all +TE/THAT relatives without an unambiguous antecedent as free relatives, with +TE/THAT as the complementizer, even though this may be the wrong analysis in some cases.

( (IP-IMP (CONJ and)
          (PP (P wit)
              (NP (NP (ADJ depe) (NS si+g+gyngges))
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (NP (ADJ pytous) (N cryingge)))))
          (VBI cacche)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (PRO hym)))
          (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tat)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                  (VBP coueytest))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,43.496))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tt)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N mu+d))
                                  (NEG ne)
                                  (MD mei)
                                  (VB *)
                                  (PP (P for)
                                      (NP (N scheome))))))
          (, .)
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (ADJ licht) (N ech+ge))
          (VBP speke+d)
          (NP-OB1-RSP (PRO hit)))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.49.459))

( (IP-IMP (CONJ &)
          (VBI +tonke)
          (NP-OB2 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +te)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
                                  (VBD sende)
                                  (NP-OB2 (PRO +te)))))
          (, .)
          (PP (P +Tach)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR god))
                              (NEG ne)
                              (MD cunne)
                              (NP-OB2 (PRO him))
                              (ADVP-TMP (ADV neauer))
                              (VB +tonc)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (PRO$ his) (N sonde))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.102.1244))

THERE/THEN free relatives

See also
THERE relatives.

Relatives introduced by THERE/THEN alone (without a complementizer) are treated as free relatives with THERE/THEN filling the wh- position. Examples with THERE are far more common than ones with THEN.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO$ +ti) (N shape))
          (DOD dide)
          (, .)
          (NP-OB1 (NP (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                              (C +tat)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                      (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                      (NEG ne)
                                      (MD sholde)
                                      (VB *))))
                  (, .)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (ADVP-LOC (CP-FRL (WADVP-2 (ADV +ter)) <--- THERE
                                           (C 0)
                                           (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-2)
                                                   (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                                   (NEG ne)
                                                   (MD sholde)
                                                   (VB *)))))
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (ADVP-TMP (CP-FRL (WADVP-3 (ADV +tenne)) <--- THEN
                                           (C 0)
                                           (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-3)
                                                   (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                                                   (NEG ne)
                                                   (MD sholde)
                                                   (VB *))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMTRINIT,67.910))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-LOC (CP-FRL (WADVP-1 (ADV +ter))
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                    (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                    (HVD hadde)
                                    (BEN ibe)
                                    (VAG (VAG blaberynge) (CONJ and) (VAG chaterynge)))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD took)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (N silence)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,32.158))

IT clefts (CP-CLF)

Internally, IT clefts have the same structure as
relative clauses, but externally, they are daughters of IP.
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
              (BEP beo+d)
              (NP-OB1 (NS deoflen))
              (CP-CLF (WNP-2 0)
                      (C +tt)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                              (PP (P in)
                                  (NP (PRO ham)))
                              (VBP dearie+de))))
      (ID CMKATHE,27.136))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
              (BED was)
              (NP-OB1 (PRO I)
                      (NP-PRN (PRO$+N myself)))
              (CP-CLF-SPE (WNP-1 0)
                          (C that)
                          (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                      (VBD cam)
                                      (PP (P in)
                                          (NP (D the) (N lykenesse)))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,5.131))

Infinitival clauses (IP-INF)

Infinitives serve as the complements of verbs, nouns, adjectives, and prepositions. We do not distinguish between raising and control, and subjects of infinitives are ordinarily not indicated, with the following exceptions:

In line with our general principles, when the infinitive clause is an argument of a verb, there is no bracketing to indicate its relation to the governing predicate. The same is true when the infinitive is a complement of a complex predicate. But infinitives that are complements of a noun or an adjective are bracketed together with the governing word.

Infinitival complements

Infinitival complements of verbs

( (IP-MAT (PP (ADV+P Therwithalle))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Ector))
          (VBD assayed)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB pulle)
                  (RP oute)
                  (NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd))))
  (ID CMMALORY,9.257))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
              (NP-SBJ (Q many) (D a) (N man))
              (VBP wenyth)
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB put)
                      (NP-OB1 (PRO$ hys) (N enemy))
                      (PP (P to)
                          (NP (D a) (N rebuke))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1693))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
              (BED weren)
              (VAN warnede)
              (IP-INF (TO to)
                      (VB amenden)
                      (NP-OB1 (PRO hem))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO$ here) (N lyf)))))
      (ID CMWYCSER,225.46))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Thenne))
          (BED was)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (ADVP (ADV sore))
          (VAN abasshed)
          (IP-INF (TO to)
                  (VB yeve)
                  (NP-OB1 (N ansuer)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,5.122))

Infinitival complements of nouns

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD asked)
          (NP-OB2 (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
          (NP-OB1 (N licence)
                  (IP-INF (IP-INF (TO to)
                                  (VB ryde)
                                  (PP (P afftir)
                                      (NP (NPR Balyne))))
                          (CONJP (CONJ and)
                                 (IP-INF (TO to)
                                         (VB revenge)
                                         (NP-OB1 (D the) (N despite)
                                                 (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                                         (C that)
                                                         (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                                 (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                                                 (HVD had)
                                                                 (DON done))))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,50.1653))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (HVP have)
              (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N wyll)
                      (IP-INF (TO to)
                              (BE be)
                              (VAN slayne)
                              (, ,)
                              (PP (P as)
                                  (CP-ADV (WADVP-1 0)
                                          (C 0)
                                          (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO$ youre) (N fadir))
                                                  (BED was)
                                                  (PP (P thorow)
                                                      (NP (N outerageousnes)))
                                                  (VAN slayne)))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,658.4553))

Infinitival complements of adjectives

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR Marie))
          (NEG ne)
          (VBD ran)
          (NEG not)
          (ADVP-DIR (ADV hyder) (CONJ and)  (ADV +tyder))
          (, ,)
          (ADJP-SPR (ADJ bisy)
                    (IP-INF (TO to)
                            (VB vnderfonge)
                            (NP-OB1 (NS gystes))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMAELR3,36.308))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Balyn))
              (BED was)
              (ADJP (ADJ redy)
                    (IP-INF (TO to)
                            (VB departe))))
      (ID CMMALORY,49.1609))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (ADVP (ADV ellis))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (MD wolde)
              (HV have)
              (BEN bene)
              (ADJP (ADJ lothe)
                    (PP (P as)
                        (NP (Q ony) (N knyght)
                            (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                    (C that)
                                    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                            (VBP lyvith)))))
                    (IP-INF (FOR for)
                            (TO to)
                            (VB sle)
                            (NP-OB1 (D a) (N lady))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,51.1701))

Infinitival complements of prepositions

Infinitival complements of prepositions with overt subjects are labelled
IP-ABS in the PPCME2, but IP-INF in the later corpora.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV euer) (ADV after))
	  (NP-SBJ (NPR Jack) (NPR Oates))
	  (MD could)
	  (NEG not)
	  (VB endure)
	  (IP-INF (TO to)
		  (VB heare)
		  (NP-OB1 (Q any)
			  (N talke)
			  (PP (P of)
			      (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D+OTHER another) (N foole))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
				      (TO to)
				      (BE be)
				      (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID ARMIN,11.120))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Now))
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
	  (MD shall)
	  (VB hear)
	  (PP (P of)
	      (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (Q some) (NS Stirs))		← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
		      (TO to)
		      (BE be)
		      (VAN raised)
		      (PP (P in)
			  (CODE <font>)
			  (NP (NPR Scotland)))))
	  (CODE <$$font>)
	  (. .))
  (ID RALEIGH,I,213.C1.355))

( (PP-LFD (P If)
          (CP-ADV-SPE (C 0)
		      (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (NUM thre) (CONJ or) (NUM foure))
				  (DOP do)
				  (VB (VB talke) (, ,) (VB deuise) (, ,) (CONJ and) (VB conspire))
				  (ADVP (ADV togither))
				  (PP (P of)
				      (IP-INF-SPE (NP-SBJ (D a) (ADJ trayterous) (N Acte))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
						  (TO to)
						  (BE be)
						  (DAN done))))))
  (ID THROCKM,I,73.C1.535))

ECM versus object control

Inherent ECM verbs. The verbs on the following list (henceforth, "inherent ECM verbs") are always treated as taking an ECM complement (that is, a clausal complement with a subject position).
BID, DO, GAR, HAVE, HEAR, HOT(AN), LET, MAKE, SEE

Here, we focus on IP-INF complements; analogous cases in which the clause is headed by a gerund (VAG, etc.) rather than an infinitive (VB, etc.) are treated under Participial clauses (IP-PPL).

