Linguistics 001 Fall 2000 Homework 5 Due We 10/18
Using IPA symbols as explained in the lecture notes, give dictionary-style pronunciations (assuming American pronunciation norms) for the words listed below.
A dictionary-style pronunciation represents a formal, careful performance of the word by an imaginary "standard" speaker. It does not mark any predictable details, even of formal "standard" speech patterns, but aims only to indicate, in a consistent way across entries, the basic categories of speech sounds involved.
Note that you ought to be able to solve this problem by translating a standard dictionary's pronunciation fields into IPA. British dictionaries already use IPA in their pronunciation fields -- but they provide British rather than American pronunciations!
You do not need to mark the different between aspirated voiceless stops (as in "peak") and unaspirated voiceless stops (as in "speak"), or other similar distinctions that do not by themselves distinguish one word from another.
Be sure to mark the stress pattern of polysyllabic words. For reduced unstressed vowels, you can use the schwa symbol if you like, regardless of the detailed sound of the vowel (see for example the pronunciations given for "apprentice" and "municipal" below).
To make the IPA characters, you can write the answers out by hand, or you can use a word processing program that has access to an IPA font. For example, in Microsoft Office 97 and Office 2000, you should be able to access the Lucida Sans Unicode font, which has a complete set of IPA characters, which you can access via the "insert>symbol" menu. In this page, I've used "gifs" (pictures of the IPA strings) because many browsers do not have access to Unicode fonts, or other fonts containing IPA characters. You will probably find that writing the characters by hand is easiest!
The first five examples have the answers given, to show you how it is done.