The inherent ECM verbs are the verbs that (in Middle English) allow an arbitrary empty subject with an active complement infinitive where Modern English would use a passive infinitive (I HEAR SAY vs. I HEAR IT SAID). The infinitival complements of such verbs in the active always contain a subject position in the annotation, filled either by an ordinary overt subject, by (NP-SBJ *arb*) (as in the examples below), or by the trace of A-movement (when the matrix verb is in the passive).

DO undergoes a change in the history of English from causative to periphrastic, and so the default treatment of ambiguous cases differs in the PPCME2 and in the later corpora.

( (IP-MAT (ALSO Also)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (DOD dud)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (VB wryte)
                  (NP-OB1 (Q all) (D the) (NS batayles)
                          (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                  (C that)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                          (NP-SBJ (Q every) (ADJ worthy) (N knyght)
                                                  (PP *ICH*-2))
                                          (DOD ded)
                                          (PP-2 (P of)
                                                (NP (NPR$ Arthurs) (N courte)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,29.935))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Then))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR Seynt) (NPR Andraw))
          (VBD made)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (TO to)
                  (VB gedyr)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hom))
                  (ADVP (ADV togedyr)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMIRK,8.197))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D This) (NPR Kyng) (NPR Pandras))
          (VBD herde)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (VB speke)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NP (PRO$ his) (N goodnesse))
                          (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                 (NP (PRO$ his) (NS condicions))))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMBRUT3,6.137))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD het)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV biliue))
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (VB bringin)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO hire))
                  (PP (P biforen)
                      (NP (PRO him))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMARGA,58.56))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBP lette)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (VB calle)
                  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                          (NP-OB1 (NPR Hubbeslaw))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMBRUT3,109.3314))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P Efter)
              (NP (D +tt)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD wende)
          (IP-INF (FOR+TO forte)
                  (HV habben)
                  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                          (DO idon)
                          (NP-OB1 (Q al)
                                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                                          (C +tt)
                                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                                  (VBD wilnede))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMJULIA,98.41))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (ADVP-LOC (ADV +ter))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
          (MD schule)
          (VB seon)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (VB buncin)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
                  (PP (P wi+d)
                      (NP (NP-POS (D +teose) (NPR$ deosles))
                          (NS betles)))
                  (, .)
                  (CP-ADV (C +tt)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N wa)
                                          (NP-COM *ICH*-1))
                                  (BEP bi+d)
                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO him))
                                  (NP-COM-1 (PRO$ hise) (N$ liues))))))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.142.1915))

Inherent ECM verbs overwhelmingly take bare infinitive complements, but there are scattered examples with TO infinitive complements for most of them.

( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q nane)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (D +teos))))
          (NEG ne)
          (VBP makie)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (TO to)
                  (VB forwurden)
                  (, .)
                  (NP-OB1 (N weole))
                  (ADVP-LOC (ADV +ter)
                            (CP-REL (WADVP-1 0)
                                    (C ase)
                                    (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                            (NP-SBJ (Q muchel))
                                            (BEP is))))))
  (ID CMHALI,150.319))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (N Pine))
          (BEP is)
          (ADVP-LOC (Q+WADV ihwer))
          (DAN idon)
          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *-1)
                  (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (TO to)
                  (VB (VB21 vnder) (VB22 stonden))
                  (PP (P +turch)
                      (NP (N cros))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.41.361))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD lete)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO ham))
                  (TO to)
                  (VB norisshe))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMBRUT3,49.1472))

Non-inherent ECM versus object control. Verbs other than inherent ECM verbs are treated as object control verbs or as ECM licensers depending on the syntactic context in which they occur. The following list of such verbs is intended to be representative, not exhaustive.

account, accuse, acknowledge, adjudge, affirm, allow, annal, appoint, approve, assert,
behold, believe, boast, bring,
cause, choose, command, compute, conceive, conclude, confess, conjecture, consider, count,
declare, deem (nonlegal; see below for legal sense), denominate, deny, design, desire, determine, discern, discover, doubt,
enable, espy, esteem, evince,
fable, fancy, fear, feel, feign, find, forbid, form,
get, grant, guess,
hold,
imagine, intend, interpret,
judge (nonlegal; see below for legal sense),
keep, know,
leave,
manifest, mean,
note, number,
observe, order, own,
perceive, prefer, pretend, procure, profess, pronounce, prove, provoke, publish,
reckon, relate, remember, render, report, represent, repute,
say, shape, show, spy, suffer, suppose, suspect, swear,
take, think, threaten,
understand,
view, vote,
want, warrant, will, wish

Verbs that are not inherent ECM verbs are treated as licensing an ECM complement in the following cases. (Again, we focus here on IP-INF; the analogous IP-PPL cases are treated under Participial clauses.)

Otherwise, verbs that are not inherent ECM verbs are treated as control verbs. CONDEMN, DEEM, and JUDGE (in their legal sense) are always treated as control predicates. Their negative force seems to require this analysis.

The above guidelines undoubtedly misclassify some cases but have the virtue of being applicable in a reasonably objective way. As is well known, the ECM construction with verbs other than inherent ECM verbs rises sharply in the transition from Middle English to Modern English. Users interested in this development and, more generally, in the distinction between ECM and object control will need to examine the relevant sentences in detail for themselves.

(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
        (VBP bryng)
	(IP-INF (NP-SBJ=1 (PRO it))			← expletive subject
  	        (TO to)
		(VB passe)
		(, ,)
		(CP-THT-1 (C that)
		          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N yomanry))
				  (BEP be)
				  (NEG not)
				  (ADJP (ADJ able)
				        (IP-INF (TO to)
					        (VB put)
						(NP-OB1 (PRO$ their) (NS sonnes))
						(PP (P to)
						    (NP (N schole))))))))
  (LATIMER,41L.212))

(CP-QUE (WADVP-2 (WADV where))
        (C 0)
        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
		(VBP will)
		(IP-INF (ADVP-LOC *T*-2)
			(NP-SBJ (PRO$ your)		← nonhuman subject
			        (NS horses))
			(TO to)
			(VB come)
			(PP (P to)
			    (NP (PRO you))))))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID APLUMPT,184.82))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (N President))
	  (VBD commanded)
	  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his)			← nonhuman subject
 		          (ADJ own)
			  (CODE <font>)
			  (N Baloon)
			  (CODE <$$font>)
			  (CODE <paren>)
			  (NP-PRN (D a)
			          (N Barge)
				  (PP (P of)
				      (CODE <P_I,183>)
 				      (NP (N State)))
				      (, ,)
				      (PP (P of)
					  (NP (NUMP (NUM Two) (CONJ and) (NUM twenty))
					      (NS Oars)))))
		  (CODE <$$paren>)
		  (TO to)
		  (VB attend)
		  (NP-OB1 (PRO me))))
  (ID FRYER,I,183.7))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD commanded)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hem))
                  (TO to)
                  (BE bene)
                  (ADVP (ADV wor+tely))
                  (VAN seruede))			← passive verb
          (. .))
  (ID CMBRUT3,82.2486))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P for)
              (NP (D +tis) (N erroure)))
          (NP-SBJ (NPR God))
          (VBD suffered)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO him))
                  (FOR for) (TO to)
                  (BE be)
                  (VAN (VAN take) (CONJ and) (VAN led))	← passive verb
                  (PP (P into)
                      (NP (NPR Babilonie))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMCAPCHR,37.175))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
          (, ,)
          (IP-PPL (VAG desyryng)
                  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N werk)
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP (NPR God))))
                          (TO to)
                          (BE be)
                          (VAN magnyfyed)))		← passive verb
          (, ,)
          (VBD gat)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (ADJ same) (N ston)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
                          (C +tat)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                                  (VBD fel)
                                  (PP (P up-on)
                                      (NP (PRO$ hir) (N bakke)))))))
  (ID CMKEMPE,22.462))

( (IP-SUB (ADVP-TMP *T*-1)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD thretyd)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hir))
                  (TO to)
                  (BE be)
                  (VAN brent)))				← passive verb
  (ID CMKEMPE,33.731))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
          (VBD desyred)
          (PP (P in)
              (QP (ADVR as) (Q meche)
                  (PP (P as)
                      (CP-ADV (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
                                      (MD durst)
                                      (VB *))))))
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (NS men))
                  (TO to)
                  (BE be)
                  (VAN sauyd))				← passive verb
          (. ,))
  (ID CMKEMPE,144.3340))

( (IP-SUB (PP *T*-4)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
          (VBD chose)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N prince))
                  (FOR for)
                  (TO to)
                  (BE be)				← copula
                  (NP-OB1 (N kyng))))
  (ID CMCAPCHR,153.3594))

( (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR godd))
          (VBD scheop)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (SUCH swuch) (N +ting))
                  (TO to)
                  (BE beonne)))				← copula
  (ID CMHALI,133.77))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (P whan)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
                              (VBD com)
                              (PP (P to)
                                  (NP (NPR Benwyke))))))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
          (VBD fortuned)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (Q both) (D the) (NS kynges)
                          (NP-PRN *ICH*-1))
                  (BE be)				← copula
                  (ADVP-LOC (ADV there))
                  (, ,)
                  (NP-PRN-1 (NPR Ban) (CONJ and) (NPR Bors)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,16.476))

( (IP-MAT (ALSO Also)
          (NP-SBJ (NS men)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Gabaon))))
          (VBD feyneden)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hem))
                  (TO to)
                  (BE be)				← copula
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (ADJ fer) (N cuntre))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMPURVEY,I,9.302))

Extraposed infinitival complements

Extraposed infinitival clauses are coindexed with an *ICH* trace in the usual way.
( (IP-IMP (NP-VOC (N Suster))
          (, ,)
          (BEI be)
          (ADJP (ADJ glad)
                (IP-INF *ICH*-1))
          (PP (P wit)
              (NP (Q al) (PRO$ +tyn) (N herte)))
          (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                    (BE be)
                    (PP (P at)
                        (NP (D +tis) (N feste))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMAELR3,44.542))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (ADJP (ADJ lothe)
                    (IP-INF *ICH*-1))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (BED were)
              (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                        (VB sle)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO the)))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,200.3149))

Extraction out of infinitives

Extraction out of infinitives is treated in the usual way.
A-movement (passivization) out of an infinitive is indicated by an (NP-SBJ *) trace coindexed with the moved NP.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	  (ALSO allso)
	  (NP-SBJ (NPR Capt.)
		  (NPR Courtney)
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO w=ch=))
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 *T*-1)
				  (BED was)
				  (VAN reported)
				  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *-2)
					  (TO to)
					  (BE be)
					  (VAN killed)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (BEP is)
	  (PP (PP (P+N alive))
	      (CONJP (CONJ and)
		     (ADJP (ADJ well))))
	  (. .))
  (ID RHADDSR-1670,21.50))

As usual, wh- movement out of an infinitive is indicated by a *T* trace that is coindexed with the moved constituent.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR Sir) (NPR William))
	  (, ,)
	  (IP-PPL (NEG not)
		  (VAG knowing)
		  (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV how))
			  (IP-INF (ADVP *T*-1)
				  (TO to)
				  (VB amend)
				  (NP-OB1 (D the) (N matter)))))
	  (, ,)
	  (VBD caused)
	  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D the)
			  (N piper)
			  (CP-REL *ICH*-2))
		  (TO to)
		  (BE be)
		  (VAN carried)
		  (PP (P to)
		      (NP (N bed)))
		  (, ,)
		  (CP-REL-2 (WNP-3 (WPRO who))
			    (C 0)
			    (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
				    (BED was)
				    (ADJP (ADV very) (ADJ ill)))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID ARMIN,10.81))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (BED was)
	  (VAN told)
	  (NP-TMP (D this) (N day))
	  (CP-THT (C that)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS heralds))
			  (HVD had)
			  (ADVP-TMP (ADV yet))
			  (NP-OB1 (D a)
				  (N quarter)
				  (PP (P of)
				      (NP (PRO$ their) (N work)))
				  (CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)
					  (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
						  (TO to)
						  (DO do))))))
	  (. :))
  (ID ANHATTON,2,212.16))

Finally, A-bar movement other than wh- movement (topicalization, scrambling, etc.) out of an infinitive is indicated by an *ICH* trace that is coindexed with the moved constituent.

( (IP-MAT (NP-1 (D that) (ADJ very) (CODE ) (N Chub))
          (CODE <$$font>)
	  (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
	  (VBP mean)
	  (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *ICH*-1)
		  (TO to)
		  (VB put)
		  (PP (P into)
		      (NP (PRO$ your) (NS hands)))
		  (ADVP-TMP (ADV presently)))
	  (. ;))
  (ID WALTON,215.175))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D+NPR +Tefeont))
          (NP-1 (PRO hit))
          (VBD Makede)
          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *ICH*-1)
                  (NP-SBJ (PRO Me))
                  (DO don))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.224.3245))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ ach)
          (NP-1 (D +tis) (N lont))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO$ ure) (NPR lauerd))
          (VBD bihat)
          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *ICH*-1)
                  (TO+VB tobiteachen)
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (NPR$ judas) (NS honden))))
          (, .)
          (PP (P for) (WPRO hwon)
              (CP-ADV (C +tt)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                              (VBP ga)
                              (ADVP-LOC (ADV biforen))))))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.221.3210))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ &)
              (NP-1 (PRO me))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
              (VBP makest)
              (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *ICH*-1)
                      (TO to)
                      (VB steoruen))
              (PP (P wi+d)
                  (NP (D +te) (N streng+de)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO$ +tine) (NS beoden)
                              (, .)
                              (CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
                                      (C +te)
                                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                                              (BEP beo+d)
                                              (ADJP (NP (PRO +te))
                                                    (ADVR se) (ADJ munde))))))))
              (. .))
  (ID CMMARGA,74.301))

Infinitival subjects

In addition to serving as complements, infinitives also act as subjects, either in situ or extraposed.

Infinitival subjects in situ

Infinitive subject clauses in situ are labelled IP-INF-SBJ.
( (IP-MAT (IP-INF-SBJ (VB Makie)
                      (NP-OB1 (NPR$ deofles) (N hore))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO hire))))
          (, :)
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (N reu+de)
                  (PP (P ouer)
                      (NP (N reu+de))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.215.3096))

( (IP-MAT (IP-INF-SBJ (TO to)
                      (VB love)
                      (NP-OB1 (NPR God)))
          (BEP is)
          (IP-INF (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
                          (VB love)
                          (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
                                          (C that)
                                          (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                                  (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                                  (VBP loveth)))))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (IP-INF (FOR *) (TO *)
                                 (VB hate)
                                 (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-2 0)
                                                 (C that)
                                                 (IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                                         (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                                                         (VBP hateth)))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,296.C1a.332))

(NODE (IP-SUB (ADVP (ADV certes))
              (IP-INF-SBJ (FOR for) (TO to)
                          (VB persevere)
                          (NP-MSR (ADJ longe))
                          (PP (P in)
                              (NP (N synne))))
              (BEP is)
              (NP-OB1 (N werk)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (D the) (NPR devel)))))
      (ID CMCTMELI,226.C1.345))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Now))
          (ADVP (ADV certes))
          (, ,)
          (IP-INF-SBJ (NP-SBJ (D a) (N man))
                      (TO to)
                      (VB pride)
                      (NP-RFL (PRO hym))
                      (PP (P in)
                          (NP (D the) (NS goodes)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (N grace))))))
          (BEP is)
          (ALSO eek)
          (NP-OB1 (D an) (ADJ outrageous) (N folie))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMCTPARS,302.C2.567))

Extraposed infinitival subjects

When an infinitival subject is extraposed, it is coindexed with an expletive subject, either overt IT or its empty counterpart (NP-SBJ *exp*).
(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
              (VBP lye)
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (PRO$ my) (N power)))
              (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                        (VB gyff)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO hit))))
      (ID CMMALORY,48.1600))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
              (MD woll)
              (BE be)
              (ADJP (ADJ harde))
              (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                        (VB macche)
                        (NP-OB1 (PRO hym))))
      (ID CMMALORY,201.3181))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (PP (P hwenne)
                  (CP-ADV (C 0)
                          (IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
                                          (HVP hauest)
                                          (NP-MSR (ADJ longe))
                                          (VBN iwaked))
                                  (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                         (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
                                                 (MD schuldest)
                                                 (VB gan)
                                                 (TO+VB toslepen))))))
              (, .)
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV Nu))
              (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
              (BEP is)
              (ADJP (ADJ god))
              (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (VBP sei+d))
              (IP-INF-1 (VB wakien)))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.197.2821))

The same notation is used with impersonal verbs.

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-VOC (N Sir))
                  (, ,)
                  (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
                  (VBP nedith)
                  (NEG nat)
                  (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
                  (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                            (VB put)
                            (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
                            (PP (P to)
                                (NP (QP (Q no) (QR more))
                                    (N payne)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,47.1541))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
          (VBD semed)
          (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                    (BE be)
                    (PP (P of)
                        (NP (D the) (N ayge)
                            (PP (P of)
                                (NP (NUMP (NUM three) (NUM hondred))
                                    (NS wynter))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,660.4629))

Wh- infinitives

There are three types of infinitives that are introduced by wh- phrases. Internally, they all share the same structure, with the wh- phrase coindexed to its trace in the usual way. Externally, they are treated as follows:

Infinitival questions

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO i))
              (NEG+VBP noot)
              (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                      (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                              (TO to)
                              (DO doone))))
      (ID CMCTMELI,218.C1.45))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (NEG+VBD nyst)
              (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV whider))
                      (IP-INF (ADVP-DIR *T*-1)
                              (TO to)
                              (VB wende))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,50.1485))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D this) (N ensample)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR saturne))))
          (VBP techith)
          (CP-QUE (WADVP-1 (WADV how))
                  (IP-INF (ADVP *T*-1)
                          (TO to)
                          (VB maken)
                          (PP (P in)
                              (NP (D the) (N label)))
                          (NP-OB1 (Q alle) (D the) (NS semydiametres)
                                  (PP (P of)
                                      (NP (NS Epicicles)
                                          (PP (P of)
                                              (NP (Q alle) (D the) (NS planetis))))))))
          (. /))
  (ID CMEQUATO,26.117))

Infinitival relatives

Infinitival relatives introduced by a wh-phrase are treated as CP-REL, and otherwise as
purpose/relative infinitives (CP-EOP).
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD saide)
          (CP-THT (C 0)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
                          (NEG+HVD nade)
                          (NP-OB1 (QP (Q no) (QR more))
                                  (N lande)
                                  (CP-REL (WPP-1 (WADV+P wherwi+t))
                                          (IP-INF (PP *T*-1)
                                                  (NP-OB1 (PRO her))
                                                  (FOR+TO forto)
                                                  (VB marie))))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMBRUT3,17.516))

Infinitival free relatives

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO +tey))
          (MD wolde)
          (CODE <P_39>)
          (HV haue)
          (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
                          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (FOR+TO for-to)
                                  (VB +gyue))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAELR3,39.379))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
              (PP (ADV+P +teruore))
              (NP-VOC (NPR lhord))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
              (NEG ne)
              (HVP habbe)
              (NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WPP-1 (WADV+P huer-of))
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-INF (PP *T*-1)
                                      (VB maki)
                                      (NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
                                      (NP-OB1 (N yeldinge)))))
              (. :))
  (ID CMAYENBI,115.2222))

TOUGH movement complement (CP-TMC)

TOUGH movement complements (SALLY IS EASY TO PLEASE) are labelled CP-TMC and always contain an empty operator coindexed to a trace. The following list is intended to be representative, and not necessarily exhaustive; comparatives, superlatives, and antonyms of these adjectives are also possible licensers. Some items on the list (for instance, POSSIBLE) do not license CP-TMC complements in present-day (standard) English.
comfortable, convenient, costly,
decent, delectable, difficult, dreadful,
easy, enough (whether ADJ or ADV), excellent,
fair (= beautiful), fit,
good,
hard,
irksome,
lawful, loathsome, long,
marvel(lous), monstrous,
necessary, nice,
pertinent, pity, pleasant, possible,
ready, ridiculous, rough,
safe, sufficient, sweet,
tedious, terrible, too + ADJ/ADV, troublesome,
wonderful

Note the structural ambiguity between the first two examples, and the distinction between the first and third examples, which reflects the voice of the complement verb.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))			← referential IT ("to read it is easy")
          (BEP is)
          (ADJP (ADJ easy)
	        (CP-TMC (WNP-1 (WPRO 0))
                        (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-1)
                                (TO to)
				(VB read))))
	  (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO It))			← expletive IT ("to read is easy")
          (BEP is)
          (ADJP (ADJ easy)
          (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
	 	    (VB read))))
	  (. .)))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO It))
          (BEP is)
          (ADJP (ADJ easy)
	        (IP-INF (TO to)			← passive complement is simple IP-INF
	 	        (BE be)
		        (VAN read)))
	  (. .)))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D+ADJ thilke) (N love))
              (BEP is)
              (ADJP (D the) (QR moore) (ADJ grevous)
                    (CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
                            (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                    (TO to)
                                    (VB parfourne)))))
      (ID CMCTPARS,304.C2.683))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and) (ALSO eek)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N wounde))
          (MD wolde)
          (BE be)
          (ADJP (D the) (ADJR wors)
                (CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
                        (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                (FOR for) (TO to)
                                (VB heele))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCTPARS,324.C1.1554))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (BEP is)
          (ADJP (ADJP (ADJR +tickere)
                      (PP (P a+gein)
                          (NP (D +te) (N wind))))
                (CONJP (CONJ &)
                       (ADJP (ADJR wurse)
                             (CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
                                     (IP-INF (TO to)
                                             (VB seon)
                                             (PP (P +turch)
                                                 (NP *T*-1))))))))
  (ID CMANCRIW,II.41.364))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D This) (N thoghte))
          (BEP es)
          (ADJP (ADJ gude)
                (CP-TMC *ICH*-2))
          (NP-TMP (Q+N sumtyme))
          (CP-TMC-2 (WNP-1 0)
                    (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                            (FOR for) (TO to)
                            (HV hafe)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMROLLTR,37.773))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
              (BEP is)
              (NP-OB1 (Q muche) (N pine)		← NOUN
                      (CP-TMC (WNP-2 0)
                              (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                      (ADVP (ADV wel))
                                      (FOR for) (TO to)
                                      (VB halden)))))
      (ID CMANCRIW,II.41.360))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Ant)
          (PP (P +tah)
              (CP-ADV (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO$ hare) (N mei+dhad))
                              (BEP beo)
                              (ADJP (ADJR ed-ure))
                              (ADVP-TMP (ADV nu+de)))))
          (, .)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO$ +tin))
          (BEP is)
          (NP-OB1 (D +te) (QR mare) (N streng+de)	← NOUN
                  (CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
                          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (TO to)
                                  (VB halden))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMHALI,136.115))

( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
          (BED was)
          (NP-OB1 (N rewth)				← NOUN
                  (CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
                          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (TO to)
                                  (VB here)))))
  (ID CMMIRK,100.2724))

Clauses of the type SHE IS FAIR TO LOOK ON are also treated as involving TOUGH movement, even though their structure must be somewhat different, since the matrix subject in these cases occupies a thematic position (in SHE IS FAIR TO LOOK ON, SHE is FAIR, but in SALLY IS EASY TO PLEASE, SALLY is not EASY).

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
              (BED was)
              (ADJP (ADJ faire) (ADVR ynow)
                    (CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
                            (C 0)
                            (IP-INF (PP (P oppon)
                                        (NP *T*-1))
                                    (TO to)
                                    (VB see)))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,114.3453))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Ac)
          (NP-OB1 (ADJP (ADJ lang)
                        (CP-TMC *ICH*-2))
                  (N +ting))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
          (BED were)
          (CP-TMC-2 (WNP-1 0)
                    (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                            (TO to)
                            (VB zigge)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMAYENBI,44.735))

Degree infinitives

All degree infinitives are treated as sisters of the degree word that licenses them (ENOUGH, SO, TOO).

Degree infinitives with a gap (CP-DEG)

Degree infinitives with a gap are labelled CP-DEG and take an IP-INF complement.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ &)
              (NP-SBJ *con*)
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV now))
              (HVP hast)
              (VBN seyd)
              (NP-OB1 (ADJR j-now)
                      (CP-DEG (WNP-1 0)
                              (IP-INF (TO to)
                                      (BE be)
                                      (VAN brent)
                                      (PP (P for)
                                          (NP *T*-1)))))
              (. .)
              (" "))
  (ID CMKEMPE,133.3127))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (HVD had)
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV euere))
              (NP-OB1 (ADJR ynow)
                      (CP-DEG (WNP-2 0)
                              (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
                                      (TO to)
                                      (DO do))))
              (PP (P in)
                  (NP (N amendynge)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (PRO$ his) (N lyf)))))
              (PP (P by)
                  (NP (N confession))))
      (ID CMAELR4,13.351))

Degree infinitives without a gap (IP-INF-DEG)

Degree infinitives without a gap are labelled IP-INF-DEG. Note that the infinitive is a sister to the phrasal projection of its licensing head, if there is a phrasal projection.
( (IP-MAT-SPE (PP (P For)
                  (NP (N payne)
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP (N deth)))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO we)
                      (QP (Q all)))
              (MD shall)
              (HV have)
              (NP-OB1 (N worke)
                      (ADJP (ADJR inow))
                      (IP-INF-DEG (TO to)
                                  (VB macche)
                                  (NP-OB1 (D that) (N knyght))))
              (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,199.3119))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (NEG+BED nass)
              (NEG nohht)
              (ADJP (ADJ derrf)
                    (ADVP (ADVR inoh))
                    (LB |)
                    (LB |)
                    (IP-INF-DEG (ADVP (Q All) (ADV opennli+g))
                                (TO to)
                                (VB sekenn)
                                (LB |)
                                (LB |)
                                (NP-OB1 (D +Te) (NPR Laferrd) (NPR Crist))
                                (PP (P biforr)
                                    (NP (D +te) (N follc)))
                                (, ,)
                                (LB |)
                                (LB |)
                                (IP-INF-PRP (TO To)
                                            (VB (VB lofenn)
                                                (CONJP *ICH*-2))
                                            (NP-OB1 (PRO himm))
                                            (CONJP-2 (CONJ &)
                                                     (VB wurr+tenn))))))
      (ID CMORM,II,230.2451))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Crist))
              (BEP is)
              (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ merciable)
                    (IP-INF-DEG (TO to)
                                (VB for+gyue)
                                (NP-OB2 (D a) (ADJ synful) (N man))
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (NS synnes)))))
      (ID CMAELR3,43.513))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N man))
              (BED was)
              (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ hardy)
                    (IP-INF-DEG (FOR+TO for-to)
                                (VB nempne)
                                (NP-OB1 (NPR God)))))
      (ID CMBRUT3,45.1370))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
              (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (BEP ys)
              (ADJP (ADVR to) (ADJ stronge)
                    (IP-INF-DEG (TO to)
                                (VB fyght)
                                (PP (P with)
                                    (NP (NPR Jamys) (NPR Fyscher)
                                        (NP-PRN (D the) (ADJ trewe) (N man))))
                                (PP (P whythe)
                                    (NP (NP-POS (D an) (N yryn) (N$ rammys))
                                        (N horne)))))
              (. .)
              (" "))
  (ID CMGREGOR,201.1652))

Purpose infinitives (CP-EOP, IP-INF-PRP)

Purpose/relative infinitives (CP-EOP)

Infinitival relatives without introductory wh- phrases are often difficult or impossible to distinguish from purpose clauses, and we have not attempted to distinguish the two. By definition, these clauses contain a gap, but are not introduced by an overt wh- phrase.
Purpose infinitives without a gap are discussed elsewhere, as are infinitival relatives with an overt wh- phrase.

Purpose/relative infinitive clauses are labelled CP-EOP (EOP = empty operator) and are contained within the brackets of their potential antecedent. Like other clauses with gaps, they contain a wh- operator (empty by definition in the case of CP-EOP) coindexed with a trace. Both subject and object gaps are indicated.

(NP (Q+N something)
    (CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)
            (IP-INF (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
                    (TO to)
                    (VB fix)
                    (NP-OB1 (D the) (N problem)))))

(NP (D a)
    (N problem)
    (CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)
            (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                    (TO to)
                    (DO solve))))

(NP (Q+N nothing)
    (CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)
            (IP-INF (TO to)
                    (VB work)
                    (PP (P with)
			(NP *T*-1)))))

( (IP-IMP (VBI Give)
          (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
          (NP-OB1 (CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)				← empty antecedent
                          (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
                                  (TO to)
                                  (VB drink))))))

Purpose infinitives without a gap (IP-INF-PRP)

Purpose infinitives with a gap (CP-EOP) are treated above.

Purpose infinitives without a gap are labelled IP-INF-PRP.

Purpose infinitives are not always easy to distinguish from bare infinitives, and some infinitives that should be tagged as purpose infinitives are likely to lack the -PRP tag. See below for the IN ORDER TO construction.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (PP (ADV+P therfor))
          (NP-TMP (D that) (N nyghte))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD yssued)
          (PP (RP oute)
              (P of)
              (NP (D the) (N castel)))
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (D a) (N posterne)))
          (IP-INF-PRP (FOR for) (TO to)
                      (HV have)
                      (VBN distressid)
                      (NP-OB1 (NP-POS (D the) (N$ kynges))
                              (N hooste)))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,4.89))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (Q all) (D this))
          (BED was)
          (VAN ordeyned)
          (IP-INF-PRP (FOR for) (TO to)
                      (VB kepe)
                      (NP-OB1 (NP (D the) (NS lordes))
                              (CONJP *ICH*-1))
                      (ADVP (ADV togyders))
                      (CONJP-1 (CONJ and)
                               (NP (D the) (NS comyns))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,8.208))

The infinitive in IN ORDER TO constructions is treated as a bare IP-INF complement of ORDER.

(PP (P in)
    (NP (N order)
        (IP-INF (TO to)			← bare IP-INF, not IP-INF-PRP
                (VB grow)
                (NP-ACC (NS apples)))))

Infinitival adjuncts (IP-INF-ADT)

Infinitival adjuncts are likely to lack the -ADT dash tag.

Infinitival adjuncts other than purpose clauses are labelled IP-INF-ADT.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
          (VBP think)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *exp*)
                  (ADJP (ADJ long))
                  (IP-INF-ADT (TO to)
                              (VB hear)
                              (PP (P from)
                                  (NP (PRO me)))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO you))
          (DOD did)
          (ADVP (ADV well))
          (IP-INF-ADT (TO to)
                      (VB lock)
                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N door)))))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ But)
	      (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
	      (BEP arte)
	      (NP-OB1 (D a) (N foole))
	      (IP-INF-ADT-SPE (TO to)
			      (VB take)
			      (NP-OB1 (N thought)
				      (PP (P for)
				          (NP (PRO hit))))))
  (ID CMMALORY,34.1087))

Small clauses (IP-SMC)

See also the sections on secondary predicates (ADJP-SPR, NP-SPR).

Small clauses are instances of predication where the predicate is a noun phrase, adjective phrase (possibly headed by a participle), or passive participle. (For clauses headed by active participles, see IP-PPL.) In general, other nonverbal categories are not allowed as small clause predicates, but systematic exceptions occur in connection with small clause complements of P.

Small clauses occur in absolute construction (without a governing verb or preposition), as complements of verbs, or as complements of prepositions.

Type Example PPCME2 Mod. Eng.
Absolute The project completed, the workers left. IP-ABS
Complement of V We consider the project done. IP-SMC
Complement of P With the project done, we can leave. IP-ABS IP-SMC

We treat the following verbs as taking small clause complements; the list is intended to be representative rather than exhaustive and should be compared with the list of verbs that we treat as taking secondary predicates.

acknowledge, account, adjudge, affirm, allow, approve, argue,
believe, bethink, bid,
call, cause, conceive, conclude, confess, confirm, consider,
constitute, continue, count, create,
declare, deem, denominate, deny, design, determine, disclose,
discover, do, doubt, dub,
espy, efform, esteem, expect, express,
fancy, feel, feign, find, foresee, form,
get, grant, guess,
have, hear, hold, hope,
imagine, imply, intend,
judge,
know,
learn, let,
make, mean,
note, number,
observe, own, oversee,
perceive, phrase, presume, pretend, proclaim, profess, pronounce,
protest, prove,
reckon, relate, remember, render, report, repute,
say, see, show, speak, spy, style, suppose, suspect,
term, think, title, trust, turn,
understand,
value,
warrant, wish, write, wyst,
yield

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (PP (ADV+P therewith))
          (VBD made)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hym))
                  (ADJP (ADJ redy)
                        (IP-INF (TO to)
                                (VB departe))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,48.1587))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
              (VBD saw)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D thes) (NUM two) (NS bodyes))
                      (ADJP (ADJ dede))))
      (ID CMMALORY,53.1774))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
              (VBP wenyth)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N knyght))
                      (ADJP (ADVR so) (ADJ good)
                            (PP (P as)
                                (NP (PRO he)))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,199.3099))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (CONJ but)
              (PP (P with)
                  (NP (N falshede)))
              (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
              (MD wolde)
              (HV have)
              (HVN had)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
                      (VAN slayne)
                      (PP (P with)
                          (NP (N treson))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,206.3395))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ *con*)
          (VBD founde)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
                  (VAN coverde)
                  (ADVP-LOC (ADV within) (CONJ and) (ADV without))
                  (PP (P with)
                      (NP (ADJ whyght) (N samyte))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,666.4822))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
              (NP-SBJ (Q som) (NS men))
              (VBD called)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
                      (NP-TMP (Q+N somtyme))
                      (NP-OB1 (D the) (N Quene)
                              (PP (P of)
                                  (NP (D the) (NPR Wast) (NPR Landis)))))
              (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,658.4557))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
              (MD myghte)
              (VB please)
              (NP-OB1 (D the) (N kynge))
              (IP-INF-1 (TO to)
                        (VB make)
                        (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO her))
                                (NP-OB1 (PRO$ his) (N quene)))))
      (ID CMMALORY,4.108))

Empty subjects of small clauses are indicated in the usual way. Extracted subjects are coindexed with a trace in the small clause. In some constructions (notably, reduced relative clauses), where our annotation system does not indicate movement, an empty subject is added that is not a trace.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ-1 (D the) (N duke))
          (BED was)
          (VAN called)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
                  (NP-OB1 (D the)
                          (N duke)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (NPR Tyntagil)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,2.7))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ-1 (NPR syr) (NPR Kay))
          (BED was)
          (VAN made)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
                  (NP-OB1 (N knyght)))
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (NPR Alhalowmas)
                  (ADVP-TMP (ADV afore))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,8.213))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (Q ony))
              (MD sholde)
              (BE be)
              (VAN accompted)
              (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
                      (ADJP (ADJP (QR more) (ADJ hardy))
                            (CONJP (CONJ or)
                                   (ADJP (ADJR more)
                                         (PP (P of)
                                             (NP (N prouesse))))))))
      (ID CMMALORY,50.1652))

(NODE (NP (D a) (N city)
          (RRC (VAN called)
               (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
                       (NP-OB1 (NPR Gerona))))))

Small clauses as complements of P

As noted above, small clauses can serve as complements of prepositions (notably WITH). This type is labelled
IP-ABS in the PPCME2.

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (ONE one) (N Hand))		← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
                  (ADJP (ADJ idle))
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (PRO$ his) (N Pocket)))))
      (ID FARQUHAR,5.174))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D a) (N letter))		← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
		  (VAN engraven)
                  (PP (P upon)
                      (NP (Q each)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (PRO them)))))))
      (ID HOOLE,7.46))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (ADJ humble) (N duty))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
	          (VAN remembred)))
      (ID JBARRING,79.35))


(NODE (PP (P After)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D the) (NUM three) (NS Concordances))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
		  (VAN learned)))
       (ID ASCH,1V.16))

(NODE (PP (P after)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (NS thankes))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
 		  (VAN giuen)
                  (PP (P to)
                      (NP (NPR Sir) (CODE <font>) (NPR George) (NPR Bruce)))))
      (ID JOTAYLOR,1,133.C1.161))

The predicates of small clause complements of prepositions can be PPs, adverbs, or adverbial particles.

Potentially analogous cases with verbs are not treated as small clauses; see below for examples.

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N hose))		← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
	          (RP out)
    	          (PP (P at)
   		      (NP (D the) (NS heeles)))))
      (ID DELONEY,75.191))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D the) (N Crowne))		← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
                  (PP (P on)
                      (NP (PRO$ his) (N head)))))
      (ID EVELYN,903.146))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO$ his) (N Reason))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
                  (PP (P as)
                      (NP (N Commander)
                  (PP (P at)
                      (NP (D the)
			  (N Head)
                          (PP (P of)
                              (NP (PRO 'em)))))))))
      (ID FARQUHAR,6.232))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D a) (ADJ good) (N quarter) (N staffe))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (PRO$ his) (N hand)))))
      (ID HARMAN,42.156))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (QP (NP-MSR (ADJ little)	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
			      (QR more))
			  (NS Cloaths)
			  (PP *ICH*-1))
	          (RP on)
                  (PP-1 (P than)
                        (NP (D a)

                            (ADJ (ADJ21 dark) (ADJ22 coloured))
			    (N Smock)
			    (, ,)
                            (CONJP (CONJ or)
                                   (NX (N Frock)))))))
      (ID FRYER,II,185.209))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO$ its) (N belly))		← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
                  (ADVP-DIR (ADV+WARD upwards))))
      (ID HOOKE,212.145))

(NODE (PP (P with)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (Q several) (NS boyes))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
                  (PP (P in)
                      (NP (Q each) (N Form)))))
      (ID HOOLE,219.135))

Counterparts of examples like the above with verbs instead of prepositions are not analyzed as small clauses.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO We))
          (VBD saw)
          (NP-OB1 (D the) (N crown))
          (PP (P on)
              (NP (PRO$ his) (N head))))
          (. .))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
          (HVD had)
          (NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ good) (N quarter) (N staff))
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (PRO$ his) (N hand))))
          (. .))


( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO They))
          (HVD had)
          (NP-OB1 (ADJ beautiful) (NS clothes))
          (RP on))
          (. .))

Participial clauses (IP-PPL)

Participial clauses (IP-PPL) are not always easy to distinguish from reduced relatives (RRC) headed by participles (see below for some discussion). In searches for one category, it is wise to include the other.

The distinction between participial clauses functioning as adjuncts (IP-PPL) and complements (IP-PPL-OB1) is not implemented in the PPCME2. Participial clauses functioning as complements are likely to be so rare in that corpus as to be negligible.

Participial clauses without overt subjects are labelled IP-PPL. As usual in our system, the PRO subject, which is generally coreferential with the matrix subject, is not indicated. In the PPCME2, IP-PPL was defined as subjectless, and participial constructions with subjects were either treated as small clauses (if headed by passive participles) (IP-SMC) or as absolute clauses (IP-ABS) (in the few cases where this was necessary).

The changing grammar of English makes it impractical to continue the requirement that IP-PPLs be subjectless, and the later corpora therefore allow IP-PPLs with subjects. See Participial clauses with subjects for further discussion and examples.

In deciding between the alternative structures below, we follow the same criteria as in deciding between ECM and object control.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (VBP remember)
          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ their) (NS parents))
          (IP-PPL (VAG cooking)			← without subject
                  (NP-OB1 (N dinner)))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
          (VBP remember)
          (IP-PPL-OB1 (NP-SBJ=1 (EX there))	← with subject
                      (BAG being)
                      (NP-1 (D a) (N fire)))))

Participial clauses without subjects

Function Example PPCME2 Mod. Eng.
Matrix subject Reading books is a great pleasure. IP-PPL-SBJ
Complement of V They don't like doing the dishes. IP-PPL IP-PPL-OB1
Complement of P the idea of doing the dishes IP-PPL
Adjunct Turning the page, she began to read.
Overcome by remorse, he gave up the throne.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	  (IP-PPL-SBJ (VAG loseing)			← subject

		      (NP-OB1 (PRO$ my) (N way)))
	  (VBD made)
	  (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
		  (NP-OB1 (NUM 12) (N mile)))
	  (. ,))
  (ID FIENNES,153.308))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	  (IP-PPL-SBJ (VAG comming)			← subject
		      (NP-DIR (N home))
		      (ADVP-TMP (ADV late)))
	  (BED was)
	  (NP-OB1 (D the)
		  (N cause)
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
			  (C that)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-ADV *T*-1)
				  (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my)
					  (N oncle)
					  (NP-PRN (NPR Anthony) (NPR Gavdy)))
				  (VBD fayled)
				  (PP (P of)
				      (NP (D a) (N letter))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID GAWDY,26.39))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P In)
	      (NP (D this) (N Indictment)))
	  (NP-SBJ=1 *exp*)
	  (BEP are)
	  (VAN contained)
	  (NP-1 (NUM three)
		(ADJ principal)
		(NS Treasons)
		(, ,)
		(CP-REL (WPP-2 (WADV+P whereof))
			(C 0)
			(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the)
					(ADJ first)
					(PP *T*-2))
				(BEP is)
				(IP-PPL-OB1 (VAG (VAG imagining) (CONJ and) (VAG conspiring))	← complement of V
					    (NP-OB1 (D the)
						    (N Deprivation)
						    (, ,)
						    (CONJP (NX (N Death)))
						    (, ,)
						    (CONJP (CONJ and)
							   (NX (N Destruction)))
						    (PP (P of)
							(NP (NP-POS (D the) (N$ Queen's))
							    (N Majesty))))))))
	  (. :))
  (ID THOWARD2,101.122))

( (IP-SUB (PP *ICH*-2)
          (ADVP (ADV ryght) (ADV so))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
          (MD shall)
          (VB com)
          (ADVP (ADV agayne))
          (PP (P unto)
              (NP (PRO me)))
          (PP (P withoute)
              (IP-PPL (VAG makynge)			← complement of P
                      (NP-OB1 (QP (Q ony) (QR more))
                              (N debate)))))
  (ID CMMALORY,37.1184))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
              (PP (P As)
                  (IP-PPL (VAG towchyng)		← complement of P
                          (PP (P unto)
                              (NP (D that)))))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
                          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot)))
              (, ,)
              (' ')
              (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
              (VBP know)
              (ADVP (ADV well))
              (CP-THT (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
                              (BED was)
                              (ADVP-TMP (ADV never))
                              (NP-OB1 (Q none)
                                      (PP (P of)
                                          (NP (D the) (ADJS beste))))))
              (. .)
              (' '))
  (ID CMMALORY,633.3724))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD wente)
          (PP (P into)
              (NP (D the) (N watir)))
          (IP-PPL (IP-PPL (VAG cryynge))		← adjunct
                  (CODE <em>)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (IP-PPL (VAG rorynge)))
                  (CODE </em>)
                  (CONJP (CONJ and)
                         (IP-PPL (VAG makying)
                                 (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorowe)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,664.4752))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (D the) (N lyon))
          (VBD wente)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV allwey))
          (PP (P aboute)
              (NP (PRO hym)))
          (IP-PPL (VAG fawnynge)			← adjunct
                  (PP (P as)
                      (NP (D a) (N spaynell))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMMALORY,664.4776))

Participial clauses with subjects

We distinguish the following subtypes.

Function Example PPCME2 Mod. Eng.
Matrix subject Him graduating is a big relief. IP-ABS IP-PPL-SBJ
Complement of V They remember there being a fire. IP-PPL-OB1
Complement of P He dreamed of there being a fire. IP-PPL
Adjunct (= absolute) The deadline approaching, they panicked. IP-PPL-ABS

Case marking on the subjects of participial clauses is nominative or accusative; participial constructions with genitive or possessive subjects are treated as mixed gerunds. By default, the morphologically ambiguous HER is treated as accusative rather than than possessive.

Participial clauses with subjects as subjects themselves

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
	  (ADVP-TMP (ADV then))
	  (IP-PPL-SBJ (NP-SBJ (N grasse))
		      (VAG beginning)
		      (IP-INF (TO to)
			      (VB spring)
			      (PP (P to)
				  (NP (PRO$ its) (ADJ perfect) (N goodnesse)))))
	  (MD will)
	  (VB occasion)
	  (NP-OB1 (D the)
		  (ADJS greatest)
		  (N increase)
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (N milke)))
		  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
			  (C that)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
				  (MD may)
				  (BE be))))
	  (. :))
  (ID MARKHAM,2,107.185))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
	  (ADVP (ADV really))
	  (IP-PPL-SBJ (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (N Father))
		      (BAG being)
		      (ADVP (ADVR soe))
		      (PP (RP out)
			  (P of)
			  (NP (N humer))))
	  (VBD put)
	  (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
		  (TO to)
		  (BE be)
		  (ADJP (ADV strangly) (ADJ forgetfull)))
	  (. .))
  (ID EOXINDEN-1650,224.17))

Participial clauses with subjects as complements of V

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
	  (ADVP (ADV perhaps))
	  (NP-SBJ (D the)
		  (ADJ very)
		  (N essence)
		  (PP (P of)
		      (NP (D the)
			  (CODE <font>)
			  (LATIN (FW Plica) (FW Polonica)))))
	  (CODE <$$font>)
	  (MD may)
	  (BE be)
	  (IP-PPL-OB1 (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS hairs))
		      (VAG growing)
		      (ADJP (ADJP (ADJ hollow))
			    (, ,)
			    (CONJP (CONJ and)
				   (PP (P of)
				       (NP (D an) (ADJ unnatural) (N constitution))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID HOOKE,158.38))

Participial clauses with subjects as complements of P

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBP beseech)
	  (NP-OB2 (PRO you))
	  (IP-INF (NEG not)
		  (TO to)
		  (VB impute)
		  (NP-OB1 (PRO it))
		  (PP (P to)
		      (IP-PPL (NP-SBJ (PRO$ my) (ADJ sweet) (NS Deares))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
			      (VAG hindering)
			      (NP-OB1 (PRO me)))))
	  (. ,))
  (ID EOXINDEN-1660,309.14))

( (NP (ADJ Greate)
      (NS preparations)
      (PP (P of)
	  (NP (Q all)
	      (D the)
	      (NS Princes)
	      (PP (P of)
		  (NP (NPR Europ)))))
      (, ,)
      (PP (P against)
	  (IP-PPL (NP-SBJ (NP (D the) (ADJ French))		← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
			  (CONJP (FW &c:)
				 (NP (D the) (N Emp:))))
		  (VAG making)
		  (NP-OB1 (N peace)
			  (PP (P with)
			      (NP (D the) (NPR Turke))))))
      (. :))
  (ID EVELYN,896.15))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
	  (NP-SBJ *con*)
	  (VBD sayde)
	  (CP-THT (C that)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q all)
				  (CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
					  (C that)
					  (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
						  (PP (P by)
						      (NP (PRO hym)))
						  (BED was)
						  (DAN done))))
			  (, |)
			  (BED was)
			  (DAN done)
			  (PP (P by)
			      (NP (N constraynt)
				  (PP (P of)
				      (IP-PPL (NP-SBJ (NPR Rycharde))	← would be IP-ABS in PPCME2
					      (ADVP-TMP (ADV than))
					      (BAG beynge)
					      (NP-OB1 (N Kynge))))))))
	  (. |))
  (ID FABYAN,169R.C2.49))

Absolute clauses (IP-ABS, IP-INF-ABS, IP-PPL-ABS)

Absolute clauses are defined more strictly in the later corpora than in the PPCME2, where they are somewhat of a catch-all category. In particular, IP-ABS can take the place of a finite subordinate clause or occur as the complement of a preposition in the PPCME2, but not in the later corpora, where the dash tag -ABS is restricted to true absolute (= ungoverned) constructions. The subject of an absolute clause is always overt (or a trace of movement) and always tagged NP-SBJ, regardless of case-marking (which can be nominative, accusative, or genitive).

The morphologically ambiguous HER is treated as accusative by default (cf. the treatment of the reflexive HERSELF).

We distinguish the following subtypes:

Type Example PPCME2 Mod. Eng.
Absolute clause with active participle The deadline approaching, they panicked. IP-ABS IP-PPL-ABS
Absolute clause with other predicate This done, Caesar crossed the Rubicon. IP-ABS
Complement of P With Caesar to lead the army, victory is almost certain. IP-INF
With Caesar leading the army, victory is almost certain. IP-PPL
With the project done, we can leave. IP-SMC
Absolute infinitive This statute to remain in force. IP-INF-ABS IP-INF-ABS
Infinitive for finite clause They declared that this statute to remain in force. IP-INF

Absolute clauses with active participles

This type is labelled as IP-ABS in the PPCME2, but as IP-PPL-ABS in the modern English corpora.

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
          (BEP are)
          (NP-ACC (NUM two) (NS kinds))
          (, ,)
          (IP-PPL-ABS (IP-PPL-ABS-1 (NP-SBJ (ONE one))
                                  (VAG concerning)
                                  (NP-ACC (NPR England)))
                      (CONJP (IP-PPL-ABS=3 (NP-SBJ (D the) (OTHER other))
                                           (NP-ACC (NPR Scotland)))))))

( (IP-MAT (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO +te))		← accusative subject
                  (VAG openand)
                  (NP-OB1 (PRO$ +tyn) (N honde)))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (NS +tynges))
          (MD shul)
          (BE be)
          (VAN fulfild)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP (N godenes)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMEARLPS,126.5520))

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
          (VBD departed)
          (NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Percivale))
          (PP (P frome)
              (NP (PRO$ hys) (N awnte)))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (Q aythir))
                  (VAG makyng)
                  (NP-OB1 (ADJ grete) (N sorow)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMMALORY,659.4602))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N duke)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Lancastir))))
          (VBD londid)
          (PP (P at)
              (NP (NPR Rauenesporne)))
          (, ,)
          (PP (ADV fast)
              (P be)
              (NP (NPR Grymisby)))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (D +te) (N translacion)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Seynt) (NPR Martyn)))))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N man))
                  (VAG makyng)
                  (NP-OB1 (N resistens)))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCAPCHR,212.3794))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV thenne))
          (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (D the) (NS byschoppys))
          (VBD seseden)
          (PP (P with)
              (NP (D a) (N swerde)))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO they)
                                  (QP (Q alle)))
                          (VAG syttynge)
                          (NP-OB1 (PRO$ there) (NS hondys))
                          (PP (ADV+P thereon)))
                  (, ,)
                  (CONJP (CONJ ande)
                         (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (PRO they))	← nominative subject
                                 (VAG saynge)
                                 (NP-OB1 (D thes) (NS wordys)
                                         (LATIN *ICH*-1))
                                 (ADVP (ADV thys))
                                 (PP (P to)
                                     (NP (PRO hym)))
                                 (, ,)
                                 (LATIN-1 (FW Accingere) (FW gladio)
                                          (FW tuo) (FW super)
                                          (FW femur) (FW tuum)
                                          (FW potentissime)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMGREGOR,166.910))

( (IP-SUB (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO +te))		← accusative subject
                  (VAG spekinde))
          (, /)
          (NP-MSR (QP (ADV wel) (QR more)))
          (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
          (BEP by)
          (ADJP (ADJ stille)))
  (ID CMAYENBI,266.2605))

Absolute clauses with other predicates

This type is always treated as IP-ABS.

( (IP-MAT (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D This))
                  (VAN (VAN sworne) (CONJ and) (VAN ratified))
                  (PP (P be)
                      (NP (NS seles))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (VBD went)
          (PP (P into)
              (NP (D +te) (N ylde)
                  (PP (P of)
                      (NP (NPR Crete)))))
          (. ,))
  (ID CMCAPCHR,35.110))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
          (VBD flowe)
          (PP (P unto)
              (NP (D the) (N elme)))
          (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
                      (VB take)
                      (NP-OB1 (PRO$ hir) (N perche)))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS lunes))
                  (VAN overcast)
                  (PP (P aboute)
                      (NP (D a) (N bowghe))))
          (. ;))
  (ID CMMALORY,205.3342))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
          (BEP are)
          (NP-ACC (NUM two) (NS kinds))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (ONE one))
                          (PP (P with)
                              (NP (NS straps))))
                  (CONJP (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D the) (OTHER other))
                                 (PP (P without)))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
          (BEP are)
          (NP-ACC (NUM two) (NS kinds))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ-1 (ONE one))
                          (VAN called)
                          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-1))
                                  (NP-ACC (N anaphora)))
                  (CONJP (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ-2 (D the) (OTHER other))
                                 (VAN called)
                                 (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
                                         (NP-ACC (N cataphora))))))))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (EX There))
          (BEP are)
          (NP-ACC (NUM two) (NS kinds))
          (, ,)
          (IP-ABS (IP-ABS-1 (NP-SBJ-2 (ONE one))
                            (VAN called)
                            (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-2))
                                    (NP-ACC (N anaphora)))
                  (CONJP (IP-ABS=1 (NP-SBJ-3 (D the) (OTHER other))
                                   (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
                                           (NP-ACC (N cataphora))))))))

"Absolute" clauses as complements of P

This type could not be labelled IP-PPL in the PPCME2 because IP-PPLs, by definition, did not contain overt subjects. In the modern English corpora, IP-PPLs can contain subjects, and so it is now possible to label this type according to the category of the predicate: infinitive (
IP-INF), active participle (IP-PPL), and other (IP-SMC). Follow the links for Modern English examples.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
          (ADJP (ADV rygth) (ADJ glad)
                (PP (P of)
                    (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO hir))			← would be IP-PPL in modern English corpora
                            (VAG comyng)
                            (NP-DIR (N hom))))))
  (ID CMKEMPE,37.832))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
          (BED was)
          (VAN chosen)
          (PP (P be)
              (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D a) (ADJ wite) (N dowe))	← would be IP-PPL in modern English corpora
                      (VAG lityng)
                      (PP (P on)
                          (NP (PRO$ his) (N hed)))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCAPCHR,56.740))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Ne)
          (CODE <P_72>)
          (NP-SBJ (N preier))
          (MD may)
          (NEG not)
          (ADVP (ADV goodly))
          (BE be)
          (VAN getyn)
          (PP (P in)
              (NP (NS bigynners) (CONJ &) (NS profiters)))
          (PP (P wi+toutyn)
              (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (N +tinkyng))	← would be IP-PPL in modern English corpora
                      (VAG comyng)
                      (ADVP-TMP (ADV bifore))))
          (. .))
  (ID CMCLOUD,72.254))

(NODE (PP (P wit)
          (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO$ is) (N heed))	← would be IP-SMC in modern English corpora
                  (VAN enclined)))
      (CMAELR3,47.651)

Absolute infinitives

Absolute infinitives occur with or without TO. Absolute TO infinitives are generally interpretable as X IS TO V with deontic modal meaning, and their subject is always nominative when it is possible to tell.

In matrix contexts, clauses of this type are always labelled IP-INF-ABS.

( (IP-INF-ABS (CONJ And)
	      (NP-SBJ (PRO$ their) (ADJ fyrst) (NS letters))
	      (TO to)
	      (BE be)
	      (VAN (VAN paynted) (CONJ or) (VAN lymned))
	      (PP (P in)
		  (NP (D a) (ADJ pleasaunt) (N maner)))
	      (, :)
	      (CP-CAR (WPP-2 (WADV where) (P in))
		      (C 0)
		      (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NS children)
				      (PP (P of)
					  (NP (ADJ gentyl) (N courage))))
			      (HVP haue)
			      (NP-OB1 (Q moche)
				      (N delectation)
				      (PP *T*-2))))
	      (. .))
  (ID ELYOT,21.10))

( (IP-INF-ABS-1 (CONJ and)
  	        (NP-SBJ (D the) (VAN sayde) (NS sheues))
	        (TO to)
	        (VB leane)
	        (ADVP (ADV to-gether))
	        (PP (P in)
		    (NP (D the) (NS toppes)))
	        (, ,)
	        (IP-INF-ABS-PRN=1 (CONJ and)
			          (ADJP (ADJ wyde)
				        (PP (P at)
				            (NP (D the) (N grounde)))))
	        (, ,)
	        (CP-ADV (C that)
		        (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N winde))
			        (MD may)
			        (VB go)
			        (ADVP (ADV through))
			        (, ,)
			        (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
				  	    (VB drye)
					    (NP-OB1 (PRO them)))))
	      (. .))
  (ID FITZH,38.95))

( (IP-INF-ABS (NP-SBJ (D the) (NPR lord))
	      (TO to)
	      (VB rais)
	      (RP up)
	      (NP-OB1 (Q all) (PRO$ yo=r=) (NS spirrits))
  (ID JPINNEY,19.36))

Infinitive for finite clause

Infinitives in finite clause contexts are labelled IP-INF-ABS in the PPCME2, but simply as IP-INF (with any other appropriate dash tags) in the later corpora.
( (IP-IMP (CONJ and)
	  (ADVP (ADV withall))
	  (BEI be)
	  (ADJP (ADJ carful)
		(CP-THT (C that)
			(, ,)
			(IP-INF (NP-ADV (CP-FRL (WNP-2 (WPRO+ADV+ADV whatsoever))  ← would be IP-INF-ABS in PPCME2
						(C 0)
						(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
							(NP-SBJ (PRO you))
							(DOP doe))))
				(, ,)
				(TO to)
				(VB (VB love) (VB honer) (CONJ and) (VB obey))
				(NP-OB1 (PRO$ your) (N housband))
				(PP (P in)
				    (NP (Q all)
					(NS things)
					(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
						(C that)
						(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
							(BEP is)
							(VAG fitting)
							(PP (P for)
							    (NP (D a) (ADJ resonable) (N creture))))))))))
	  (. .))
  (ID PEYTON,87.4))

(NODE (CP-REL (WADVP-4 (WADV where))
	      (C 0)
	      (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-4)
		      (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
		      (VBP commaundeth)
   		      (, ,)
		      (CP-THT (C that)
			      (IP-INF (PP (P in)	← would be IP-INF-ABS in PPCME2
					  (NP (Q al)
					      (NS woundes)
					      (PP (P of)
						  (NP (D the) (N wombe)))))
				      (, ,)
				      (TO to)
				      (VB sewe)
				      (NP-OB1 (D the) (FW Sifac))
   				      (PP (P with)
					  (NP (D the) (FW Myrac))))))
	  (. ;))
  (ID VICARY,63.242))